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Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption
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Attitudes towards Underage Alcohol Consumption

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  • 1. • Past research • Briefly discuss the original study • Explain the present study • Method • Participants • Design • Materials • Procedure • Results • Discussion • Questions Outline
  • 2. • Dams-O'Connor et al. (2007): Assessed the relationship between perceived alcohol use among peers and personal alcohol use in a sample of collegiate athletes. • Results indicated that during both the off- and in-season, athletes estimated that the other college students (athletes & non-athletes) drank more than they did, and perceptions of these social norms predicted personal alcohol use. • Ford (2007): Examined alcohol use among college students, focusing on variation in binge drinking based on involvement in athletics. • Results:Athletes report more extreme styles of alcohol consumption, binge drink at higher rates, are more likely to binge when they drink, and drink to intoxication more often. Past Research
  • 3. • Rintaugu et al. (2012):The purpose was to establish the determinants of alcohol consumption among university student- athletes (n=146). • Top 5 motives for student-athletes consuming alcohol are relaxation, followed by overcoming shyness and tension, manage boredom, and conform to peer pressure. • Yusko (2008): Sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. • Athletes compared to non-athletes admitted to more frequent amounts of heavy drinking, even during their competitive season. Past Research continued
  • 4. • Brennan (2010) conducted a study comparing alcohol use between collegiate student-athletes and collegiate non-athletes by administering a Student Alcohol Questionnaire and a Alcohol Fact Test. • Found that male athletes consumed the most alcohol, but had the least knowledge about alcohol Original Study
  • 5. • The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not gender and athletic status of the participant effect their decision on the punishment in four separate case studies. • This study examines the attitudes towards underage alcohol consumption at a small Division II university. Present Study
  • 6. • How do college athletes and college non-athletes view alcohol consumption by underage student athletes and underage non-athletes? • Does gender and/or athletic status effect the punishment administered? • Does the gender and/or athletic status of the offender matter? ???
  • 7. Method
  • 8. • 240 students at a Division II university in Ohio • Gender ratio of the subjects was equal: 120 males and 120 females • Athletic ratio of the subjects was also equal: 120 athletes and 120 non-athletes • More specifically, the study is broken down into 60 male athletes, 60 male non-athletes, 60 female athletes, and 60 female non-athletes. Participants
  • 9. • Gender = male or female • Athletic status = athlete or non-athlete • “athlete” is considered a current student playing a Division II sport in college •  “sport” as defined by the NCAA: Men’s: Baseball, Basketball, X Country,Track & Field, Football, Golf, Soccer,Tennis, andWrestling Women’s: Basketball, X Country,Track & Field, Golf, Lacrosse, Soccer, Softball,Tennis, andVolleyball Operational Definitions
  • 10. • 2x2x2x2 between subjects, non- repeated measures, factorial design Design
  • 11. • Punishment (ranging from no punishment to $1,000 fine) • Attitudes towards underage alcohol consumption, which is measured by 6 Likert-scale items DependentVariables
  • 12. • Gender of the subject (male or female) • Athletic status of the subject (athlete or non- athlete) • Gender of the fictitious character in the case scenario (male or female) • [Athletic status of the fictitious character in the case scenario (male or female)] IndependentVariables
  • 13. Subjects Case Scenario Design continued
  • 14. • Case scenarios • Male athlete • Male non-athlete • Female athlete • Female non-athlete • Questionnaire • Punishment • 6 Likert scale items Materials
  • 15. • Questionnaire • Subject asked to decide on a punishment, if deemed necessary: • No punishment • $50 fine • $100 fine, probation for 1 year, diversion program* • $200 fine, 1 night in jail, and probation for 1 year • $400 fine, 1 night in jail, probation for 1 year, and community service • $1,000 fine *diversion program involves 2 weekends at an off campus location learning about the effects and consequences of underage consumption of alcohol Materials continued
  • 16. • 6 Likert scale items • Asked to read the following statements below and circle the number that best represents your opinion: Strongly Disagree, Somewhat Disagree, Neutral, Somewhat Agree, and Strongly Agree 1. Underage college students who drink alcohol have less to lose than college athletes who drink alcohol. 2. Police should not punish underage college students for drinking alcohol. 3. College athletes and non-athletes who drink alcohol under the age of 21 should be punished equally. 4. College athletes have more responsibilities than college non-athletes. 5. Underage male athletes should be penalized more than underage male non- athletes. 6. Underage female athletes should be penalized less than underage female non-athletes. Materials continued
  • 17. • Larger sample size (n=240) • Tests for the effect of independent variables on all of the dependent variables. MultivariateAnalysis ofVariance (MANOVA)
  • 18. Gender Effects
  • 19. Athletic Status Effects
  • 20. Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Less to lose 7.500 a 1 7.500 4.749 .031 Responsibilities 63.075b 1 63.075 33.388 .000 Underage male athlete 1.633 c 1 1.633 1.896 .171 Underage female athlete 4.033 d 1 4.033 6.290 .014 Less to lose 832.133 1 832.133 526.874 .000 Responsibilities 1261.008 1 1261.008 667.509 .000 Underage male athlete 326.700 1 326.700 379.186 .000 Underage female athlete 288.300 1 288.300 449.596 .000 Less to lose 7.500 1 7.500 4.749 .031 Responsibilities 63.075 1 63.075 33.388 .000 Underage male athlete 1.633 1 1.633 1.896 .171 Underage female athlete 4.033 1 4.033 6.290 .014 Less to lose 186.367 118 1.579 Responsibilities 222.917 118 1.889 Underage male athlete 101.667 118 .862 Underage female athlete 75.667 118 .641 Less to lose 1026.000 120 Responsibilities 1547.000 120 Underage male athlete 430.000 120 Underage female athlete 368.000 120 Less to lose 193.867 119 Responsibilities 285.992 119 Underage male athlete 103.300 119 Underage female athlete 79.700 119 Less to lose 18.408e 1 18.408 10.123 .002 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Gender_Scenario Male Corrected Model Intercept Athletic_Status Error Total Corrected Total Female Corrected (F=4.74, p<.05*) (F=33.38, p<.001***) (F=1.89, p>.05) (F=6.29, p<.05*)
  • 21. Less to lose 18.408e 1 18.408 10.123 .002 Responsibilities 83.333 f 1 83.333 51.224 .000 Underage male athlete .008g 1 .008 .010 .922 Underage female athlete .033 h 1 .033 .040 .841 Less to lose 848.008 1 848.008 466.322 .000 Responsibilities 1190.700 1 1190.700 731.911 .000 Underage male athlete 304.008 1 304.008 348.338 .000 Underage female athlete 294.533 1 294.533 356.705 .000 Less to lose 18.408 1 18.408 10.123 .002 Responsibilities 83.333 1 83.333 51.224 .000 Underage male athlete .008 1 .008 .010 .922 Underage female athlete .033 1 .033 .040 .841 Less to lose 214.583 118 1.819 Responsibilities 191.967 118 1.627 Underage male athlete 102.983 118 .873 Underage female athlete 97.433 118 .826 Less to lose 1081.000 120 Responsibilities 1466.000 120 Underage male athlete 407.000 120 Underage female athlete 392.000 120 Less to lose 232.992 119 Responsibilities 275.300 119 Underage male athlete 102.992 119 Underage female athlete 97.467 119 Female Corrected Model Intercept Athletic_Status Error Total Corrected Total (F=10.12, p<.05*) (F=51.22, p<.001***) (F=.010, p>.05) (F=.04, p>.05)
  • 22. Athlete Non-Athlete
  • 23. Athlete Non-Athlete
  • 24. Athlete Non-Athlete
  • 25. Athlete Non-Athlete
  • 26. Athlete Non-Athlete
  • 27. • Results are consistent with past research on alcohol use and attitudes towards consumption • Further analysis will be conducted regarding the athletic status of the fictitious character in the case scenario • Future research – The frequency and attitudes towards underage alcohol consumption is known, so identifying reasons why college athletes drink alcohol in excess is the next step toward determining a possible solution for college campuses Discussion
  • 28. • Likert item 1 failed to specify underage “…college athletes who drink alcohol” as the last part of the statement • Likert items 4-6 did not explicitly mention alcohol • Need to mention whether or not the case scenario was a first time offense or if it was the second or third penalty Limitations
  • 29. • Do athletes feel a sense of entitlement? If so, how can that quantifiably be measured? • Why do college students and college athletes have such a lenient attitude towards underage drinking? • Would the punishment be different if this was the offender’s second or third offense? • Do coaches realize how relaxed athletes’ attitudes are towards underage drinking? • Do coaches condone underage drinking as a means of team bonding? • How would criminal justice majors punish the offender? New Empirical Questions for Future Research:
  • 30. • Prevention and intervention programs need to be developed to reduce high-risk alcohol use among intercollegiate athletes • Sport psychologists, counselors, and physicians need to get involved • Athletic trainers and/or coaches need to sensitize the student athletes to the following consequences of alcohol consumption: physical, mental, and legal issues Recommendations
  • 31. References Dams-O'Connor, K. Martin, J., & Martens, M. (2007). Social norms and alcohol consumption among intercollegiate athletes:The role of athlete and nonathlete reference groups. Addictive Behaviors 32, 2657–2666. Ford, J. (2007). Alcohol use among college students: A comparison of athletes and nonathletes. Substance Use & Misuse, 42:1367–1377. Lewis,T. (2008). An explanatory model of student-athlete drinking:The role of team leadership, social norms, perceptions of risk, and coaches’ attitudes toward alcohol consumption. College Student Journal, 42(3), 818-831. Rintaugu, E., Andanje, M., & Amusa, L. (2012). Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol consumption among university athletes. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD)Volume 18, No. 4(2), (December), 2012, pp. 939-954. Serrao, H., Martens, M., Martin, J., & Rocha, T. (2008). Competitiveness and alcohol use among recreational and elite collegiate athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 2, 205-215. Yusko, D., Buckman, J., White, J. , & Pandina, R. (2008). Alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and performance enhancers: A comparison of use by college student athletes and nonathletes. Journal of American College Health, Vol. 57, No. 3.

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