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Cancer - The Parallel Path
 

Cancer - The Parallel Path

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The science and politics of preventing cancer before it begins

The science and politics of preventing cancer before it begins

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    Cancer - The Parallel Path Cancer - The Parallel Path Presentation Transcript

    • UBC Pharmaceutical Sciences September 14th 2011
    •  
    • 1: THE CANCER EPIDEMIC 2: WHAT’S CAUSING IT? 3: WHAT ARE THE SOLUTIONS?
    • Part 1: THE CANCER EPIDEMIC
    • Cancer in the Developed World 1900: 1 in 25 1925: 1 in 10 1960: 1 in 4 2000: 1 in 3
    • Age-standardized cancer rate per 100,000 A Disease of Economic Development?
    • National Cancer Institute Estimated United States Cancer Prevalence , April 2003 US Cancer Prevalence:
    • Overall cancer incidence, 1975 to 2000 Canadian females: + 19.5% Canadian males: + 29.2% Bob Hunter, RIP Georgiana Phelan, RIP
    • Childhood cancer, 1975 - 2002 USA: + 1% a year Europe: + 1% a year Canada: Almost + 1% a year Mandy Green, RIP Cholette Chuda, RIP
    • Northern Europe cancer incidence and deaths 1950 - 2005 Ray Matthey, RIP
    • Females: age-adjusted incidence rates of selected cancers 1954-2003, Northern Europe
    • Males: age-adjusted incidence rates of selected cancers 1954-2003, Northern Europe
    • If there’s a war on cancer, we’re not winning it.
    • The Cost of Cancer In 1994, doctors could extend the life of a patient for 1 year, using a combination of drugs. The cost: $500 By 2004, they could extend a life by almost 2 years. The cost: $250,000 Avastin: $46,000 a year (adds five months to average patient’s life) Tarceva: $46k - $60k a year (adds two months) Herceptin: $50,000 per year (adds five months)
    • 1990: Direct cost of cancer to US healthcare system $35 billion (10% of expenditures) 2003: $64 billion (20% of expenditures) Total cost of cancer in US: over $171 billion Canada total cost of cancer: $14 billion (1998)
    • By Samoila Iuliana, age 9, Romania There is a sickness in our world…
    • Tanya Thomas, RIP Part 2: SO WHAT IS CAUSING IT?
    • THE SMOKE SCREEN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Smoking Diet Lifestyle Exercise Natural hormones Sunlight Infections Sexual behaviour Occupation
    • The world’s leading epidemiologist Proved that smoking causes lung cancer in 1951 25 major awards Honorary degrees from 13 universities Gold Medal from the The Royal Society Gold medal, European Cancer Society, 2000 Gold Medal from the British Medical Association United Nations Award for Cancer Research, 1962 Ettore Majorana Erice "Science for Peace" prize, 1990 Shaw Prize for contribution to modern cancer epidemiology, 2005 Sir Richard Doll 1912- 2005
    • The Causes of Cancer: Quantitative Estimates of Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the United States Today. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1981 Richard Doll and Richard Peto Cited in more than 441 scientific articles. Became the foundation of the conventional “ lifestyle” explanation of the causes of cancer. Followed by a similar Harvard study in 1996.
    • Doll & Peto’s 1981 analysis of the causes of cancer (2-4%) (1-5%)
    • The Shadow of Doll The causes of cancer according to Cancer Research UK Tobacco Physical body weight Diet Hormones Sunlight Occupation Infections “ Large organisations like the WHO and IARC have estimated that pollution and chemicals in our environment only account for about 3% of all cancers.” - Cancer Research UK
    • Cause Attributable Range risk Tobacco 29 27-33 Diet* 25 15-35 Reproductive hormones 15 10-20 Alcohol 6 4-8 Ionizing radiation 5 4-6 Infection 5 4-15 Occupation 2 1-5 Pollution 2 1-5 UV light 1 1 Physical inactivity <1 0-1 * Includes overweight & obesity Cancer Research UK, 2007
    • “ Cancer mortality resulting from the use of pesticides is less than 0.1% of cancer mortality from other sources, most of which are controllable by the individuals themselves in their own decisions.” Source: Doll, Richard and Richard Peto. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today . Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1981 From the right-wing website “Freedom 21”, created to oppose the UN’s Local Agenda 21 The Shadow of Doll
      • However, Doll & Peto’s 1981 study:
      • Looked only at deaths, not the incidence of cancer
      • Excluded anyone over 65, even though 70% of deaths occur in people over 65
      • Excluded African Americans
      • Ignored the increase in cancer among children
      • Ignored animal and lab studies that showed risk
      • Did not address the multi-factorial nature of cancer
      • Considered only 16 known carcinogens.
      • In 2006, IARC listed 414 known or suspected carcinogens.
      • And……….
    • In 2007, it was revealed that from 1970 - 1990, Doll had a long term financial relationship with Monsanto ($1,500 a day) He also received payments from: ICI Dow Chemical Chemical Manufacturers Association Turner & Newall (asbestos industry) General Motors During these years, Sir Richard Doll publicly defended the safety of asbestos, fluoride, lead in gasoline, dioxin (Agent Orange), nuclear power, vinyl chloride, and pesticides. In 2002, however, Doll “recanted”…
    • &quot; It does look as if it's the cancers that are principally caused by hormones that are not affected by smoking. Most of the other cancers throughout the body are induced by exposure to chemicals, often environmental ones &quot;. Sir Richard Doll, 2002, speaking at an IARC scientific working group convened to review evidence relating tobacco smoking and cancer This retraction has been ignored by cancer establishments worldwide. Stop Cancer Before It Starts: How to Win the War On Cancer , By Dr Samuel S. Epstein, Ph.D, 2003
    • So what’s really happening?
    • Is our whole world being contaminated?
    • We started our enthusiasm for chemicals in the 1940s
    • “ Better living through chemistry”
    • DDT being sprayed on Long Island beaches in 1945 DDT being sprayed on herded sheep
    • Advert in TIME Magazine, late 1940s
    • In Silent Spring (1962) Rachel Carson challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world.
    • “ As crude a weapon as the cave man's club, the chemical barrage has been hurled against the fabric of life.” - Rachel Carson (1907 - 1964)
    • “ T he ‘ control of nature’ is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and the convenience of man .” - Rachel Carson
    • “ F or the first time in the history of the world, every human being is now subjected to contact with dangerous chemicals, from the moment of conception until death.” - Rachel Carson
    • Carson was attacked by the chemical industry as an alarmist, but courageously spoke out to remind us that we are a vulnerable part of the natural world, and subject to the same damage as the rest of the ecosystem. Testifying before Congress in 1963, Carson called for new policies to protect human health and the environment.
    • Rachel Carson died in 1964 after a long battle against breast cancer. Her witness for the beauty and integrity of life continues to inspire new generations to protect the living world and all its creatures. www.rachelcarson.org
    • And yet 60 years later, many of our homes are full of toxic substances…
    • “ Harmless, are they? Actually, they’re anything but” Martin Mittelstaedt investigates the health risks of items you use every day at work and at home. Steven Mitchell, RIP
    • Our breasts…
    • Our farmland…
    • Raeside, Times Colonist Our gardens…
    • OUR BODY BURDEN 2003 EWG Study of 9 healthy adult volunteers found 167 industrial chemicals in their bodies: 76 linked to cancer (average 53 per volunteer) 94 toxic to brain and nervous system (av 62) 86 interfere with hormone system (av 58) 79 linked to birth defects, abnormal dev’t (av 55) 77 toxic to reproductive system (av 55) 77 toxic to immune system (av 53)
    • 11 volunteers tested for 88 chemicals Found 60 chemicals (44 per volunteer) 53 linked to reproductive disorders and child development harm 41 linked to cancer 27 linked to hormone disruption 21 linked to respiratory illnesses www.toxicnation.ca Toxic Nation: A Report on Pollution in Canadians (2005)
    • 2004 EWG Study of umbilical cord blood of 10 newborn babies 287 chemical contaminants Average cord blood: 230 chemicals
    • Mercury Coal-fired power plants, mercury-containing products, certain industrial processes. * Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Burning gasoline, garbage Polybrominated dibenzo-dioxins and furans Brominated flame retardants; plastic production and incineration. * Perfluorinated chemicals Teflon, Scotchgard, fabric and carpet protectors, food wrap coatings. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans PVC production, industrial bleaching, and incineration. * Organochlorine pesticides DDT, chlordane and other pesticides. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) Flame retardants in furniture foam, computers, televisions. Polychlorinated Naphthalenes Wood preservatives, varnishes, machine lubricating oils, waste incineration. * Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Industrial insulators and lubricants. * Linked to cancer
    • “ If ever we had proof that our nation’s pollution laws aren’t working, it’s reading the list of industrial chemicals in the bodies of babies who have not yet lived outside the womb.” - Congresswoman Louise Slaughter
    • Does it matter? Isn’t it only in tiny amounts? In 2003, a Belgian study found that women with breast cancer were 5 times more likely than healthy women to have residues of the pesticide DDT in their blood. In 2006, a US study found that men whose bodies were contaminated with PCB 153 were 30 times more likely to have prostate cancer than those who were not contaminated. Audre Lorde, RIP
    •  
    • Hormone mimicking chemicals “ These chemicals are working at a concentration of 1/10th of a trillionth of a gram. That is all it takes for a hormone to make a change in how an individual develops in the womb .” - Theo Colborn
    • Bisphenol A… Experiments with mice show that exposure during pregnancy to very low doses of bisphenol A scrambles the chromosomes of their daughters' fertilized embryos - the pregnant female's grandchildren. This third-generation effect is possible because the eggs of a female mammal, including human, are formed while the female is still in the womb. Exposure to BPA at comparable levels appears widespread among people in the United States, because of its use in common consumer products such as polycarbonate plastic and food cans. www.ourstolenfuture.org
    • Cancer in the workplace… Between 60,000 and 80,000 Canadian and American workers die every year from cancers related to their places of work. That’s 200 workers dying every day. Nearly all are preventable. Dr. James Keogh was a tireless advocate for worker health and safety in the US who exposed cases of asbestosis and lung cancer in steel and construction workers. He died from liver cancer in June 1999, at the age of 49.
    • “ If you poison your boss a little each day, it’s called murder. If your boss poisons you a little each day, it’s called Threshold Limit Value.” - Dr. James P. Keogh, MD
    • “ U sing the 1981 Doll & Peto estimates for occupational cancer probably underestimates the occupational exposure contribution by a factor of 2 to 4. This would mean an occupational contribution to the cancer total of between 8% and 16%.” - Dr. Richard Clapp, University of Boston Medical School
    • “ For too long, policy-makers have retrospectively pleaded ‘ If only we had known earlier what we know now’ I believe that what we do know now should become the basis of a bold new precautionary approach that puts the burden of evidence on safety first.” Dr Roberto Bertollini, Director, Special Programme on Health and Environment, World Health Organization
    • What does the science say? What is the evidence of environmental links to cancer? Dr. Richard Clapp is an epidemiologist in the Department of Environmental Health at Boston University. He is co-chair of Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility. With Genevieve Howe and Molly Jacobs, he surveyed the peer-reviewed literature. Here’s a brief summary what they found…
    • Metalworking fluids, asbestos, wood dust, reactive chemicals Larynx Solvents (eg trichloroethylene TCE), pesticides, metals Kidney Solvents (eg dry cleaners and dye-house workers), metal-working fluids and oils Esophagus Limited and inconsistent evidence: ionizing radiation, chlorination by-products Colon Solvents (eg among dry cleaners) Cervix Ionizing radiation; endocrine disruptors that mimic the actions of estrogens, found in many pesticides, fuels, plastics, detergents, and prescription drugs; the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES); solvents (eg among electronics, metals, furniture, printing, chemical, textiles and clothing industries workers); pesticides; benzene; and more Breast Solvents, paints, inks, ionizing radiation, low-frequency non-ionizing EMF radiation, pesticides, maternal consumption of cured meats during pregnancy (N-nitriso) Brain & nervous system Ionizing radiation from X-rays, CT scans, nuclear exposure, medical experiments Bone Arsenic in drinking water, chlorination by-products, solvents (eg among dry cleaning workers), hair dyes, petrochemicals, coal-tars, metalworking fluids, ionizing radiation Bladder Pollutants known to be contributing factors: Cancer of the:
    • Solvents, metals (cadmium, nickel), reactive chemicals, pesticides, metalworking fluids, mineral oils Pancreas Pesticides, ionizing radiation, talc powder, products used by hairdressers and beauticians Ovary Solvents, reactive chemicals, metalworking fluids, ionizing radiation Nasal & Pharynx Solvents, ionizing radiation, pesticides, occupational exposure to hair dyes Multiple myeloma Asbestos Mesothelioma Tobacco smoke, environmental (second hand) tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, petrochemical by-products, metalworking fluid, natural fibers (silica, wood dust, asbestos, mineral fibers), radon Lung Solvents, pesticides, hair-dyes Lymph (Hodgkin’s & Non-Hodgkin’s) Metals (especially arsenic), solvents, ionizing radiation, reactive chemicals, PCBs Liver Solvents, benzene, reactive chemicals, ionizing radiation (eg diagnostic X-rays during pregnancy), pesticides (including while pregnant) Leukemia Pollutants known to be contributing factors: Cancer of the:
    • Environmental and Occupational Causes of Cancer: A Review of Recent Scientific Literature by Richard Clapp, Genevieve Howe and Molly Jacobs University of Massachusetts Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, 2005 Ionizing radiation (nuclear fallout, medical X-rays, workers at nuclear facilities) Thyroid Endocrine disrupting chemicals, PCBs, especially in the womb; work in agriculture, tanning, mechanical painting, mining, plastics, & metalworking industries Testicles Metals (eg lead), ionizing radiation, pesticides, metalworking fluids, mineral oils, asbestos Stomach Ionizing radiation (UV radiation), metals, metalworking fluids, mineral oils, creosotes, coal-tars Skin Metals, reactive chemicals, ionizing radiation, pesticides Soft Tissue Solvents, chlorination by-products, metalworking fluids, mineral oils Rectum Pesticides, endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol-A, metallic dusts, metalworking fluids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fuel combustion products, aromatic amines (from cooked red meat), metals Prostate Pollutants known to be contributing factors: Cancer of the:
    • Cancer - American Cancer Society May 2007 216 Environmental Chemicals all cause breast cancer in animal tests
    • Guilty: All cause breast cancer in animal tests Chemical Source/Use 1,4-dioxane Detergents, shampoos, soaps 1,3-butadiene Common air pollutant; vehicle exhaust Acrylamide Fried foods Benzene Common air pollutant; vehicle exhaust Perfluorooctanoic acid Manufacture of Teflon Styrene M a nufacture of plastics; carpets, adhesives, hobby supplies Vinyl chloride Used by plastics industry to make vinyl 1,1-dichloroethane Industrial solvent; paint removers Toluene diisocyanate Foam cushions, furnishings, bedding Methylene chloride Furniture polish, fabric cleaners, wood sealants, many other consumer products PAHs Diesel and gasoline exhaust PCBs Electrical transformers Atrazine Widely used herbicide, esp. for corn Source: Silent Spring Institute
    • It’s not just humans …. The Beluga whales in the Saint Lawrence estuary are getting cancer. Their cancer death rate (1 in 4) is the same as among Canada’s humans. The belugas in the open Arctic waters are not getting cancer. The autopsies reveal high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a known carcinogen, most likely from an upstream aluminum smelter.
    • There’s cancer in fish….
    • Epidemics of liver cancer have been found in 16 species of fish in 25 different polluted locations. Also in bottom-feeding fish in industrialized and urbanized areas along Canada’s Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In Canada’s non-polluted waters, cancer in fish is almost non-existent. … that swim in polluted waters
    • There’s cancer in dogs…. Between 1975 and 1995 the incidence of bladder cancer in dogs examined at veterinary teaching schools in North America increased six-fold. Scottish terriers whose owners had used phenoxy acid herbicides on their lawns were 4 to 7 times more likely to have bladder cancer than dogs whose owners had not.
    • Bladder cancer in dogs is linked to the use of insecticidal flea and tick dips, but more so if the dogs are obese, and live near another source of pesticides. When the Scotties ate green leafy vegetables three times a week, there was a 90% reduction in their risk of cancer.
    • There’s cancer among California’s sea-lions… In the coastal waters where persistent organic pollutants were dumped in the 1960s and 1970s, 1 in 5 of the sea-lions has cancer of the urinary or genital tract - the highest rate of cancer of any marine mammal. They have toxic chemicals in their blubber that has accumulated through the anchovies, squid, salmon and mussels they eat.
    • “ Can anyone believe it is possible to lay down such a barrage of poisons on the surface of the Earth without making it unfit for all life?” - Rachel Carson
    • It’s not just cancer ….
    • The same chemicals are also causing asthma…
      • Off-gassing from chemical solvents and home and work
      • Proximity to air pollution busy traffic (2-fold increased risk)
      • Presence of phthalate chemicals from plastics and PVC in dust in children’s bedrooms (2-3 fold + risk)
      • Toxic fumes from cleaners and air fresheners (4-fold + risk)
      • Exposure to herbicides and pesticides (10-fold + risk)
    • and brain diseases…. Since 1980, the number of people suffering from diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lou Gehrig’s has tripled all across the developed world. Parkinson’s - linked to exposure to pesticides, especially combined exposures. Chemical testing is almost never done for the health effect of chemical combinations.
    • and infertility…. From 1938 and 1990 there was an overall decline in male fertility in various countries from 113 to 66 million sperms per milliliter. Testicular cancer has increased by 200% to 400% in some US, Canadian and European populations since 1995.
      • Why?
      • A study of tollbooth workers in Italy linked decreased sperm quality to vehicle exhaust.
      • A study in Missouri showed a link to agricultural pesticides.
      • In Wisconsin, women who applied herbicides 2 years prior to attempting conception were 27 x more likely to be infertile.
      • Reproductive damage is also linked to brominated fire retardants, lawn care chemicals, smoking during pregnancy, and endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A.
    • As well as toxic contaminants linked to cancer, there is another causal dimension to all this…
    • The way we farm
    • It began with the industrial age, when farmers started to use machinery. This required grains to be the same height, reducing their genetic diversity.
    • This reduced their resistance to disease, so we started spraying with chemical pesticides and herbicides
    • Plants have evolved over millions of years. They know all the tricks in the book. When they are attacked by a fungus, they produce phytochemicals and metabolites to defend themselves.
    • When humans and animals eat the phytochemicals they play an important role in protecting against cancer. Vitamins Antioxidants Salvestrols Salicylic acid
    • When plants are sprayed against pests and fungi, they have no need to defend themselves.
    • So they do not need to generate the defensive compounds. BUT…….. Organic crops still have to defend themselves Organic corn: 58% more antioxidants Organic strawberries: 19% more antioxidants Organic produce: higher levels of vitamin C Organic fruits: higher levels of salvestrols
    • “ Although very few studies directly addressed the issue, the polyphenol content of vegetables produced by organic or sustainable agriculture is certainly higher than that of vegetables grown without stress, such as those grown in conventional or hydroponic conditions.” Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Volume 79(5), 2004
    • The quality of the soil has also been severely damaged by modern industrial farming. 50% less iron 50% less calcium 50% less sodium 50% less copper 50% less magnesium 50% less selenium Since the 1940s & 1950s, the mineral content of food not grown organically has fallen dramatically: Meats and cheese: 50% less iron Broccoli: 63% less calcium Potatoes: 100% less vitamin A
    • Non-Organic Potatoes: 100% less vitamin A 57% less vitamin C 50% less iron 50% less riboflavin 28% less calcium 18% less thiamine Source: Globe & Mail, June 6, 2002. Story by Andre Picard quoted in The End of Food by Thomas Pawlick
    • Non-organic tomatoes: 61% less calcium 43% less Vitamin A 25% less iron 23% less protein 17% less Vitamin C 11% less phosphorus 8% less niacin 65% more fat 200% more sodium (salt)
    • Professor Gerry Potter, Professor of Medicinal Chemistry, De Montfort University, Leicester Gerry Potter invented the drug abiraterone in 1990 for use against prostate cancer, and was part of the team of scientists at the Institute for Cancer Research which won a prestigious Royal Society of Chemistry award in June 2011 for the discovery and clinical development of prostate cancer drug abiraterone.
    • Salvestrols … … are a group of recently discovered food phytonutrients which are essential for our wellbeing as a protection against cancer. They have been used by mammals as natural protectors for 150 million years. When salvestrols are consumed, they trigger a P450 enzyme that is present in most cancer cells to produce piceatannol, which attacks the cancer cell directly. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86 : The cancer preventative agent resveratrol is converted to the anticancer agent piceatannol by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Professor Gerry Potter, Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at De Montfort University in Leicester
    • However, foods which should be rich in salvestrols are low or devoid of them because: A. They have a bitter taste, and are being shunned for sweeter varieties. B. They are produced by plants in response to fungal attack and other infections. When plants are sprayed with fungicides and pesticides, their production of salvestrols is impaired, since they are no longer challenged by these diseases. 100 years ago we would have consumed 10 times the amount of salvestrols we do now.
    • Salvestrols are particularly high in organically grown green vegetables and red fruits
      • IARC has identified over 45 pesticides as know or potential carcinogens: almost half are still used in North America.
      • Farmers in industrialized countries develop and die of more cancers that the general population.
      • Pesticides are in the amniotic fluid of unborn babies.
      • When pesticides disrupt the endocrine system, they may contribute to cancer in the tiniest amounts.
      • In a 2001 study of 96 Seattle children, only one child, who had eaten exclusively organic food, showed no measurable concentration of organophosphates from pesticides.
      Food grown using chemical pesticides…
    • What about our diet?
    •  
    • Colin and Thomas Campbell “ The science is clear. The results are unmistakable. Change your diet and dramatically reduce the risk of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and obesity.”
    • The China Study: The first long-term study of diet, lifestyle and disease Examined the health and diet of people in 24 provinces in rural and urban China and Taiwan who ate locally produced food, including many who were too poor to eat animal-based food. It found 8,000 links between diet and disease….
      • The China Study’s findings:
      • Those who ate the most plant-based food were the healthiest.
      • Those who ate the most animal-based food got the most chronic diseases
      • Provided there is variety, quality, and quantity, a plant-food diet
      • can be healthy and nutritionally complete without animal-based food.
      The greatest benefits came to those who ate the greatest variety, with the least heating, salting, and processing.
      • Other studies have shown that:
      • Greek women who eat plenty of fruit have a 35% lower risk of breast cancer; those who eat plenty of vegetables have a 47% lower risk.
      • German vegetarians have a 56% reduced incidence of colon cancer.
      • Japanese women who eat meat daily have an 8.5 times greater risk of breast cancer than those who rarely or never eat meat.
      • British women who ate more than 90 grams of saturated fat a day had twice the risk of breast cancer than those who ate 37 grams.
      Collecting Fruit (1900) Natalia Goncharova
    • There are other factors that contribute to the causes of cancer, too…
    • Electromagnetic radiation… Ionizing radiation Known carcinogens “ no safe dose”
    • Electromagnetic radiation… Radiofrequency EMF classified by IARC as “possibly carcinogenic” (Group 2B), May 2011
    • Type of Cancer Studies Median RR Range of RR's childhood leukemia 20+ 1.20 0.80-1.90 childhood brain cancer 10+ 1.20 0.80-1.70 childhood lymphoma 8 1.80 0.80-4.00 all childhood cancer 7 1.30 0.90-1.60 adult leukemia 6 1.15 0.85-1.65 adult brain cancer 5 0.95 0.70-1.30 all adult cancer 8 1.10 0.80-1.35 Electromagnetic Fields from Power lines Relative risk (RR) of residential exposure to power lines John Moulder, Professor of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2006
    •  
    • Large 7 year British study: Children who lived in homes within 200 metres of high voltage power lines when they were born are almost twice as likely to get leukemia as those born more than 600 metres away. Aravaca, near Madrid, Spain
    • Cell phones and children - “not safe” Almost 60% out of 250 research papers on the health effects of cell phone frequencies report some form of biological effect - University of Washington analysis
    • &quot;Precaution is controversial; the cell phone industry doesn't want to hear about it. As long as there's uncertainty in the science, we wait and don't do anything, which is unfortunate.” - Joel Tickner, University of Massachusetts Lowell
    • Mobile phones “ more dangerous than smoking” Study by Dr. Vini Khurana, top neurosurgeon, winner of 14 awards. Reviewed 100 studies. “There is a significant and increasing body of evidence for a link between mobile phone usage and certain brain tumours.” Smokers worldwide: 1 billion Mobile phone users worldwide: 5 billion Independent, March 30th 2008
    • Nuclear power: A known cause of cancer Uranium miners have a 2-5 times higher risk of lung cancer. Chernobyl - up to 93,000 deaths; 90-fold increase in thyroid cancer in the contaminated area Breast cancer in communities within 50 miles of a reactor increased 14-40% while it was operating, compared to 1% in areas without a reactor.
    • Smoking….
    • A few of the 4,000 chemicals in secondhand smoke, several of which are cancer causing agents Benzene 
 2-Napthylamine 
 4-Aminobiphenyl 
 Nickel 
 Polonium 210 (radioactive) 
 Nitrogen oxides 
 N-Nitrosodimethylamine N-Nitrosodiethylamine 
 N-Nitrosopyrrolidine 
 1,3-Butadiene Analine 
 Formaldehyde 
 Hydrazine 
 N-Nitrodiethanolamine Cadmium 
 Benzo[a]pyrene 
 Benz[a]anthracene 
 Y-Butyrolactone 
 Particulate matter 
 N-Nitrosonornicotine 
 Carbon monoxide 
 Carbonyl sulfide 
 Toluene Acrolein 
 Acetone 
 Pyridine 
 3-Methylpyridine 
 3-Vinylpyridine Hydrogen cyanide 
 Ammonia 
 Methylamine 
 Dimethylamine Nicotine 
 Anatabine 
 Phenol 
 Catechol 
 Hydorquinone Cholesterol 
 Quinoline 
 Zinc 
 Benzoic acid 
 Lactic acid 
 Glycolic acid 
 Succinic acit 
 PCDDs and PCDFs (Dioxins, Dibenzofurans) 
 Formic acid 
 Acetic acid 
 Methyl chloride Table 3-1, 1992 EPA Report Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking www.gasp.org/chemicals.html
    • Smoking…. The Marlboro Man… He’s a man’s man..
    • Three men who appeared in Marlboro advertisements - Wayne McLaren, David McLean and Dick Hammer - all died of lung cancer.
    •  
    • Wayne McLaren, who posed on behalf of Marlboro in 1976, succumbed to lung cancer at age 51 in July 1992. He was a former professional rodeo rider who had a pack-and-a-half a day smoking habit. He was diagnosed with lung cancer at age 49. After learning he had cancer, McLaren embarked on an anti-smoking campaign.
    • Tobacco executive on why he doesn’t smoke: “ Are you kidding? We reserve that right for the poor, the young, the black and the stupid.”
    • Globally, smoking kills 5 million people every year.
    • There’s another kind of smoke that causes cancer, too…
    • Diesel exhaust… Deaths from lung cancer increase by 8% for every 10 mg of fine particulate matter per cubic meter New York: 16 mg Chicago: 18 mg Los Angeles: 20 mg Cairo: 159 mg
 Calcutta: 145 mg
 New Delhi: 177 mg
    • Overall, diesel exhaust from cars, buses, trucks, off-road equipment and cruise liners contributes to more than 125,000 cases of cancer a year, almost 9% of all cancer cases in the US.
    • Formaldehyde Recognized carcinogen. Carbon tetrachloride Recognized carcinogen . Ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds to ecosystems and human health. Aniline Recognized carcinogen. Methanol Suspected carcinogen. Benzene Recognized carcinogen. Acetaldehyde Recognized carcinogen Toluene-2, 6-diisocyanate Recognized carcinogen. Ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds to human health. Napthalene Recognized carcinogen. Ethylbenzene Recognized carcinogen. Styrene Suspected carcinogen. 1,3 Butadiene Recognized carcinogen. Toluene Recognized developmental toxicant. Toluen-2, 4-diisocyanate Recognized carcinogen. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene Recognized carcinogen. Phosphorous (yellow or white) Ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds to ecosystems and human health. Dinitrotoluene (mixed isonomers) Suspected carcinogen. Chromium and its compounds Suspected carcinogen. Cobalt and its compounds Recognized carcinogen. Manganese and its compounds Ranked as one of the most hazardous compounds to human health. Nickel and its compounds Recognized carcinogen “ Found in diesel engine exhaust” Assembled by Leo Petrilli, Windsor, Ontario Commission for Environmental Cooperation Report Children’s Health and the Environment in North America
    • By Priyanka Balasubramanyam, Age 10, Qatar
    • So what contributes to the causes of cancer? The Full Picture
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit. D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors: Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors: Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus Reduced immunity Toxic substances that weaken the immune system’s ability to fight cancer
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus Reduced immunity Toxic substances that weaken the immune system’s ability to fight cancer Endocrine disruptors Endocrine disrupting chemicals Increased exposure to natural estrogen Loss of darkness, reducing melatonin
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus Reduced immunity Toxic substances that weaken the immune systems ability to fight cancer Endocrine disruptors Endocrine disrupting chemicals Increased exposure to natural estrogen Loss of darkness, reducing melatonin Exposure to toxic substances By parents or grandparents Before conception In the womb During infancy In puberty
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus Reduced immunity Toxic substances that weaken the immune systems ability to fight cancer Endocrine disruptors Endocrine disrupting chemicals Increased exposure to natural estrogen Loss of darkness, reducing melatonin Exposure to toxic substances By parents or grandparents Before conception In the womb During infancy In puberty Other factors Family history of cancer Poverty Loss of Vitamin D from sunlight Genetic variability
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light (Vit.D) Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus Reduced immunity Toxic substances that weaken the immune systems ability to fight cancer Endocrine disruptors Endocrine disrupting chemicals Increased exposure to natural estrogen Loss of darkness, reducing melatonin Exposure to toxic substances By parents or grandparents Before conception In the womb During infancy In puberty Other factors Family history of cancer Poverty Loss of Vitamin D from sunlight Genetic variability
    • Personal and dietary factors Smoking Sun tanning Absence of UV light Obesity Lack of regular exercise Other food factors Processed foods BGH in milk Sugar and alcohol Smoked meats Non-organic food Pesticides Workplace exposure Solvents Heavy metals Diesel fuel Benzene Asbestos +++ Radiation Solar UV Ionizing radiation EMF radiation Radiation from nuclear Air pollution Second hand smoke Benzene Diesel Asbestos Indoor air pollutants Coal-fired power Water pollution Chlorine by-products Industrial chemicals Pesticide residues Fluoride Hormone disruptors Toxic products Cosmetics Fire retardants Solvents Non-stick agents Cleaning products Building products Plasticizers Some drugs Hormone replacement therapy Some surgical implants Natural carcinogens Radon gas Fungal aflotoxins in food Infectious agents Hepatitis B & C HIV Human Papilloma virus Reduced immunity Toxic substances that weaken the immune systems ability to fight cancer Endocrine disruptors Endocrine disrupting chemicals Increased exposure to natural estrogen Loss of darkness, reducing melatonin Exposure to toxic substances By parents or grandparents Before conception In the womb During infancy In puberty Other factors Family history of cancer Poverty Loss of Vitamin D from sunlight Genetic variability Is it any wonder that people get cancer?
    • Part 3: WHAT IS THE SOLUTION?
    • We need a new paradigm of understanding
    • THE OLD PARADIGM SAYS… The 20 th century increase in cancer is mostly caused by our lifestyles. THE NEW PARADIGM SAYS… The 20 th century increase in cancer is caused by many interacting factors.
    • THE OLD PARADIGM SAYS… Poor diet is a major cause of cancer. Pesticide residues pose negligible risks. Organic food is not important THE NEW PARADIGM SAYS… Poor diet is a risk-factor for cancer. Pesticide residues contribute to cancer. Organic food needs to be considered in all studies.
    • THE OLD PARADIGM SAYS… Chemicals are assumed safe until proven harmful. In the US, 60,000 pre-1976 chemicals remain in use without health and safety testing. THE NEW PARADIGM SAYS… Chemicals are assumed harmful until proven safe . All suspect chemicals and hazardous substances must be tested.
    • THE OLD PARADIGM SAYS… The process of risk assessment gives a valid measure of acceptable risk. THE NEW PARADIGM SAYS… Where there is indication of harm to human health and the environment, the precautionary principle should be applied to preclude that risk.
    • Paracelsus, 1493-1541 THE OLD PARADIGM SAYS… ‘ The dose makes the poison.’ (Paracelsus, 16th century). Very small doses pose negligible risks. THE NEW PARADIGM SAYS… Very small doses of some substances (eg bisphenol A) sometimes have a more harmful effect than larger doses.
    • THE OLD PARADIGM SAYS… We can control most cancers if we stop smoking, and devote enough money to research for the cure. THE NEW PARADIGM SAYS… We can prevent most cancers if we stop smoking, remove man-made carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and eat local organic food.
    • By Apiwat Sermklang, age 12, Thailand We need to steer our planet to a very different future
    • The Age of Fossil Fuels and the Age of Cancer are in many ways one and the same. Many of our cancers are caused, directly or indirectly by our use of fossil fuels. We use fossil fuels to make most chemicals, most pesticides, most fertilizers, and most automotive fuels.
    • We have to stop using fossil fuels because of global climate change. These problems are all very closely linked together.
    • Sweden plans to end its dependency on oil by 2030 More use of biofuels Biomass district heating Hybrid and ethanol cars Renewable electricity Sweden: 9 million people Guy Dauncey 2007 www.earthfuture.com
    • Sweden has plans to phase out all hazardous substances by 2020 “ What about Canada doing that, too?”
    • We need a national Toxics Use Reduction Act as Massachusetts has had since 1990
    • Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
      • All large chemical users pay a fee on their chemical use.
      • They are required to develop a Toxics Use Reduction Plan, and to cost it out.
      • The fees support the Toxics Use Reduction Institute, which helps them find safe alternatives.
      • When they cost out their plans, most companies find that it is cheaper to reduce.
    • By 2000, Massachusetts’ largest industries had reduced: Toxic chemical use by 40% Releases of carcinogens by 76% Toxic releases to the environment by 90% More than 2/3 of the firms collectively saved $14 million, while increasing production by a third.
    • We need Green Chemistry, based on a deeper understanding of how the natural world works
    • Regular chemistry uses carbon and many elements from the periodic table, and applies relatively simple reagent designs. This often results in substances and elements unknown to nature, many of which are toxic to nature. Nature takes only a handful of common elements, but uses a huge range of elaborate biochemical processes to achieve its ends. It is far more complex, but results in zero pollution. Green chemistry is learning from Nature, to create the products we need with fewer elements, more intelligence, and no toxic waste.
    • By Sneha Balan, age 9, Qatar Our children instinctively understand green chemistry
    • We need all businesses to adopt these goals: Zero waste Eco-Designs Zero emissions Zero discharge Toxics use reduction Cradle-to-cradle design Safe Workers Safe Neighbourhoods And to move towards Full Sustainability
    • Save the Sea, by Nattanicha Kongsathitporn, age 14, Thailand We need to roll up our old, polluting habits, and have done with them.
    • We need a new approach to regulations that follows the Precautionary Principle, not the needs of the chemical industry.
    • We need to phase out the most harmful substances altogether
    • And that includes asbestos. We need both the Canadian and the US government to ban the production and export of asbestos.
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    • We need to encourage everyone to avoid toxic products, adopt healthy habits, and eat locally grown organic food.
    • We need much more local organic farming
    • We can grow 45+ varieties of winter vegetable in our coastal climate Arugula Beet Greens Beets Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Cabbages Carrots Cauliflowers Celeriac Chard Chinese Coriander Cilantro Collards Corn Salad Jerusalem Artichokes Kale Kohlrabi Leeks Onions Parsley Parsnip Perpetual Spinach Red Russian Kale Rutabaga Scallions Spinach Swiss Chard Turnips Winter-Hardy Lettuces
    • The Zero-Mile Diet A Year-Round to Growing Organic Gardening Food By Carolyn Herriot
    • 11 foods, in particular, are active cancer-fighters
    • 1: The Cabbage Family Brussels sprouts - collard greens - kale - broccoli - cauliflower glucosinolates & isothiocynates
    • 2: Garlic & Onions leeks, shallots & chives Protective action against cell-growth Fresh crushed garlic is far better than garlic supplements
    • 3: Soy Soybeans - miso - dry roasted beans - soy sauce - tofu - soy milk isoflavones
    • 4: Turmeric Curcuminoids, very potent antioxidants
    • 5: Japanese Green Tea Polyphenols - flavanols
    • 6: Berries Strawberries - raspberries - cranberries - blueberries - blackberries Ellagic acid
    • 7: Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fresh walnuts - flax seed - sardines - herring - mackerel - wild salmon
    • 8: Tomatoes lycopene
    • 9: Citrus Fruit oranges lemons grapefruit limes Phytochemical compounds
    • 10: Grapes, Red Wine resveratrol
    • 11: Dark Chocolate polyphenols
    • www.stayingalivecookbook.com
    • Available from the Labour Environmental Alliance Society www.leas.ca $10
    • Produced by the Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia www.environmentalhealth.ca www.lesstoxicguide.ca
    • We need to ensure absolutely that our children are protected from harm “ Keep your chemicals out of my womb”
    • Breastfeeding reduces the risk of cancer in children and ovarian, breast and other cancers in mothers.
    • We need to encourage all our schools to become Green, Healthy Schools
    • Schools can grow gardens too… The Edible Schoolyard, in San Francisco
    • By Lakshimi Shree A.J.S., age 8, India We need to honour the hopes of our children
    • We need to become activists. We need to form community action groups that can educate, campaign, advocate, and make a difference. Sharon Batt Author, advocate, journalist, professor and a founding member of Breast Cancer Action Montreal
    • We need to teach our communities how they can monitor for harmful chemicals, to protect their own health. The Louisiana Bucket Brigade www.labucketbrigade.org
    • We need to encourage our health care professionals to promote healthy parenting, champion cancer prevention, and support the precautionary principle.
    • We need to encourage our cities to adopt green city policies and cancer prevention action plans, as Toronto has. Green City by Yoshita Parapitak, age 11, Thailand
    • We need to work together to end this epidemic of cancer
    • Both for our own future, and for those who have already lost their lives to cancer, too soon…
    • We need to treat our Earth with every bit as much love as we treat our own children.
    • Prevent Cancer Now “ To eliminate the preventable causes of cancer.” www.preventcancernow.ca
    • CANCER: 101 Solutions to a Preventable Epidemic By Liz Armstrong, Guy Dauncey and Anne Wordsworth New Society Publishers, 2007 $20.00
    • Thankyou Guy Dauncey www.earthfuture.com [email_address]