Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm

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How can farmers benefit from sustainable energy and energy efficiency?

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  • Turbines produce power at the point of consumption / when paired with battery back-up Purchase price is not the whole price Permits/applications Additional hardware Repairs Important to note that this is the price for a grid connected system – installing a hybrid system that uses a power controller and links with a diesel generator will be more expensive. For all off-grid applications, it makes sense to pursue as much energy efficiency as possible Energy Conservation Those installing small wind will typically focus on EE first Incentive can be designed to further encourage conservation
  • Your capacity factor will be higher some years and lower others Cost is intermediate between large wind and small wind costs – with costs lower for larger capacity turbines. Purchase price is not the whole price Permits/applications Additional hardware Repairs Important to note that this is the price for a grid connected system – installing a hybrid system that uses a power controller and links with a diesel generator will be more expensive.
  • Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm

    1. 1. Sustainable EnergyDown on the Farm March 2011 COABC Annual Conference Guy Dauncey
    2. 2. www.certifiedorganic.bc.ca
    3. 3. We’ve come a long way from this….
    4. 4. To this …
    5. 5. but…
    6. 6. We’ve also come to this… ©Smithore Dreamstime.com
    7. 7. Is our whole world being contaminated?
    8. 8. The Great TransitionHumanitys Journey to Harmony with the Earth
    9. 9. We need…A Green Economy Harmony with NatureTrue Sustainability
    10. 10. We need…A 100% Shift to Renewable Energy ©Martinedegraaf Dreamstime.com
    11. 11. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    12. 12. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    13. 13. 27 farms assessed in 2010. Final report due soon. Emily MacNair, BC Agriculture and Food Climate Action Initiative 250-356-1666 Emily@bcagclimateaction.ca. www.bcagclimateaction.ca.
    14. 14. www.bcagclimateaction.ca
    15. 15. www.ruralenergy.wisc.edu Zip Code 98236
    16. 16. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    17. 17. The Sun is rapidly settingon the Age of Fossil Fuels.
    18. 18. This10,000 10,000years past years future is the Age of Fossil Fuels
    19. 19. Is this the future?
    20. 20. “In recognition of thecoming oil prices, Iname this ship……
    21. 21. Cultivating one hectare of corn in the USrequires 40 litres of gasoline and 75 litres of diesel US yield = 9 tonnes/hectare 1 tonne requires 12 litres of fuel Chilliwack corn harvest
    22. 22. John Deere 8430 PST
    23. 23. Electric Tractor
    24. 24. Glynwood Farm, Cold Spring, New York GE Elec Trak, small electric tractor originally sold in the 1970s. Recharges from normal outlet or solar panels. Front-mounted mower deck, three-foot roto- tiller Annual cost savings $300-$400
    25. 25. 20-horse power Tuff Bilt tractor converted to all-electric cultivating tractor 35 cents/hour vs $2/hour
    26. 26. Electric TractorAA Technologies, Georgia www.aatev.com
    27. 27. Canadian Electric VehiclesErrington, BC www.canev.com1500 lb capacity15-25 mph90 km range
    28. 28. Case IH Biodiesel Tractor
    29. 29. New Holland Fuel Cell Tractor 106 HP
    30. 30. DIY Biodiesel
    31. 31. Biodiesel FuelPod 3100 litres a day - 70 cents a gallon $6,495 20 cents a litre
    32. 32. Essex Farm, New York State“We currently farm 600 acres and feed 222 members. We are powered byfifteen solar panels, nine draft horses, ten full-time farmers, and three tractors.We do not use synthetic fertilizer, herbicide, or pesticide. Our animals eat feedwe’ve grown ourselves or local hay and local, certified organic grain.” www.kristinkimball.com/essex-farm
    33. 33. The old becomes the new….
    34. 34. Baling HayTo grow biofuel for all the tractors in America would use 26% of America’scropland. Using horses would require 11%.An economic comparison of traditional and conventional agricultural systems at acounty level, M.H. Bender, American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Dec. 15, 2000,Vol 16 www.landinstitute.org/pages/Bender%20AJAA%202000.pdf
    35. 35. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    36. 36. • Insulation• Farm building walls +R20 ceilings +R30• Caulking & weatherstripping• Tight fitting windows in farm buildings• Air-source or ground-source heat• Heat-recovery ventilators• Thermostats & timers• Lighting• LiveSmart incentives at www.livesmartbc.ca
    37. 37. Glynwood Farm, Cold Spring, New YorkIn the winter of 2008, we replaced the more traditional forced-hot-air heating unit in our main greenhouse with an innovativeradiant heating system that uses a propane hot water heaterand a circulating pump that sends the hot water through flexibletubing on the greenhouse benches.80% savings on the cost of heating our greenhouse - repays inless than two yearsBecause the plants are heated at the root zone immediately ontop of the tubing, the result is much stronger seedlingproduction, and higher yields.
    38. 38. Solar GreenhousesVermont Herb and Salad CompanyTwo 30 x 90 heated greenhousesfor starting seedlings and wintergreens productionFour 30 x 100 unheatedgreenhouses for in-seasonproduction of leafy greens
    39. 39. Vermont Herb and Salad Company Two 30 x 90 heated greenhouses Sequoyah Model E3400 Gasification Outdoor Wood FurnaceCost $11,500 + renovations $4,000 Total cost $30,000Pressurized hot water distributed by pex tubing + heat exchangerNormally: 1200 gallons of oil a month through 4 months of winter.$3/gallon = $3600 a monthWood furnace: half a cord/day = $750/month.Total fuel saving = $14,000 a year
    40. 40. Bubble Insulated Greenhouse30 inches soap bubbles = R-30Pioneered by Ross and Kat Elliot in Perth, Ontario10-12 month growing season in Yukon
    41. 41. Eliot ColemanFour-season harvest Maine
    42. 42. www.storeitcold.comCoolBot replaces the brute force of fans and surface area with a micro-controllerbrain that interfaces with your air conditioner.It controls and co-ordinates its output so that you can access nearly all yourcooling power, with temperatures in the 30s without re-wiring or freeze-ups.
    43. 43. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    44. 44. Dairy farm electrical energy savings potential
    45. 45. LightingSealed compact fluorescent lighting in the barn provides a superiorlighting environment compared to incandescentSavings = $1,500 a yearAdd photoperiodic control system with sensor and timer to dim or shutoff lights when not needed
    46. 46. Poultry Barn Lighting66% electrical saving = $3,800 saved per barn per year (A) infrared tube heaters (B) sealed fluorescent lighting (C) photocell lighting control (D) chimney fan
    47. 47. Heat Padswww.omafra.gov.on.ca
    48. 48. Variable speed drive pump - operates at 30%of load for 90% of the time
    49. 49. Mayval Farm, Westhampton, MassachusettsThe milk is so cool entering the bulk tank that the refrigeration compressors cycle off during milking time www.energy.blog.state.ma.us/blog/farm-based-energy
    50. 50. (A) variable frequency drive(B) power filter on the variable frequency drive (C) variable frequency drive vacuum pump
    51. 51. Ceiling of the milking parlour:5 lamp 4 foot T-8 fluorescent lighting fixtures + high volume, low velocity circulation fan 100% more airflow (cubic feet per minute) 50% energy savings = $400 savings pa. Add dimmers and motion sensors
    52. 52. Sustainable Energy Down on the FarmMotors - use 18% of all energy use on the farmRefrigeration - can be fitted with heat recovery units - milkpre-coolers - scroll compressors - water cooled platecoolers - variable speed milk pumpsDairy - refrigeration heat recovery, precoolers, highefficiency heaters, scroll refrigeration compressors.Greenhouse - heaters, boilers, thermal curtains, glazingPotato storage - variable speed drives on storageventilation - energy savings up to 65%, decreased shrinkageof potatoes
    53. 53. www.omafra.gov.on.ca
    54. 54. www.geopathfinder.com/9473.html
    55. 55. NRG Solar Dryer Experimental. Mumbai, India
    56. 56. Solar dryer for mushroom drying, Itola, India
    57. 57. Laughing Stock Farm, Montana Biodiesel heated greenhouse
    58. 58. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    59. 59. Sustainable EnergyDown on the Farm No incentives in BC Cost = $8,000 per kW 1 kW = 1,100 kWh a year @ 8 cents = $88 pa saving
    60. 60. The Price of Solar PV
    61. 61. Solar electric fencing
    62. 62. Solar water pump
    63. 63. Solar irrigation, California
    64. 64. Solar wallSteve Veldman, 75 cow dairy farm, OntarioCost in 1990: $1200. Never has to heat the building
    65. 65. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    66. 66. Wind energy and itsapplications for BC’sagriculture sectorAgri-Energy ForumPacific Agriculture ShowTRADEX Abbotsford AirportAbbotsford, B.C.January 27, 2011Nicholas Heap, BC Policy Manager #200 - 420 W. Hastings St. Vancouver, BC V6B 1L1 (800) 922-6932 x244 (604) 351-7067 nicholasheap@canwea.ca
    67. 67. What’s so good about wind power for the agriculture sector? • Large wind: – A reliable, long term source of income. – A high value “cash crop” in terms of income per hectare. • Community wind: – Provides energy independence – Can increase reliability (hybrid wind/diesel or wind/battery systems) • Small wind: Photo: Tim Weis, Pembina Institute 82 – Can be lowest-cost option for off-grid applications
    68. 68. Where BC’s wind is: mesoscale model Northeast Note: these low resolution models miss some good wind sites Northern Interior Southern Interior North Coast xSource: BC Hydro
    69. 69. Where BC’s wind is: investigative permits Note: You know more about the wind on your land than anyoneSource: BC Hydro
    70. 70. Small-size residential systems 1 kW to 10 kW• Market and prospects – On-grid residential, net metered systems can provide 10% to 150% of house electricity – 300 - 400 systems in Canada to date – Buyer motivation: environmental interests, longer-term paybacks• Typical application – Roughly $7,000 - $8,000 per kW – Capacity factor : 15% - 20% for a well-sited system – 10 kW installation: $70,000 = 15 MWh per year – A 1 kW installation: $7,000 = ~ 1 MWh per year Photos: Cascadia Pacific Realty / Pembina Institute
    71. 71. Mid-sized farm systems (10 kW to 100 kW)• Market and prospects – On-grid farm systems can provide >50% of electricity – Under 100 systems in Canada to date – Buyer motivation: stable long-term cost of electricity, interest in energy independence• Typical application – Roughly $5,500 - $6,500 per kW – Capacity factor : 15% - 20% for a well-sited system – A 50 kW installation: $250,000 providing 87 MWh per year (enough for 8 average homes) Photos: Cascadia Pacific Realty / Pembina Institute
    72. 72. About CanWEA• For more information and resources on wind www.canwea.ca
    73. 73. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    74. 74. Microhydro energy
    75. 75. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    76. 76. Evacuated tube, solar thermal hot water system provides high temperature hot water for dairy and cheese-making, combined with hot water refrigerant heat recovery tank Appleton Farms (CSA) Hamilton/Ipswich.1000 acre dairy, livestock, vegetables, grain, cheese-making. energy.blog.state.ma.us/blog/farm-based-energy
    77. 77. 400 ft 1/2 inch poly pipe in box 6 mil plasticwith 2”construction foam backing Enough for family of four on sunny days 150F hot water Cost $100, 12 hours labour Not for winter use (water, not glycol) Annie’s Acres, CSA Farm, Wisconsin
    78. 78. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    79. 79. Sandia National Laboratories, 2009
    80. 80. Miscanthus Sweet SorghumShort rotation coppice Camelina sativa
    81. 81. Copyright 2008, Midwest Research Institute.
    82. 82. Aerial view of a pilot plant (Seambiotic Ltd.,Tel Aviv) growing Nannochloropsis algae using flue gas CO2 from a coal-fired Power Plant near Ashkelon, Israel. Photo: Professor Ami Ben-Amotz
    83. 83. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    84. 84. Anaerobic digestionAnaerobic digestion is a way of producing biogas frombiomass sources such as energy crops, farmyard residuesor food waste.As well as biogas, the process leaves a solid residue, orbio-fertiliser. It can also be used for combined heat andpower or fed into the natural gas grid as biomethane.
    85. 85. Biogas (methane) Anaerobic digestion turns manure into fertilizer.Biogas co-generation creates electricity and heat.
    86. 86. Biogas in India25 kg dung = 3 hours gas
    87. 87. www.bcfarmbiogas.ca
    88. 88. www.ecodairy.ca
    89. 89. Anaerobic Digestion Funding Enviro-loan - Farm Credit Canada AAFC AgriFlexibility Fund BC Environmental Farm PlanEnergy sales: SOP 9.5 - 10.4 cents kWh Feed-In Tariff: 14 - 18 cents kWh?? FortisBC Biogas sales: $15/GJ www. bcfarmbiogas.ca www.fortisbc.com/Biogas
    90. 90. Manure1 tonne of manure = 0.0055kW = 48 kWh year200 cows manure + 25% dough, fats, oil and grease1 tonne of high-energy feedstock = 0.055kW = 482kWh yearHeat: 1,149,570kWh x 1.4 = 1,609,398kWh heat/year.Total revenueIf electricity sold for $0.10/kWh, revenue from electricity will be:1,495,170kWh x $0.10 = $149,517/year.If electricity sold for $0.14/kWh, revenue from electricity will be:1,495,170kWh x $0.14 = $209,324/year.
    91. 91. Biogas
    92. 92. What’s needed for biogas to work?1. Manure2. Top level political will3. Technical support …4. Net metering5. Grid access6. A long-term guaranteed price ? ?7. Federal support (tax credits) …8. Provincial support (eg 30% subsidy) …9. BC Utilities Commission support …10. BC Hydro support11. Investors12. Farmers working together …
    93. 93. www.biomasstrader.org/bc
    94. 94. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    95. 95. Biochar is charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass,and differs from charcoal in that its primary use is not for fuel, but for biosequestration or atmospheric carbon capture and storage.Charcoal is a stable solid rich in carbon content, and can be used to lock carbon in the soil for hundreds to thousands of years.
    96. 96. Making biochar at Shelburne Farms, Lake Champlain, Vermont
    97. 97. www.biocharworks.com
    98. 98. Without biochar With biocharwww.biochar.info Zero Carbon Project, Switzerland
    99. 99. Sustainable Energy Down on the Farm FarmEnergy Vehicles Buildings Equipment Audit Solar Solar Wind Microhydro Hot Water Soil Biogas/Biofuels Biochar Carbon Methane Storage
    100. 100. Grassland RanchingLarge cause of soil carbon loss
    101. 101. Native grasslands store a huge amount of carbon
    102. 102. Predators protect the grasslands … and their soil
    103. 103. Herd animals always cluster together, for safety against predators
    104. 104. Throughout history, around the world, farmers have rarely understood how the predators protect the grasslands.
    105. 105. Without the wolves, the herds “scatter-graze”. Gophers and rabbits take over, and the grasslands are destroyed.
    106. 106. The Solution: Rotational grazing Mob-stocking Management- intensive grazingHolistic management
    107. 107. “Our beeves are kept together and rotated oftento simulate the grazing patterns of ancient herds maintaining natural balance in grasslands.” - James Ranch, Colorado
    108. 108. Holistic management Allan Savory
    109. 109. Cimarron Farm, Vermont 130 acres
    110. 110. Regular grazing Rotational grazing
    111. 111. Land in 1986
    112. 112. Same land in 1989after being grazed by 600 cow-calf pairs Western wheatgrass recovering
    113. 113. Twin Creek Ranch, Wyomingunder Holistic Management
    114. 114. 1 year grazed 3 years not grazed 30 feet apart Don Schaules, Montana
    115. 115. Carbon Ranching
    116. 116. Regular grazing Rotational grazing Yields increase, erosion ceases, and the land stores up to five times more carbon.
    117. 117. In a Maryland test, soil carbon increased from 4.1 - 8.3% over 5 yearsstoring an additional 1.8 tonnes hectare/year
    118. 118. If all the world’s grasslands ranchers practiced carbon farming,they could sequester 3.4 Gt of carbon a yearWorld total carbon emissions = 10 Gt a year
    119. 119. Methane Reduction in Grazing AnimalsCystein food supplement + nitrates 100%Feed additive based on fumaric acid 70% MethaneGarlic Garlic 50% reduction inEarly season grazing 29–45% grazing animalsGrinding/pelleting low quality forages 20–40%4% canola oil mix 33%Enzyme inhibitors 30%Alfalfa grass, instead of grass only 25%Rotational grazing, high quality forages 22%Organic sugars and special bacteria 20%Vaccination 20%Legume lotus/tannins 16%
    120. 120. CaerFai Farm, Pembrokeshire, Wales170 acres organic - dairy - beef - cereals - potatoes - cheese - pigs camping - holiday cottages - farm shop
    121. 121. • Anaerobic digester• Wind turbine• Solar hot water• Groundsource heat• Electric irrigation insteadof tractor driven• Slurry pumped from thedigester to nearby fields,instead of tractor spread• Saves £4,000 a yearelectricity, + $4,500 dieselBUT.. still only reduced useof diesel by 25%
    122. 122. Farm gas from anaerobic digestion produces biogasfor the Aga cooker, and 50% energy for sterilizing the milking machine. Cheese whey included.
    123. 123. 2O kW wind turbine.Performing at 17.5 kW
    124. 124. Solar hot water for use in the dairy
    125. 125. Guy Daunceywww.earthfuture.com

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