Discussing Sexuality in Life Orientation Lessons with Learners with Disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal

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Presented by Dr Jill Hanass-Hancock at the 17th International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa

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Discussing Sexuality in Life Orientation Lessons with Learners with Disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal

  1. 1. Discussing Sexuality in Life Orientation Lessons with Learners with Disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal Dr. Jill Hanass-Hancock, Dr. Toyin Aderemi, Liset de Reus, Anna Sophie Henken, Petronella Chirawu,
  2. 2. “It doesn‟t matter whether they are in special schools or mainstream school but children have a right to be aware about their rights in terms of sex and sexuality.” Teacher at a special school
  3. 3. What the Literature Says: • PWD lack HIV knowledge and are exposed to all known HIV risk factors (Groce 2004 Global survey) • HIV prevalence in PWD in Africa might be above average (Shisana 2009, Taegmayer 2008, Touko 2009) • PWD lack sexuality education and are at increased risk of sexual abuse and exploitation (Rohleder, Braathen, Swartz and Eide 2009, Collin 2001, Groce and Traci 2004, Kelly et al 2002) • Teachers‟ attitudes, lack of confidence, lack of skills and materials might be associated with lack of sexuality education (Roehleder et al 2009, 2010, 2011, Rohleder and Swartz 2009, Phillander & Swartz 2006, Hanass-Hancock 2009) • There is a lack of intervention evaluations (Hanass-Hancock 2009)
  4. 4. Study Design A needs assessment conducted using a mixed-method design • • Framework: Adapted Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) Tools: Cross-sectional survey-Scales Knowledge (HIV, sexual rights and vulnerability of PWD), beliefs and practices in teaching sexuality education (29 items), perceived subjective norms, self-efficacy and confidence , material and professional preparation) • • Sampling: Purposively sampled 100 teachers from special schools in KZN (Covering disability spectrum and urban-rural divide) Analysis: Frequencies, correlations, crosstabs (mean scores presented elsewhere) • Validation: Full validation of scales undertaken (results presented elsewhere)
  5. 5. Results • Main driving factors of teaching sexuality education to learners with disabilities • Associations between teachers‟ characteristics, school types and sexuality education • Relationships between self-efficacy, subjective norms and attitudes • Training and material needs
  6. 6. Driving Factors Correlations 1 1. Teach Human Development 2 3 1 .430** .254* 2. Teach Relationships 3. Teach Personal Skills 4. Teach Sexual Behaviours 5. Teach Sexual Health 6. Beliefs human development 7. Beliefs relationships 8. Beliefs personal skills 9. Beliefs Sexual Behaviours 10. Beliefs Sexual Health 11. Self-Efficacy 12. Sexuality and Disability 13. Perceived Subjective Norms **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .369** .548** .104 .155 .182 .213* -.010 .193 .252* .223* .475** .342** .351** -.034 .312** .254* .244* -.057 .176 .260* .286** 1 4 5 .152 .066 -.092 .081 .235* -.022 -.078 -.063 .093 .130 1 .618** -.034 .189 .045 .489** .056 .214* .000 .171 1 .073 .195 .049 .453** .254* .250* .126 .291** 1 .242* .084 .165 .228* .141 .123 .055 1 .258* .461** .326** .106 .242* .050 .046 .264** .089 .152 .371** .044 .085 .011 1 .188 .446** 1 -.002 1 .103 1 .050 .386** .312** 1 1
  7. 7. Teaching Beliefs and Practices vs. Religion Religion Beliefs Xtian Xtian Hindu Yes (%) Yes (%) p-value Relationships Dating Marriage Raising children 23.7 24.1 24.1 48.4 48.4 54.8 0.02 0.02 <0.01 Personal skills Values Communication 79.3 81.0 96.8 96.8 0.03* 0.05* Sexual health Contraception Abortion Hindu Agree (%) Agree (%) Practices 71.7 48.3 90.3 77.4 p-value 0.04 <0.01
  8. 8. Teaching Beliefs and Practices vs. Gender/Types of School Gender Types of school Beliefs Female Male Agree (%) Practices pvalue Agree (%) Female Male Yes (%) pvalue Yes (%) Practices SMH / DHH/B MH VI/HICP p/C. value Yes (%) Yes (%) Human development Reprod. anat/physiol. Human reproduction Puberty 23.4 31.3 51.0 74.1 75.3 100.0 100.0 0.02* 0.20* 28.8 52.9 0.05 Sexual behaviours Sexuality thr. lifespan Masturbation Human sexl. response Sexual dysfunction 62.2 45.7 75.0 52.4 88.2 76.5 100.0 88.2 0.04 0.02 0.02* 0.01 21.3 47.1 0.04* 27.8 58.8 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.05 89.8 Relationships Families Marriage Raising children 48.9 52.1 70.8 71.4 0.02
  9. 9. Self Efficacy, Subjective Norms and Attitudes Negative attitudes towards „disability and sexuality‟ and perceived subjective norms were negatively associated with teaching about or discussing • human anatomy (0.01), • body development (0.03), and • different relationships (0.11)
  10. 10. Materials and professional preparation Materials and professional preparation 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Yes No 30 20 10 0 Somewhat
  11. 11. Conclusions • Teachers‟ beliefs/attitudes determine how they discuss sexuality education concepts in class • Teachers‟ characteristics (gender, religion) and type of school influence content of sexuality education • Teachers‟ self-efficacy and perceived subjective norms need to be considered • Teachers indicated their need for training, skills and materials to better integrate sexuality education within Life Orientation lessons
  12. 12. Recommendations • The development of a training and resource toolkit for teachers of PWD within the South African Life Orientation curriculum • Training needs to include focus on values and norms around disability and sexuality to change beliefs and attitudes, increase teachers‟ knowledge and selfefficacy • Further research in particular evaluations of interventions targeting teachers as well as learners with disabilities (classroom implementation)
  13. 13. Thank you www.heard.org.za

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