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  • 453PThis table shows that effective leader behaviors tend to vary by cultural cluster. While there are similarities between some of the cultures, none of the lists of leadership attributes is identical.

M12 M12 Presentation Transcript

  • Leadership across culture
    DongWoo, Carlos, Warren
  • Leadership Across Cultures
    Foundation for Leadership
    Leadership in the International Context
    Recent Findings and Insights About Leadership
    Case: An Offer from Down Under
  • Foundation for Leadership
    What is leadership???
  • Foundation for Leadership
    Leadership: The process of influencing people to direct their efforts toward the achievement of some particular goal or goals.
  • Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm
  • Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm
  • Foundation for Leadership: The Manager-Leader Paradigm
    What cultures would be the most likely to perceive differences between managerial and leadership duties? What cultures would view them as the same? Use evidence to support your answer.
  • Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background
    Theory X manager
    Believes that people are basically lazy and that coercion and threats of punishment often are necessary to get them to work.
  • Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background
    Theory Y manager
    Believes that under the right conditions people not only will work hard but will seek increased responsibility and challenge.
  • Foundation for Leadership: Philosophical Background
    Theory Z manager
    Believes that workers seek opportunities to participate in management and are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing.
  • Foundation for Leadership: Leadership Behaviors and Styles
  • Foundation for Leadership: The Managerial Grid Performance
  • Four areas relevant to leadership
    Capacity for Leadership and Initiative- Theory X or Y
    Sharing Information and Objectives- Leader-Subordinate Interactions (Figure 13-1)
    Participation
    Internal or External Control(External: Reward, Punishment)
  • Discussion
    Is there any relationship between company size and European managers’ attitude toward participative leadership style?
    There was more support among manager in small firms than in large ones regarding the belief that individuals have a capacity for leadership and initiative
    However, respondent from larger firms were more supportive of sharing information and objectives, participation, and use of internal control.
  • Japanese vs. U.S. Leadership Style
  • Another Difference
    • Variety Amplification
    Japanese executives are taught and tend to use variety amplification – the creation of uncertainty and the analysis of many alternatives regarding future action
    • Variety Reduction
    U.S. executives are taught and tend to use variety reduction – the limiting of uncertainty and the focusing of action on a limited number of alternatives
  • Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management
    Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management
  • Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management
    Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management
  • Middle Eastern vs. Western Europe Management
  • Discussion
    Different leadership from different culture.Korea / ChinaUSAEurope
  • Leadership approach in developing countries
    China
    • Social Reform Era
    Openness and Freedom
    Western Societal influences
  • Leadership approach in developing countries
    India - similar to Anglo-Americans toward capacity for leadership and initiative, participation, and internal control(Great Britain)- but different in sharing information and objectives
    Peru - much closer to leadership in the United States than previously assumed
    *Developing countries may be moving toward a more participative leadership style
  • Effective
    Active
    Passive
    Effective
    An Optimal Profile of Universal Leadership Behaviors
    I’s–transformational
    CR–Contingent Reward
    MBE-A–Active Management-by-Exception
    MBE-P–Passive Management-by-Exception
    LF–Laissez-Faire
    I’s
    CR
    MBE-A
    MBE-P
    Frequency
    LF
    Adapted from Figure 13–5: An Optimal Profile of Universal Leadership Behaviors
    McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Transformational leaders
    Four interrelated factors:
    Idealized Influence
    Inspirational Motivation
    Intellectual Stimulation
    Individualized Consideration
    Transformational leadership
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vI8GCfbdigI
    Example of transformational leadership
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hRiW_RNuxus
  • Exercise
    Role Playing
    : Manage your employees who is constantly late for meetings.
  • Leader Types
    Laissez-faire leader: This leader avoids intervening or accepting responsibility for follower actions.
    MEB-P -Passive Management-by-exception: This leader takes action or intervenes in situations only when standard are not met.
    MBE-A–Active Management-by-Exception: This individual monitors follower performance and takes corrective action when deviation from standards occur.
    CR–Contingent Reward. This leader clarifies what needs to be done and provides both psychic and material rewards to those who comply with his or her directives.
    Transformational leaders. This leaders are visionary agents with a sense of mission who are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things.
  • Discuss
    Is effective leadership behavior universal, or does it vary from culture to culture?
  • Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes
    Adapted from Table 13–7: Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes by Region and Country Cluster
  • Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes
    Adapted from Table 13–7: Rankings of the Most Important Leadership Attributes by Region and Country Cluster
  • Authentic Leadership
    Four distinct characteristics of authentic leaders
    They do not fake their actions
    They are driven from internal forces (not external rewards)
    They are unique and guide based on personal beliefs, not other’s orders
    They act based on individual passion and values
  • Discuss
    How are authentic leaders different from transformational leaders?
  • An Offer from Down Under
    Gandriff Corp. is a successful retail chain in the Midwest. Wants to expand!
    Australian investors offer $100 million to help set up down under.
    Operations will be run by Gandriff.
    Gandriff thinks Europe will have better growth.
    Australians offer another $100m if Australia if first.
  • An Offer from Down Under
    Will the leadership style used in the United States be successful in Australia, or will the Australians respond better to another?
    If the retailer goes into Europe, in which country will it have the least problem using its U.S.-based leadership style? Why?
    If the company goes into Europe, what changes might it have to make in accommodating its leadership approach to the local environment? Use Germany as an example.
  • Leadership Across Cultures
    Any questions?