Chapter 2. Research Process• Introduction• Theoretical Framework• Research HypothesesChapter 3. Research Design• Introduction• Nature of and Classification of design• Developing an appropriate research design• Experimental Research Design
Understand the Formulate the Business Query Situation thoroughly Review concepts, theories Define Formulate Research Review previous processes, Hypothesis(es) Problem research findings Value of Design Research Data Collection research information Design Sampling Interpretation,Implementation Data Report, Analysis Recommendations
Formulating Research Problem• Existing Problem• Areas of Improvement• Conceptual Tightening• Empirically Testing
Preliminary Data Collection• Review of concepts and theories• Background Information about the Company-Contextual Information• Structural Information• Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Responses
Background Information about the Company-Contextual Information• Origin and History• Purpose and Ideology• Location –Local, National or Other• Resources• Interdependent Relationship with ENV• Financial Position
Structural Information• Roles, Positions and Number of Employees• Extent of Specialization• Communication Channels• Control Systems• Coordination and Span of Control• Reward Systems• Workflow Systems
Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Responses• Perception : Work Environment and Organizational Climate• Attitudinal Factors: Work Nature, Interdependency, Superiors, Participation, Client System, Co-workers, Rewards, Opportunities, Family Responsibilities etc• Behavioral Responses: Performance and Industriousness
Literature SurveyDocumentation of Comprehensive Reviewof Published and Unpublished work fromSecondary Sources (Books, Journals,Newspapers, Magazines, ConferenceProceedings, Doctoral Dissertations,Reports and Other Publications) of Data inthe Areas Specific Interest to theResearcher.
Reasons of Literature Review• Find out an Important Variable in Past found repeatedly to have an Impact on the Problem ( or not stated considered to be obvious )• Stop Redundancy of Work• Developing Comprehensive Theoretical Framework to Develop Hypothesis
Writing Literature Review• American Psychological Association(2001)• Chicago Manual Style• Turbanian Style
• Book by single authorLeshin, C.B. (1997). Management on the world wide web. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Book By more than one editorLeshin, C.B., Wiley, B.J., & Sankar,S. (1997). Management on the world wide web. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Doctoral DissertationKiren, R.S.(1997). Medical advances aand quality of life. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohaha State UniversityNewspaper ArticleThe new GM pact. (1998, July 28). Concord Tribune. p.1.
• Internet Article In An Internet-Only Journal:• Wiltshire, R. D. (2006, May 5). Changing thinking patterns to reduce depression. Psychology For the Future, 3, Article 0012. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from http://www. psychologyforthefuture.org/articles/art0012.html• Internet Article In An Internet-Only Newsletter:• Perez, A. R., Winters, S., Jackson D.B., et al. (2005, June). Using video to increase conversion rates. Marketing News Online (05-06). Retrieved October 15, 2006, from http:// www.marketingonline.com/newsletters/Jun05.html• Internet Report Posted Online• Montreal Region Task Force On Crime, Interim Report Number Two. (2006, November). Statistics and trends in crime. Retrieved February 12, 2007, from http:// montrealislandcrime.qc.ca• Document On Government or University Web site• Bank of Montreal,Business Coach Series, Developing Your Business Plan, Retrieved August 5, 2007,from Government of Canada, Canada Business Web site: http:// bsa.canadabusiness.ca/gol/bsa/site.nsf/en/su07140.html#a3
• Report From Private Organization - On Their Web Site• Rassmussen, Inc. (2005, October 28). Knowledge Process Outsourcing in Asia, Retrieved July 20, 2007 from http:// www.rassmussen.com/papers/kpoindia.pdf• Message Posted To A Newsgroup• Frentzen, W. (2006, December 15). The money is in the list [Msg 127]. Message posted to news://imf.internet.marketing• Message Posted To A Web Log (Blog)• Gravely, S. (2007, June 12, 2007). Letter writing for small businesses. Message posted to The Write Place Web Log, archived at http://www.writinghelptools.com/blog/
Citation of Dissertation• Wefald (2008) provides a summary of the current state of affairs on academic measures of job engagement. Much of this research has been done with study samples and the focus has been on establishing the psychometric characteristics of the measures including structure, reliability, and associations with other job attitudes. However, a very limited amount of work has looked at consequences of job engagement.sharma(2009) said tht ptproduct management……• Refrenvces:• Shama,p/(2009). Prodyc..• Wefald, A. J. (2008). An examination of job engagement, transformational leadership, and related psychological constructs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.
Citation from a Book• Role efficacy is a developmental proactive approach contrary to the “Role stress” approaches (Pestonjee, 1992).• Pestonjee, D .M. (1992) Stress and Coping: The Indian Experience, Sage Publications, New Delhi, India.
• All other institutes took them or some other foreign institutes as a model. R&D wings did hardly think and act on distressing issue as peer group through their training centers too. The success of technological implication leading to skill development front of professional education centers to come up with industry-ready people to drive the competitiveness. Panda(2008)• Panda, B.P. (2008). Technology in Indian Business Education-a skill drive for competitiveness. Proceedings of International Conference on Business Education in Global Economy, Adventage Education foundation, Udaipur, India
How its done?• Introduce the subject of study• Identify the research question• Build on the previous research to offer the basis to get to next steps of theoretical framework and hypotheses development
Problem Definition• Define a problem as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and desired the ideal states• A clear, precise, succinct statement of the question or issue to be investigated with goal of finding answer or solution
Steps in P.D.• Analyzing the Gap• Identifying Symptoms with Real Problems• Identifying Antecedent, Real Problem and Consequences PROBLEMANTECEDENT CONSEQUENCES
Manager is facing a problem of lowproductivity in the company. HeImplements Piece Rate System but it fails tobring any change.
Example: Manager is facing a problem of low productivity in the company. He Implements Piece Rate System but it fails to bring any change. WHY????• Antecedent : No Appreciation at Work• Problem: Low Morale and Motivation• Symptoms: Absenteeism or Sabotage• Consequences : Low Productivity• Problem Statement:To Study the Impact of Low Morale and Motivation on the Productivity of the Company.
ArticleWhile Chryler’s minivans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles take a big share of the truck market, its cars trail behind those of GM, Ford, Honda, and Toyota. Quality problems include, among other things, water leaks and defective parts.1. Define broad problem area?2. Define problem?3. Explain how would you proceed further?
Employee loyaltyCompanies benefit through employee loyalty. Crude downsizing in the organizations during the recession crushed the loyalty of millions. The economic benefits over loyalty, embrace lower recruitment and training costs, higher productivity of workers, customer satisfaction, and the boost to morale of fresh recruits. In order that these benefits are not lost, some companies while downsizing try various gimmicks. Flex leave, for instance, is one. This helps employee receive 20% of their salary, plus employee provided benefits, while they take 6 to 12 months sabbatical, with a call option on their services. Others try alternatives like hand holding, more communication and the like.
Accounting gets radical• The GAAP(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) do an unacceptable job of accounting for the principle activities of the information age companies. Today investors are in dark because accounting is irrelevant. The basic purpose of accounting is to produce useful information to help investors make rational investment, credit, and similar decisions, but today’s most important assets and activities-intellectual capital and work knowledge-are totally ignored.• Professor Robert A. Howell wants to reform the accounting system with a goal of making measurement of how company produce cash and create value.
ProblemManagement Problem Research Problem• Ask what decision maker • What information is needed needs to do and how to be obtained• Action oriented • Information oriented• Focuses on symptoms • Focuses on underlying causes
ExampleManagement Problem Research Problem• Should a new product be • To determine consumer introduced? preferences and purchase intentions for the proposed ne product• Should the advertising • To determine effectiveness of current advertising campaign be changed? campaign • To determine the price• Should the price of the elasticity of demand and brand be increased? impact on sales and profits of various levels of price changes
Do it YourselfResearch Problem State Management problem• Evaluate the effectiveness of alternative TV Channels• Assess current and proposed sales territories with respect to their sales potential and workload• Determine the prices for each item in a product line so far as to maximize the total sales for the product line
Do it YourselfState Research Problem Management problemShould the in-store promotion for an existing product line be increased?Should the compensation be changed to motivate the sales force better
Exercise on Problem Definitionusing APA format Literature Review
15 REFERNCES1. ROLE EFFICACY2. ENTERPRENEURSHIP-Rasik Mathur(1)3. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT4. GLOBAL WARMING- Blessy(2)5. RURAL INDIA-Ajit (3)6. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE-Preeti(4)7. WORK LIFE BALANCE-Pooja Kukreja(5)8. Clean Energy initiative- Anchal(6)9. Urbanization- Omal(7)
Sampling Errors - difference between the true population value and its estimated sample value Error Nonsampling ErrorsNonresponse Errors Response Errors Researcher Errors Interviewer Errors Respondent ErrorsNonsampling Errors• arise during the course of all survey activities other than sampling• present in both sample surveys and censuses• difficult to assess
Non-response errors• result of not having obtained sufficient answers to survey questions• two types of non-response errors: complete and partial.Complete non-response errors• survey fails to measure some of the units in the selected sample.• reasons - respondent is unavailable or temporarily absent, respondent is unable or refuses to participate in the survey a significant number of people do not respond to a surveyPartial non-response errors• incomplete information obtained from the respondent• reasons - some questions may be difficult to understand refusal to answer some questions
Response errorsresult from data that have been requested, provided, received or recordedincorrectly• occur because of inefficiencies with the questionnaire, the interviewer,the respondent or the survey processResearcher Errors1. Population definition error - the difference between the actual population relative to the issue/problem and the population as defined by the researcher2. Sample design error – inappropriate sampling technique3. Questionnaire design – structure error language error measurement / scale error4. Data analysis error5. Reporting error6. Surrogate information error