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Contents1.Introduction to Research• Overview of Research Methodology• Meaning and definition of Research• Relevance and Significance of Research in business• Types of Research• Research problems• Evolution of Research2.Research Process• Introduction• Theoretical Framework• Research Hypotheses3.Research Design• Introduction• Nature of and Classification of design• Developing an appropriate research design• Experimental Research Design
Contents4. Randomized Design, Latin Square Design, Factorial Design• Basic principles, types of experimental design• Validity - external and internal5. Scales and Measurements• Types of measurements• Scales and comparison between different scales• Characteristics – Validity• Different Methods of measurement• Developing Scales – Classification of scales• Rating Scales, Attitude Scales, Thurston scale• Likert scale, Semantic Differential scale• Types of Errors in measurement• Test of Reliability• Measures of Stability• Threats to Reliability
Contents6.Survey Research• Introduction and Purpose• Methods of data collection - Interviews, observation, schedule, Questionnaire - other methods of data collection• Panel research, warranty cards,• Pantry audit and consumer panel• Mechanical Devices• Projective Techniques• Sociometry7.Overview of data sources and computer research• Data Type• Primary data- Sources of Primary data• Secondary data - Sources of Secondary data• Uses of Primary and secondary data,• Evaluation of primary and secondary data• Sampling Methods• Computer and internet application
Contents8. Multivariate Analysis and use of statistical packages• Introduction• Nature and techniques of Multivariate Analysis8a. Analysis of dependence - Multiple Regression8b. Discriminant Analysis8c. Analysis of interdependence - Factor analysis8d. Cluster analysis• Application of Major software packages (SPSS etc.)9. Report writing• Types of reports• Planning and organizing a research project,• Harvard system of referencing• Bibliography, footnotes, checklist• Evaluation of report
Any trouble? Problem(s)? Explore Possibilities What is the study about?Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What time frame will the study cover? β, µProblem translated into scientific ?language What will be the research design?
What data?Cost of Value of InformationInformation ? Where can the data be found? What technique(s) of data collection? How will the data be SPSS analysed? 1 +1 = 3 Interpretation of results, report preparation and presentation Implementation
Meaning and Definition of Research• Research deals with the problems of life• These problems are manifest in the social realm,family and personal life, travel, leisure, purchases,services rendered and demanded etc.• NOT all problems can be solved by research• Some problems can be solved without the aid offormal research tools.But our day to day life is sufficiently complex - thatthorough understanding of research methodologyfacilitates and enhances reaching sound decisions.
The purpose of research is to search and develop knowledge.In brief, research can be defined as• a systematic investigation of a certain situation• based on relevant and pertinent information and principles• procured from suitable sources – animate and / or inanimate
EXAMPLES - Symptom(s) of Business Problem(s) Declining Sales ?Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct NovProductivity Gradually Increasing ? ? ? MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT SUN
Survey is• observational or descriptive• study in which• individuals are systematically examined or critically inspected• without detailed verification• for the absence or presence (or degree of presence) ofcharacteristics of interest.Survey is a component and form the basis for the majorityof business research that is conducted.
Relevance and Significance of Research in business Y PH• Empower people to create a better world SO• Uncovering and going beyond surface illusions ILO PH• Uncover myths and hidden meanings• Guides the communication within and outside (currentand potential customers) the walls of the organisation AL• Helps you identify opportunities in the marketplace TIC• Minimizes the risk of doing business AC PR• Uncovers and identifies potential problems• Creates benchmarks and helps track progress• Helps evaluate success
The friendly telephone company Customers complaints were mounting, and the letters of complaints detailing the problems they experienced with the residential telephone lines were constantly pouring in at the friendly telephone company. The company wanted to pinpoint the specific problems and take corrective action. Researchers were called in, and they spoke to a number of customers, nothing the nature of the specific problems they faced. Because the problem had to be attended to very quickly, they developed a theoretical base, collected relevant detailed information from a sample of 100 customers, and analyzed the data. The results promised to be fairly accurate with at least 85 % chance of success in problem solving. The researchers will make recommendations to the company based on the results of data analysis.
Hypothetico-deductive Method• Observation : A sales manager experiences dissatisfaction among the customers, perhaps they are not pleased with the product Customers• Problem Identification Salespersons• Theory formulation• Hypothesizing• Research design• Deduction
Exercise• ABC Ltd. Saw trouble brewing. It was in distress experiencing computer problems. Turnover among programmers was unusually high and processing of a claims becomes a big nightmare. Clients were canceling their policies, claims for bypass surgery and such were sure way up, and premiums paid out relative to clients’ medical expenses, on a percentage basis, was close to 85%.
Types of ResearchBasic or Fundamental Research Applied or Decisional Research(Theoretical or Pure Research) • Proceeds with a specific problem• Aims at expanding frontiers of • Specifies alternative solutions andknowledge, with NO necessary their outcomesapplication to existing problems. • Prompted by commercial• Does NOT always involve considerationspragmatic (realistic, practical) E.g., 1) A certain home applianceproblems manufacturer wants to predict what• Answers more fundamental consumers’ life-style would be fivequestions years hence, thus starting the planning and development cycle of• Usually does NOT answer the new products.queries dealing with immediatecommercial potential 2) A Financial company is interested in identifying the profileE.g., what people would look like of potential investorsin future.
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research• Assess market share • “Motivational Research”(in-depth interviews) finds as to WHY people do,• Predict sales think and behave in certain ways.• Allocation of budget • Sentence completion tests,• Census comprehension tests, other projective techniques.• Planning policies • How different situations influence the thoughts, behaviour and actions of people
Conceptual Research Empirical Research• Related to abstract ideas • Relies on experience oror theories observation alone, often without due regard to theory or system• Generally used byphilosophers, thinkers and • Comes up with conclusionspioneers of knowledge which are capable of being verified by observation or• Used to develop new ideas experiment onlyand concepts or to re-interpret existing ones • 1) The researcher first and foremost MUST provide himself with a working hypothesis 2) He then works to get enough and appropriate information to prove or disprove this hypothesis, using research tools and techniques
Some other types of research• One-time Research or Longitudinal Research• Field Research or Laboratory Research or Simulation Research• Clinical (Diagnostic) Research ~ follows case-study methods or in-depth approaches to reachbasic causal relationships~ uses very small samples and deep-probing data gathering devices• Exploratory Research or Formalised Research• Conclusion-oriented Research or Decision-oriented Research
Exploratory research• when there are few or no earlier studies to which referencescan be made for information• aim is to look for patterns, ideas or hypotheses rather thantesting or confirming a hypothesis• the focus is on gaining insights and familiarity with thesubject area for more rigorous investigation later.Descriptive Research• description of state of affairs as it exists• researcher has NO control over the variables• reports what has happened or what is happening
Q&A’sOne hears the word research being mentioned by several groups such as research organizations, college and university professors, doctoral students, graduate assistants working for faculty, graduate and undergraduate students doing their term papers, research departments in the industry, newspaper reporters, journalists, lawyers, doctors, and many other professionals and non- professionals.Which among the aforementioned groups are involved in the areas of basic or applied research? Why?
Dilemmas of Nisha Sabarwal Nisha Sabarwal, Chief production Manager, was on top of the world just two years ago. In her non traditional job, she was cited to e a real backbone of the company, and a performance was in no small measure responsible fr the mergers the institution was contemplating with other well known global cooperations.Of late though , the products of the company had to be recalled several times owing to safety concerns . Quality glitches and production delays also plagued the company.To project a good image to customers, Sabarwal developed a very reassuring website and made sweeping changes in the manufacturing process to enhance the guilty of he product, minimize defects and enhance the efficiency of the workers. A year after all these changes the company continues to recall defective products!!!