Leadership across culture<br />DongWoo, Carlos, Warren <br />
Leadership Across Cultures<br />Foundation for Leadership<br />Leadership in the International Context<br />Recent Finding...
Foundation for Leadership<br />What is leadership???<br />
Foundation for Leadership<br />Leadership: The process of influencing people to direct their efforts toward the achievemen...
Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm<br />
Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm<br />
Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm<br />What cultures would be the most likely to perceive differences...
Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background<br />Theory X manager<br />Believes that people are basically lazy and...
Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background<br />Theory Y manager<br />Believes that under the right conditions pe...
Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background<br />Theory Z manager<br />Believes that workers seek opportunities to...
Foundation for Leadership: Leadership Behaviors and Styles<br />
Foundation for Leadership: The Managerial Grid Performance<br />
Four areas relevant to leadership<br />Capacity for Leadership and Initiative- Theory X or Y<br />Sharing Information and ...
Discussion<br />Is there any relationship between company size and European managers’ attitude toward participative leader...
Japanese vs. U.S. Leadership Style<br />
Another Difference<br /><ul><li>Variety Amplification</li></ul>	Japanese executives are taught and tend to use variety amp...
Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management<br />Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Weste...
Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management<br />Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Weste...
Middle Eastern vs. Western Europe Management<br />
Discussion<br />Different leadership from different culture.Korea / ChinaUSAEurope<br />
Leadership approach in developing countries<br />China<br /><ul><li>Social Reform Era</li></ul>Openness and Freedom<br />W...
Leadership approach in developing countries<br />India - similar to Anglo-Americans toward capacity for leadership and ini...
Effective<br />Active<br />Passive<br />Effective<br />An Optimal Profile of Universal Leadership Behaviors<br />I’s–trans...
Transformational leaders<br />Four interrelated factors:<br />Idealized Influence<br />Inspirational Motivation<br />Intel...
Exercise<br />Role Playing<br />	: Manage your employees who is constantly late for meetings. <br />
Leader Types<br />Laissez-faire leader: This leader avoids intervening or accepting responsibility for follower actions. <...
Discuss<br /> Is effective leadership behavior universal, or does it vary from culture to culture?<br />
Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes<br />Adapted from Table 13–7: Rankings of the Most Important Leadersh...
Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes<br />Adapted from Table 13–7: Rankings of the Most Important Leadersh...
Authentic Leadership<br />Four distinct characteristics of authentic leaders<br />They do not fake their actions<br />They...
Discuss	<br />How are authentic leaders different from transformational leaders?<br />
An Offer from Down Under<br />Gandriff Corp. is a successful retail chain in the Midwest. Wants to expand!<br />Australian...
An Offer from Down Under<br />Will the leadership style used in the United States be successful in Australia, or will the ...
Leadership Across Cultures<br />Any questions?<br />
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  • 453PThis table shows that effective leader behaviors tend to vary by cultural cluster. While there are similarities between some of the cultures, none of the lists of leadership attributes is identical.
  • M12

    1. 1. Leadership across culture<br />DongWoo, Carlos, Warren <br />
    2. 2. Leadership Across Cultures<br />Foundation for Leadership<br />Leadership in the International Context<br />Recent Findings and Insights About Leadership<br />Case: An Offer from Down Under<br />
    3. 3. Foundation for Leadership<br />What is leadership???<br />
    4. 4. Foundation for Leadership<br />Leadership: The process of influencing people to direct their efforts toward the achievement of some particular goal or goals.<br />
    5. 5. Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm<br />
    6. 6. Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm<br />
    7. 7. Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm<br />What cultures would be the most likely to perceive differences between managerial and leadership duties? What cultures would view them as the same? Use evidence to support your answer.<br />
    8. 8. Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background<br />Theory X manager<br />Believes that people are basically lazy and that coercion and threats of punishment often are necessary to get them to work.<br />
    9. 9. Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background<br />Theory Y manager<br />Believes that under the right conditions people not only will work hard but will seek increased responsibility and challenge.<br />
    10. 10. Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background<br />Theory Z manager<br />Believes that workers seek opportunities to participate in management and are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing.<br />
    11. 11. Foundation for Leadership: Leadership Behaviors and Styles<br />
    12. 12. Foundation for Leadership: The Managerial Grid Performance<br />
    13. 13. Four areas relevant to leadership<br />Capacity for Leadership and Initiative- Theory X or Y<br />Sharing Information and Objectives- Leader-Subordinate Interactions (Figure 13-1)<br />Participation<br />Internal or External Control(External: Reward, Punishment)<br />
    14. 14. Discussion<br />Is there any relationship between company size and European managers’ attitude toward participative leadership style?<br />There was more support among manager in small firms than in large ones regarding the belief that individuals have a capacity for leadership and initiative<br />However, respondent from larger firms were more supportive of sharing information and objectives, participation, and use of internal control. <br />
    15. 15. Japanese vs. U.S. Leadership Style<br />
    16. 16. Another Difference<br /><ul><li>Variety Amplification</li></ul> Japanese executives are taught and tend to use variety amplification – the creation of uncertainty and the analysis of many alternatives regarding future action<br /><ul><li>Variety Reduction </li></ul> U.S. executives are taught and tend to use variety reduction – the limiting of uncertainty and the focusing of action on a limited number of alternatives<br />
    17. 17. Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management<br />Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management<br />
    18. 18. Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management<br />Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management<br />
    19. 19. Middle Eastern vs. Western Europe Management<br />
    20. 20. Discussion<br />Different leadership from different culture.Korea / ChinaUSAEurope<br />
    21. 21. Leadership approach in developing countries<br />China<br /><ul><li>Social Reform Era</li></ul>Openness and Freedom<br />Western Societal influences<br />
    22. 22. Leadership approach in developing countries<br />India - similar to Anglo-Americans toward capacity for leadership and initiative, participation, and internal control(Great Britain)- but different in sharing information and objectives<br />Peru - much closer to leadership in the United States than previously assumed<br />*Developing countries may be moving toward a more participative leadership style<br />
    23. 23. Effective<br />Active<br />Passive<br />Effective<br />An Optimal Profile of Universal Leadership Behaviors<br />I’s–transformational<br />CR–Contingent Reward<br />MBE-A–Active Management-by-Exception<br />MBE-P–Passive Management-by-Exception<br />LF–Laissez-Faire<br />I’s<br />CR<br />MBE-A<br />MBE-P<br />Frequency<br />LF<br />Adapted from Figure 13–5: An Optimal Profile of Universal Leadership Behaviors<br />McGraw-Hill/Irwin<br />© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.<br />
    24. 24. Transformational leaders<br />Four interrelated factors:<br />Idealized Influence<br />Inspirational Motivation<br />Intellectual Stimulation<br />Individualized Consideration<br />Transformational leadership<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vI8GCfbdigI<br />Example of transformational leadership<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRiW_RNuxus<br />
    25. 25. Exercise<br />Role Playing<br /> : Manage your employees who is constantly late for meetings. <br />
    26. 26. Leader Types<br />Laissez-faire leader: This leader avoids intervening or accepting responsibility for follower actions. <br />MEB-P -Passive Management-by-exception: This leader takes action or intervenes in situations only when standard are not met. <br />MBE-A–Active Management-by-Exception: This individual monitors follower performance and takes corrective action when deviation from standards occur. <br />CR–Contingent Reward. This leader clarifies what needs to be done and provides both psychic and material rewards to those who comply with his or her directives. <br />Transformational leaders. This leaders are visionary agents with a sense of mission who are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things. <br />
    27. 27. Discuss<br /> Is effective leadership behavior universal, or does it vary from culture to culture?<br />
    28. 28. Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes<br />Adapted from Table 13–7: Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes by Region and Country Cluster<br />
    29. 29. Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes<br />Adapted from Table 13–7: Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes by Region and Country Cluster<br />
    30. 30. Authentic Leadership<br />Four distinct characteristics of authentic leaders<br />They do not fake their actions<br />They are driven from internal forces (not external rewards)<br />They are unique and guide based on personal beliefs, not other’s orders<br />They act based on individual passion and values<br />
    31. 31. Discuss <br />How are authentic leaders different from transformational leaders?<br />
    32. 32. An Offer from Down Under<br />Gandriff Corp. is a successful retail chain in the Midwest. Wants to expand!<br />Australian investors offer $100 million to help set up down under. <br />Operations will be run by Gandriff.<br />Gandriff thinks Europe will have better growth.<br />Australians offer another $100m if Australia if first. <br />
    33. 33. An Offer from Down Under<br />Will the leadership style used in the United States be successful in Australia, or will the Australians respond better to another?<br />If the retailer goes into Europe, in which country will it have the least problem using its U.S.-based leadership style? Why?<br />If the company goes into Europe, what changes might it have to make in accommodating its leadership approach to the local environment? Use Germany as an example.<br />
    34. 34. Leadership Across Cultures<br />Any questions?<br />
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