Energie in ontwikkeling SOPRA-project

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Workshop op de HAN Dag van de Duurzaamheid 2011. Door Evert Raaijen en Arne Kaas.

Workshop op de HAN Dag van de Duurzaamheid 2011. Door Evert Raaijen en Arne Kaas.

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  • 1. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 2. EXENDIS B.V. HOT NEWS:Ede, The Netherlands. EXENDIS power converter business unit overgenomen Marketing & Sales door ALFEN b.v. R&D Small Series Production miv nov 2011 After Sales Partnerships: Mid and large scale production EXENDIS: NL+ EU universities info@exendis.com EIT (European Institute of Technology) Keesomstraat 4 6710 BB Ede The Netherlands ISO 9001:2000 certified Phone: +31 318 676111 ISO/TS 16949 in partnership Fax: +31 318 624615 Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Wie/wat is Alfen  Specialist in transformatorstations (met Nederland als thuismarkt)  130 werknemers  Omzet 2010 ca. €40.000.000  Opgericht in 1937 en naar Almere in 1983  Onderdeel van TBI (sinds 1971)  TBI is een bouw en installatietechniek concern met €2 mld omzet en 10.000 medewerkers dat vooral in Nederland actief is. 22-11-11
  • 4. Producten  Diabolo Compactstations in 2010 ongeveer 1400 stuks  Entrado Betreedbare stations in 2010 ongeveer 200 stuks  Beheer en onderhoud  Innovatieve, specifieke oplossingen t.b.v. elektrische infrastructuur  Turn key levering (ms)netaansluitingen  Reeks Sicuro producten voor 10kV WKK aansluitingen  ICU laadpunten
  • 5. Klanten  Energiebedrijven 60%   Enexis   Alliander   Stedin/Joulz   Delta, NRE, Rendo  Glastuinbouw 30%  Overig 7%   Petrochemie   Rail (bovenleidingschakelaars)  Export 3%
  • 6. Kracht van Alfen  Kennis van het eindproduct  Kennis van toegepaste onderdelen  Kennis van de toepassing  3D CAD ontwerpsysteem  Batchproductie, JIT aansturing  ISO 9001-2000 en VCA** gecertificeerd  Partnership met klant en leverancier  Innovatief
  • 7. Focus op MVA  Gecertificeerd op niveau 3 van de CO2 prestatieladder van ProRail (nu stichting SKAO)  Eigen bedrijfsschool in samenwerking met het ROC Flevoland  Stage bedrijf 2009 van Almere 22-11-11
  • 8. Ontwikkelingen  ICU laadpunten  Componenten voor Smart Grids  Uitbreiding reeks Sicuro producten  Uitbouw marktpositie in België 22-11-11
  • 9. Inverter innovations since 1988 example of historical 120 kW systems 1988 1995 1999 2005 2008 LF transformer technology using more compact construction Using HF transformer technology using water cooling •  EXENDIS Solar Hybrid Inverter solution; Power range 10 kW – 1 MW, Modular, expandable, integrated solution, redundant, N-1, N+1 •  Lowest Weight, Smallest Size All “state of the art” solar inverter manufacturers have adopted HF technology •  Currently most Solar Hybrid Inverters for powerlevels above 10 kW are using LF technology Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Electric Vehicle Fast Charger•  Europe s first EV fast charger (April 2010) is equipped with Power Converter of EXENDIS and charging posts of ALFEN Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Smart Grid / autonomous gridexperiencies EXENDIS/ALFEN Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 12. FP-7 EU project: GROWDERS The GROWDERS project is part of the SOPRA roadmapLi-ion batteryInverterControlsystem Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 13. 10 kV Intelligent Distribution Station Zigbee node Zigbee Utilities network coordinator Smart Substation (IOP EMVT) I I Monitor & Control U I Zigbee Home network coordinator • The objective is enabling high Internet ResidentieelXiria Energie penetration of renewable energy in Management ESI/MHI 30-50 kWh a distribution grid: Smart PV Storage Trafo U uWKK DC 30-50kW AC PQ purposes - distributed generation Loads - micro CHP Internet MCCB with motor drive U Xanura Gateway (gas based stirling) or contactor LV 400V I I distribution - Solar U I I I I I I - small wind mills fuse monitor kWh meter according to - Power Quality improvement kWh NTA 8130 - active power 3-5 houses - reactive power - Fault Ride Through - active harmonic damping I - etc - Automatic islanding (UPS-mode) Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Smart Substation with Energy StorageLab tests: May – December 2009Field operation: started February 2010 Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Smart substation prototype with research facilities Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Mini grids for ships and other applications(diesel hybrid electric propulsion + electrical grid): f.e.: SY Ethereal •  known as the most GREEN SY in the world. • Supplied with 480 kW (720 kWpeak) Minigrid of EXENDIS, and a 400 kWh Li-ion pack. •  Power is twice the power of an average village in rural areas ! •  System is build under a cabin s floor ! •  System delivered in 2007, in operation since early 2008 Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 19. FC Generator UniflexConsortium:Ministry of traffic (NL)NEDSTACKBredenoordHygearECNAir productsEXENDIS Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 21. SOPRA Consortium Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Rural electrification•  Approx. 1.6 - 2.0 billion people do not have electricity and water•  Connecting to public utilities is very often not economical •  No electricity => No development •  Increasing poverty is the result Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Effective sun hours per dayAverage windspeed Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Factors below are without: 2010 2020 2x 2007 fc 3 x 2007 forecast * 280 !2020: * 45 !The total off grid PV marketwill be in the range ofseveral 10.000.000.000 Euro Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Day characteristics of the different renewable sources Power•  PV time•  Wind•  Hydro Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Typical characteristic of load Power time•  Pload <> Prenewable source•  Solutions are: –  Preneable = Ploadmax (meaning not utilizing all renewable energy) –  Use diesel generation –  Introduce energy storage Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Remark: PV hybride prices of few years ago, 2011 significantly lower Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 29. oil price Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 30. PV panel prices Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Business case of SOPRA1.  Long distance = high costs => mini grid is the solution2.  Expensive diesel fuel3.  High PV and/or wind intensity4.  reducing costs of PV panels Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Interesting parallelism in developing countries :•  Telecom: not wired => mobile phone/internet•  Rural Electrification: not wired => minigrids Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Example of a typical Off-grid Hybrid system: Local and remote service and control Windows XPE based Sync + Local Local Power meter server control (panel and read PC) out Router Max 110 kW with MPPT PV input is under development Surge Arrestor AC-grid power 240 kW 3p+n Max 110 kW with MPPT Power PV input is under development Meter AC coupled PV / Wind : Max 110 kW with MPPT PV input is under development •  Using standard third party Grid tied PV inverters •  Requirement: Internet based remote Frequency Shift Power service: Max 110 kW with MPPT Control (FSPC): PV input is under development •  Error diagnostics Power •  Statistics (PV, Gensets, tanks, MHI s, Battery, etc) 51 52 Hz •  Fuel-level check freq •  Remote control and parameter change •  Remote software and CVMS firmware upload autonomous outdoor radiatorNote: not all components are EXENDIS supplied 240 kW Rack Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 36. SMA Sunny boy / Sunny FSPC solution •  SMA FSPC control = SOPRA droop control (WG) Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 37. How to control the power of all DGThe MHI inverters control the grid frequency in order to regulate all distributed power sources Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 38. Control methods•  PV and WG power by means of FSPC to limit power in case of high SOC of battery•  DG active power by means of DG frequency droop•  DG reactive power by means of grid voltage Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 39. EXENDIS Multi-source Hybrid Inverter SystemTo local and remote operator interface Module main specs: •  AC output 60 kW (80 kWpeak) •  Optionally: PV input 110 kW MPPT •  Water cooling •  Build in Mastercontroller •  Redundant •  Fully integrated (no extra wiring) •  Compliant to CE-directives •  Easy expandable in power Picture is example of: •  Solar Hybrid system: –  AC output 180 kW (240 kW peak) –  Optionally: PV input 330 kW (3 MPPT of each 110 kW) –  The bottom two modules are the AC and DC distribution system To Grid Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 40. Typical example of Solar Hybrid system (Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia) •  500 houses, 2000 persons •  Main power station: •  Grid inverter : 240 kVA •  Solar power: 200 kWp •  battery: 600 kWh •  4 generators of each 200 kW •  distribution: 10 kVac + 415 Vac •  two sub power stations of each •  Grid inverter : 60 kVA •  Solar inverter : 60 kVA •  battery: 360 kWh Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 41. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 42. Two Solar substations of 60 kW each Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 43. SOPRA military applications © www.beeldleveranciers.nlStatement: the Netherlands in Uruzgan => 12 MW diesel = many 1000 houses @ 6 Euro / liter diesel for 5 yr => saving potential SOPRA 400 MEuro . Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 44. Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 45. Objectives SOPRA•  Objectives test site: –  Development and demonstration laboratory of SOPRA and smart grid applications. –  Development and test of power and energy management algorithms –  Demonstrator for customers –  Object to attract and train students•  Specifications test site HAN to opened today: –  Multi source Hybrid inverter (60 kW) + battery bank (EXENDIS) –  30 kWp grid connected PV (PFIXX) –  Wind energy simulator (WES) –  Diesel genset (Bredenoord) –  Loads –  Power and energy management, supervision, remote monitoring with SCADA system (EXENDIS, HAN, TUD, etc) Copyright © 2006 EXENDIS. All rights reserved.
  • 46. 46
  • 47. Intro – Electrification rates% of People without Electricity, 2008Source: WHO & UNDP 47
  • 48. Intro – People without electricityMillions of People without Electricity, 2008,Source: WHO & UNDP 48
  • 49. Sustainable Hybrid Power System Solar Panels Multi source Hybrid Inverters Batteries Wind turbines Diesel generators Power cables 49
  • 50. Research questionAnalysis and simulation of a sustainable hybrid power system for rural areas, powered by solar, wind, and diesel energy Determine the cost of 50
  • 51. Presentation outline More installed Renewable EnergyDiesel generator 51
  • 52. Renewable energyPositive points• Can be cheaper than conventional energy sources• Does not cause energy dependance on other countriesNegative points• Is variable and therefore less reliable• Requires electrical energy storage 52
  • 53. Renewable energyPositive points• Can be cheaper than conventional energy sources• Reduces energy dependance on other countries• Better for the environmentNegative points• Is variable and therefore less reliable• Requires electrical energy storage (expensive)• Requires large amounts of space 53
  • 54. Example for a SOPRA locationFinding the optimal system configuration for Angola 0% 100% % of people without Electricity Source: WHO & UNDP 54
  • 55. Yearly average available solar energy Data: NASA 55
  • 56. Consequences of a little RE in a system Energy demand Diesel Energy A little Renewable Energy in not a problem (<40%) Solar Energy 56
  • 57. Real available solar energy per month Capacity factorData: NASA 57
  • 58. Consequences of yearly variations SMALL BIGGER BIGGEST More installed renewable energy LOWEST COST? (1) (2) (3) NO RE LOSSES Avg Supply=Demand NO DIESEL(Storage required) 58
  • 59. Consequences of a bit more RE A bit more Renewable Energy is a small problem (<70%)Energy from Energy storagethe battery in a battery 59
  • 60. Costs of energy sources comparedCosts of renewable energy (RE)•  Mainly depend on wind speeds and irradianceCost of diesel energy•  Mainly depend on the diesel price 60
  • 61. Costs of energy sources compared Data for SOPRA installation in the Sunbelt, major assumptions made! 61
  • 62. Costs of RE with storage costsCost of the battery•  Every kWh through a battery degrades the battery!Cost of lost energy•  Depends on energy cost and storage efficiency 62
  • 63. Consequences of more RE in a system Full battery leads to RE lossesA lot of Renewable Energy is a complex problem (>70%) 63
  • 64. Consequences of yearly variations SMALL BIGGER BIGGEST More installed renewable energy (1) (2) (3)NO RE LOSSES Avg Supply=Demand NO DIESEL 64
  • 65. Costs of diesel and RE comparedCost of renewable energy (RE)•  Depends on energy wind speeds and irradianceCost of diesel energy•  Depends on diesel price 12%Real cost of renewable energy•  Depends on the amount that can be used 65
  • 66. Costs of diesel and RE compared 12% 66
  • 67. Interim ConclusionsRenewable Energy can be cheaper until •  too much has to be stored (daily balance) •  too much is lost (yearly balance)Renewable Energy variations should be limited •  Daily mismatch should be limited to prevent storage •  Yearly mismatch should be limited to prevent lossesHow do we limit the variations •  Combining Renewable energy sources •  Limiting Renewable energy fraction in energy mix 67
  • 68. Real available wind energy per monthData: NASA 68
  • 69. Sizing the SOPRA system (Wind only) SMALL BIGGER BIGGESTNO RE LOSSES LOWEST COST? NO DIESEL 69
  • 70. Yearly variations in RE supplySolar peak Wind peak Combined is better? Limiting the yearly variation means more RE can be used Solar dip Wind dip 70
  • 71. Consequences of RE mix•  WIND ONLY OPTIMUM MIX SOLAR ONLY LOWEST COST? 71
  • 72. Detailed calculations requiredSimulation for each possible system configuration:1.  Determination of battery use and charge powers2.  Determination of optimal diesel generator operation3.  Determination of conversion and RE losses4.  Determination of system costs 72
  • 73. 73
  • 74. Detailed simulations• SOPRA system installed in the Netherlands •  Wind speeds power limited because of a 10 min Wind and irradiance for every full battery •  10 year of data from 2001 to 2010, KNMI •  Demand for every 15 min •  1 year of data from from ecofys 74
  • 75. Available RE in Holland (monthly average) 75
  • 76. Real required energy per month (houses) 76
  • 77. Variation of year averages 77
  • 78. Results of simulations for NLInstallation costs More installed renewable energy 78
  • 79. More installed renewable energy 79
  • 80. More installed renewable energy 80
  • 81. More installed renewable energy 81
  • 82. Price development solar power 82
  • 83. Solar panel costs -25%More installed renewable energy 83
  • 84. Diesel cost from 1.5 to 3.0 €/LMore installed renewable energy 84
  • 85. ConclusionsBreak even point is determined per location by •  Available Renewable Energy and fuel cost •  System life and price changes of componentsRenewable Energy can be cheaper until •  too much has to be stored (daily balance) •  too much is lost (yearly balance) 85
  • 86. Questions ?? Evert Raaijen: e.raaijen@exendis.com or Arne Kaas: a.w.s.kaas@tudelft.nlThe SOPRA project is supported by : 86