GAURAV R. BHALKAR
1st year M. Pharm(Pharmaceutics)
Industrial hazards may be defined as
any conditions produced by industries
that may cause injury or death to
personnel or loss of product or property.
Industrial hazards are of various types
• Fire and explosion hazards
• Electrical hazards
• Chemical hazards
• Gas hazards
• Mechanical hazards
• Dust hazards
Electrical systems that are overloaded, resulting
in hot wiring or connections
Combustibles near equipment that generates
heat, flame, or sparks.
Flammable liquids and aerosols
Electrical wiring in poor condition
Smoking in the factory premises by workers.
Not exceeding the
maximum occupancy within any part of the
Maintaining proper fire exits and proper exit
signage (e.g., exit signs pointing to them that
can function in a power failure).
Prohibiting flammable materials in certain
areas of the facility.
Smoking is prohibited in industrial premises.
Don’t wear nylon cloths at work place .
Each and every section of the industry
should have fire extinguisher .
Make sure that all employees are familiar
with fire extinguisher.
HOW FIRE OCCURS ?
Fire naturally occurs when the elements
are present and combined in the right
• The elements are heat, fuel, and
an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen).
• These elements comes together and
form a model called FIRE TRIANGLE. And
hence fire is formed.
Class A fires involve organic solids such as paper and wood.
Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids,
including petrol, grease, and oil.
Class C fires involve flammable gases.
Class D fires involve combustible metals.
Class E Fires involving ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Class F fires involve cooking fat and oil.
1. Fire extinguisher
Types of fire extinguisher
Water fire extinguisher
Foam fire extinguisher
The improper use of machinery or
The improper use of electrical outlets
The improper use of electrical equipment,
such as cables and power cords
The improper maintenance of apparatus,
outlets, and electrical equipment
An overloaded circuit
The improper joints of two wires.
Use extension cords only for
Do not use any equipment or cords
that have splices.
Do not use three-to-two prong
Don't overload outlets.
Because of the chemicals, check the
connection and power cords are not
Indication of DANGER SIGN at every
high voltage terminal.
Proper maintenance of wiring and
Never use the power cord to move or
Effect of the shock
Slight shock felt; not painful but
Painful shock; "let-go" range
Extreme pain, respiratory arrest,
severe muscular contraction
Cardiac arrest, severe burns and
Electric gadgets should be repaired only by a
• Disconnect electrical gadgets when not in use.
• Never touch electrical equipment with wet
• Electric wires or cords, if faulty, should never be
used until repaired.
• Avoid contact with energized electrical circuits.
Place rubber mats in front of electrical switch
• Make sure that all employees are familiar with
the location and use of fire fighting apparatus
• Use sand or blanket to control fire caused due
to electrical accidents
Irritants are materials that can cause
inflammation of the body surface with which they
come in contact. Common irritants substances
such as: NITROGEN DIOXIDE, OZONE ETC.
Chemical asphyxiants render the body
incapable of maintaining an adequate oxygen
supply. Examples include: CARBON MONOOXIDE
Depressant effect upon the central nervous
system, particularly the brain. Examples
include: CHLOROFORMS, ALCOHOLS ETC.
Hepatotoxic agents can cause damage to the
liver. Examples include: CARBON TETRACHLORIDE,
METYLENE CHLORIDE ETC.
Nephrotoxic agents can damage the
kidneys. Examples include: URANIUM COMPOUND.
Train employees to follow safe handling and
application procedures for maintenance or pesticides
Do not use excessive grease or lubricants on
Regularly re-evaluate all procedures to ensure they
effectively remove chemicals.
Store chemicals in designated areas away from
food, ingredients and packaging.
Ensure chemical container are clearly labeled
or colour coded, and that they are used only for
Receive raw ingredients from reputable
suppliers that effectively control chemical hazards.
Ensure restricted ingredients and additives are
e.g Hexachlorophene. Because of its toxic
effect it penetrate human skin. So it used only
when an alternative preservative has not been
shown to be as effective.
Respirator must be used in all the gas storage
places.(specifically chemical gas)
Body should be fully covered whenever people
are interacting with hazardous chemicals.
When skin burn happens due to chemicals use
alkaline solution always instead of water.
THREE MAJOR TYPES OF GAS
Risk of fire and / or explosion e.g. Methane,
Risk of Poisoning e.g. Carbon Monoxide,
Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide,
Risk of suffocation e.g. Oxygen deficiency.
Oxygen can be consumed or displaced
by another gas.
Gas Safety at Work
The Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998
require the following:
All gas appliances, pipe work and safety devices
must be maintained in a safe condition and be
inspected by a competent person.
When a gas appliance is installed, it must be
located in a position that is easily accessible for use,
inspection and maintenance.
Employers, the self-employed, or anyone
responsible for business premises, must not allow a
gas appliance to be used it may be dangerous.
BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
• It occurred on the night of 2–3
December 1984 at the Union Carbide
India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant
in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
• The official immediate death toll was
2,259. The government of Madhya
Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths
related to the gas release.
THE RELEASE OF GAS
• In November 1984, most of the safety systems were not
functioning and many valves and lines were in poor
• Several vent gas scrubbers had been out of service.
• The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from
corroding non-stainless steel pipelines. The
resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature
inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F) and raised the
pressure. This forced the emergency venting of pressure
from the MIC holding tank, releasing a large volume of toxic
gases. About 30 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC)
escaped from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60
EXAMPLE OF WORK EQUIPMENT
Hammers, Knives, Screwdrivers etc.
powered screw drivers, drill machine etc.
Photocopiers, food production line etc.
CAUSES AND PREVENTIONS
Machinery with rotating parts can catch loose
clothing, hands or hair, potentially
causing serious injuries.
Ensure rotating shafts, belts and pulleys are
covered by guards, lids or covers.
Careless use of tools or use of tools in poor
condition can cause injuries to the hands, eyes,
head and limbs.
regularly check tools for defects or damage
Large, powerful magnets or electromagnets can attract
other magnets or iron/nickel objects which can cause
painful pinching of fingers or hands if caught between the
inform peoples of this hazard before such magnets are
Any kind of glassware has the potential to break, thus
creating the risk for cuts.
• wear goggles for eye protection.
• use heat-resistant glassware.
• clean up any broken glass immediately and dispose of in
a special waste bin.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
‘Obstructive’ lung conditions which reduces
airflow out of the lungs.
Asthma :Another obstructive lung disease, which can
be caused by exposure to irritants at work
place and causes shortness of breath.
Cancers :Tumours, particularly of the lung and nose, are
related to substances commonly encountered
at work including asbestos, silica, nickel,
cadmium and wood dust.
Heart disease :Dust-affected lungs put extra strain on the
heart, which can lead to right-sided heart
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) :An allergic condition, which affects workers
exposed to biological dusts, causing
conditions including farmers’ lung.
Safe machinery and equipment :• Dusty work processes should be isolated if
• An exhaust ventilation system is often
needed to suck dust away.
Safe procedures :• Standardised working procedures are
needed in areas where dust can be a problem.
• Information and training is important.
• Warning signs may be needed.
If steps 1 and 2 are not completely effective
then an approved respirator is needed. Make
(A) It fits properly and is the right kind of
(B) Training in how to use it is provided and
(C) Maintenance checks are carried out.
CAUSES :1. Emissions from industries and manufacturing
2. Burning Fossil Fuels.
3. Household and Farming Chemicals.
COMMON AIR POLLUTANT : Carbon monoxide
Effect on health : Acidification
Cancer (like lung cancer)
Effect on children(risk of asthma, pneumonia etc)
How to avoid air pollution ?
• Waste minimisation
Sewage and waste water
Ocean and marine dumping
Effect on health
Diseases like Cholera
Typhoid (spread during the rainy season )
Aquatic life gets destroyed
Control of water pollution
Pollution control devices
•Sedimentation (Primary treatment)
•Activated sludge biotreaters (Secondary treatment; also used
for industrial wastewater)
•Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff)
Industrial wastewater treatment
•API oil-water separators
•Dissolved air flotation (DAF)
•Powdered activated carbon treatment
Throw waste material only in dust bin.
Use water wisely. Do not keep the tap running
when not in use.
Do not throw chemicals, oils, paints and medicines
down the sink.
don’t overuse pesticides and fertilizers in farm.
Rivers should not be used for washing clothes or
bathing animals in.
• Application of pesticides and fertilizers
• Oil and fuel dumping
• Disposal of coal ash
• Leaching from landfills
• Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil
• Discharging urine and faeces in the open
Effects by soil pollution
Causes problems in the human respiratory system.
Causes problems on the skin.
Causes various kinds of cancers.
Very bad smell and odour in the town.
Landfills breed rodents like rats, mice and insects,
who in-turn transmit diseases.
Prevention on soil pollution
• More and more land should be brought under farming.
• Trees should be planted everywhere.
• Waste matter should be disposed immediately.
• Avoid using more fertilizers and Pesticides.
• Don’t dump oil and fuel on the ground.
Pharmaceutical And Production