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  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d6wRkzCW5qI
  • Content theory Great amount of attention in international arena Applied to actual practice of management more than other theories Need for achievement is learned Characteristic high achievers: People that like situations in which they take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems, win because of own efforts rather than luck. Moderate risk takers – try to learn a situation in order to reduce some risk when dealing with high risk situations, avoid low risk situations all together. Want concrete feedback on their performance Tend to be loners, not team players, do not form warm, close relationships and have little empathy for others’ problems, may detract from ability to mange others. Develop high-achievement needs by teaching the people to: Obtain feedback on performance and use this information to channel efforts into areas where success likely will be attained Emulate successful achievers Develop an internal desire for success and challenges Daydream in positive terms
  • Shortcomings of the theory: Rely on personality Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to measure individual achievement, which has been criticized recently. Achievement motivation is grounded in individual effort, but many countries, group harmony and cooperation are critically important to success – doesn’t explain need for achievement in cultures where individual accomplishment is neither valued nor rewarded. Probability for a need for achievement is higher in places such as the US rather than places like China, Russia, or Eastern Europe where cultural values have not traditionally supported individual, entrepreneurial efforts. Achievement is a learned need, largely determined by prevailing culture, no universal, may change over time. Ideal profile is upper right quadrant on pg. 408, moderate-to-high masculinity and weak uncertainty (anglo countries or nations closely associated with them (india, singapore, hong kong, etc.)) Other countries in other quadrants would not have high need for achievement, so MNCs would either change their strategy or put people through achievement motivation training programs, which have been successful internationally
  • If people perceive that they are being treated equitably, this perception will have a postive effect on their job performance and satisfaction, and there is no need to strive for equity. Conversely, if they are not being treated fairly, especially in relation to relevant others, they will be dissatisfied, and negatively affect job performance, and they will strive to restore equity. Similarities and differences between how cultures view equity model Shortcomings – culture bound – ex: asia and middle east women have been conditioned to think that they don’t deserve the same amount of pay as a man, so they see this inequality as fair, so it doesn’t motivate them
  • Level of participation in goal setting Goal difficulty Goal specificity Importance of objective, timely feedback to progress toward goals Continually refined and developed as a theory In US, research shows that employees perform extremely well when they are assigned specific and challenging goals that they have a hand in setting In other cultures, participation in setting goals is shunned, so this tool would not be motivational towards employees (Norway) In asian and latin work groups, where collectivism is high, this theory would have limited value
  • Predicts that high performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction Based on employees having considerable control over environment, which doesn’t exist in many cultures, such as asian cultures This theory works best in cultures where there is a strong internal locus of control

Pres 4 paul slides Pres 4 paul slides Presentation Transcript

  • By Hannah Smith, Paul Taylor, & Jeremy Bourne
  •  
    • Define motivation, and explain it as a psychological process.
    • Examine the hierarchy-of-needs, two-factor, and achievement motivation theories, and assess their value to international human resource management.
    • Discuss how an understanding of employee satisfaction can be useful in human resource management throughout the world.
    • Examine the value of process theories in motivating employees worldwide.
    • Relate the importance of job design, work centrality, and rewards to understanding how to motivate employees in an international context.
    • Define Motivation
    • 3 Context Theories:
      • Hierarchy-of-Needs
      • Two-Factor
      • Achievement Motivation
    • Process Theories:
      • Equity Theory
      • Goal-Setting Theory
      • Expectancy Theory
    • Motivation Applied
      • Job Design
      • Work Centrality
      • Rewards and Incentives
    • Defined:
      • A psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drive that are aimed at goals or incentives
      • Figure 12-1
    Unsatisfied Need Attainment of goal (need satisfaction) Drive toward goal to satisfy need
    • intrinsic: by which an individual experiences fulfillment through carrying out an activity and
    • helping others
    • extrinsic: by which the external
    • environment and result of the
    • activity are of greater importance due to competition
    • and compensation or incentive plans
    • The universal assumption is that the motivation process is universal, that all peple are motivated to pursue goals they value
    • these “high valence” goals vary from culture to culture
    • Pp. 394
    • “ Unfortunately, American as well as non-American managers have tended to treat American theories as the best or only way to understand motivation. They are neither. American motivation theories, although assumed to be universal, have failed to provide consistently useful explanations outside the United States. Manager must therefore guard against imposing domestic American theories on their multinational business practices. “
    • Work motivation theories can be broken down into two general categories: content and process.
    • Content theories: explain work motivation in terms of WHAT arouses, energizes, or initiates behavior.
    • Process theories: explain HOW employees behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted.
    • everyone has 5 basic needs which constitute a need hierarchy in ascending order
    • water, food, clothing, and shelter. The need to satisfy these needs is greater than any other. In context of work motivation, these physiological needs often are satisfies through the wages and salaries paid by the organization.
    • desires for security, stability, and avsence of pain. This is satisfied by organizations through safety programs, medical insurance, equipment, unemployment and retirement plans.
    • Needs to interact and affiliate with others and the need to feel wanted by others. This desire for “belongingness” often is satisfied on the job through social interaction within work groups in which people give an receive friendship
    • Needs for power and status. Individuals need to feel important and receive recognition from others. Promotions, awards, and feeback from the boss lead to feelings of self confidence prestige, and self importance
    Needs for power and status. Individuals need to feel important and receive recognition from others. Promotions, awards, and feeback from the boss lead to feelings of self confidence prestige, and self importance
    • Do people throughout the world have needs similar to those described in Maslow’s need hierarchy?
    • What does your answer reveal about using universal assumptions across motivation?
    • 1. Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs
    • 2. If a need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator.
    • 3. There are more ways to satisfy higher-level needs than there are ways to satisfy lower level needs.
    • These assumptions have driven much of the international research on the theory.
    • Autonomy and self-actualization were the most important needs for Latin Europe, US, UK, and Nordic Europe
    • Does this apply to collectivist culture?
    • holds that two sets of factors influence job satisfaction: hygience factors and motivators
    • Motivators & heigene factors: What makes you want to work?
    • Motivators: achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itself
    • -hygiene factors: salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision
    • Relationship between Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s two factor theory
      • Table 12-4
    • Figure 12-4
    • Interpret Figure 12-6
    • Definitions:
      • Job-context factors : in work motivation, those factors controlled by the organization, such as condition, hours, earnings, security, benefits, and promotions
      • Job-content factors: in work motivation, those factors internally controlled, such as responsibility, achievement, and the work itself
    • Theory which holds that individuals can have a need to get ahead, to attain success, and to reach objectives.
    • Characteristic high achievers:
      • Personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems
      • Moderate risk takers
      • Concrete feedback on their performance
      • Do not form warm, close relationships
    • Need for achievement is learned ! Tips for learning:
      • Obtain feedback on performance
      • Emulate successful achievers
      • Develop internal desire for success and challenges
      • Daydream in positive terms
    • Shortcomings:
      • Relies on personality Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) which has been recently criticized.
      • Culture-bound – grounded in individual effort, so theory isn’t helpful in countries where group harmony and cooperation are valued over individual, entrepreneurial efforts (Ex: China, Russia, Eastern Europe)
        • Works best for countries with weak uncertainty avoidance and moderate-to-high masculinity, pg. 408 upper-left quadrant
        • For the other quadrants, MNCs have to change strategy or put people through achievement motivation training programs
    • Process theories – explain how employee behavior is initiated, redirected, and halted.
    • Equity Theory
    • Goal-Setting Theory
    • Expectancy Theory
    • Focuses on how motivation is affected by people’s perception of how fairly they are being treated.
      • If people feel they are treated fairly, there is a positive effect on job performance and satisfaction.
      • If people feel they are not being treated fairly, there is a negative effect and dissatisfaction, and they will strive to restore equity.
    • Article - Why Income Inequality Matters: Motivation
    • Shortcoming: culture-bound, different cultures respond differently to inequity (Ex: Asian and Middle Eastern women)
    • Focuses on how individuals go about setting goals and responding to them and the overall impact of this process on motivation. Important components:
      • Level of participation in goal setting
      • Goal difficulty
      • Goal specificity
      • Importance of objective, timely feedback
    • Shortcoming: culture-bound, very applicable to US but not to Asian and Latin cultures where collectivism is high
    • Activity: write down your goals, pick one and tell the class how it motivates you
    • Postulates that motivation is influenced by a person’s belief that
      • Effort will lead to performance
      • Performance will lead to specific outcomes
      • The outcomes will be of value to the individual
    • Predicts that high performance followed by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction
    • Based on employees having considerable control over environment
    • Shortcoming: culture-bound, not applicable in places like Asia where employees don’t have control
    • Desires to reach one’s full potential, to become everything that one is capable of becoming as a human being. And individual may achieve self actualization not through promotion but instead by mastering his or her environment and setting and achieving goals.
    • Job Design
    • Work Centrality
    • Reward Systems and Incentives
    • A job’s content, the methods that are used on the job, and the way the job relates to other jobs in the organization
    • Quality of Work Life (QWL)
      • - Cultural differences
        • Ex. Japan  USA  Sweden
    • Discussion question:
      • A US manufacturer is planning to open a plant in Sweden. What should this firm know about the quality of work life in Sweden that would have a direct effect on job design in the plant? Give an example.
    • Answer:
      • The manufacturer should look into potentially problematic areas such as:
        • Factory conditions- what are they used to?
        • Over-crowding/under-staffing
        • Work hours
          • Time off
        • Union strength
        • Production rates (on a per country basis)
    • Sociotechnical Job Designs - job designs that blend personnel and technology
    • The importance of work in an individual’s life relative to other areas of interest
      • Cultural differences
    • Karoshi - a Japanese term that means “overwork” or “job burnout”
    • Effects of Overworking
    • Cultural differences can play huge roles
    • Discussion question: What do international managers need to know about the use of reward incentives to motivate personnel? What role does culture play in this process?
    • Answer:
      • Some rewards programs have a “one-size-fits-all” design, which can insult employees from different cultural backgrounds
      • The optimal way to set up a rewards system, is to offer a locally-based, gift card type program
      • Allows for personalization on a region-by-region/employee-by-employee level
    • Question 1:
      • When motivating the personnel in London and Tokyo, is the company likely to find that the basic hierarchical needs of the workers are the same? Why or why not?
    • Answer:
      • Most likely NO
      • The Japanese business structure is much more rigid and hierarchical than the UK’s; the top of the pyramid makes all the decisions
      • The UK hierarchical system is similar to the US’s, in that the hierarchy exists, but decisions are diffused downward to lower-level managers
    • Question 2:
      • How could an understanding of the two-factor theory of motivation be of value for motivating the personnel at both locations? Would hygiene factors be more important to one of these groups that to the other? Would there be any difference in the importance of motivators?
    • Answer: