Presentation of industrial hazards


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation of industrial hazards

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS and plant safety PRESENTED BY GAURAV R. BHALKAR 1st year M. Pharm(Pharmaceutics)
  2. 2. INDUSTRIAL HAZARD  Industrial hazards may be defined as any conditions produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or loss of product or property.  Industrial hazards are of various types
  3. 3. • Fire and explosion hazards • Electrical hazards • Chemical hazards • Gas hazards • Mechanical hazards • Dust hazards
  5. 5. CAUSES  Electrical systems that are overloaded, resulting in hot wiring or connections  Combustibles near equipment that generates heat, flame, or sparks.  Flammable liquids and aerosols  Electrical wiring in poor condition  Batteries  Smoking in the factory premises by workers.
  6. 6. PREVENTIVE MEASURES  Not exceeding the maximum occupancy within any part of the building.  Maintaining proper fire exits and proper exit signage (e.g., exit signs pointing to them that can function in a power failure).  Prohibiting flammable materials in certain areas of the facility.  Smoking is prohibited in industrial premises.
  7. 7.  Don’t wear nylon cloths at work place .  Each and every section of the industry should have fire extinguisher .  Make sure that all employees are familiar with fire extinguisher.
  8. 8. HOW FIRE OCCURS ? Fire naturally occurs when the elements are present and combined in the right mixture. • • The elements are heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). • These elements comes together and form a model called FIRE TRIANGLE. And hence fire is formed.
  9. 9. FIRE CLASSES  Class A fires involve organic solids such as paper and wood.  Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids, including petrol, grease, and oil.  Class C fires involve flammable gases.  Class D fires involve combustible metals.  Class E Fires involving ELECTRICAL APPARATUS  Class F fires involve cooking fat and oil.
  10. 10. SAFETY MEASURES 1. Fire extinguisher Types of fire extinguisher  Water fire extinguisher  Foam fire extinguisher
  11. 11.  Dry chemical powder  co2 fire extinguisher
  12. 12.  wet chemical fire extinguisher  metal fire extinguisher
  13. 13. Use of fire extinguisher Types of fire extinguisher CLASS A CLASS B WATER √ √ √ co2 √ √ WET CHEMICAL √ CLASS E CLASS F √ DCP CLASS D √ FOAM CLASS C METAL √ √ √ √ √
  14. 14. 2. Fire tenders Types of fire tenders  Water fire tender
  15. 15.  Carbon dioxide fire tender  Dry chemical fire tender
  17. 17. CAUSES  The improper use of machinery or apparatus  The improper use of electrical outlets  The improper use of electrical equipment, such as cables and power cords  The improper maintenance of apparatus, outlets, and electrical equipment  An overloaded circuit  The improper joints of two wires.
  18. 18. PREVENTIONS  Use extension cords only for temporary purposes.  Do not use any equipment or cords that have splices.  Do not use three-to-two prong adapters.  Don't overload outlets.
  19. 19.  Because of the chemicals, check the connection and power cords are not degrading.  Indication of DANGER SIGN at every high voltage terminal.  Proper maintenance of wiring and equipment.  Never use the power cord to move or carry apparatus.
  20. 20. Effect of the shock Current Reaction 1 Milliampere Perception level 5 Milliamperes Slight shock felt; not painful but disturbing 6-30 Milliamperes Painful shock; "let-go" range 50-150 Milliamperes Extreme pain, respiratory arrest, severe muscular contraction 1000-4,300 Milliamperes Ventricular fibrillation 10,000+ Milliamperes Cardiac arrest, severe burns and probable death
  21. 21. Safety measure Electric gadgets should be repaired only by a qualified person. • • Disconnect electrical gadgets when not in use. • Never touch electrical equipment with wet hands. • Electric wires or cords, if faulty, should never be used until repaired. • Avoid contact with energized electrical circuits.
  22. 22. Place rubber mats in front of electrical switch boards. • • Make sure that all employees are familiar with the location and use of fire fighting apparatus • Use sand or blanket to control fire caused due to electrical accidents
  24. 24. CAUSES  Irritants are materials that can cause inflammation of the body surface with which they come in contact. Common irritants substances such as: NITROGEN DIOXIDE, OZONE ETC.  Chemical asphyxiants render the body incapable of maintaining an adequate oxygen supply. Examples include: CARBON MONOOXIDE ETC.
  25. 25.  Depressant effect upon the central nervous system, particularly the brain. Examples include: CHLOROFORMS, ALCOHOLS ETC. Hepatotoxic agents can cause damage to the liver. Examples include: CARBON TETRACHLORIDE, METYLENE CHLORIDE ETC.  Nephrotoxic agents can damage the kidneys. Examples include: URANIUM COMPOUND.
  26. 26. PREVENTIONS  Train employees to follow safe handling and application procedures for maintenance or pesticides chemicals.  Do not use excessive grease or lubricants on equipment.  Regularly re-evaluate all procedures to ensure they effectively remove chemicals.  Store chemicals in designated areas away from food, ingredients and packaging.
  27. 27.  Ensure chemical container are clearly labeled or colour coded, and that they are used only for chemicals.  Receive raw ingredients from reputable suppliers that effectively control chemical hazards.  Ensure restricted ingredients and additives are correctly measured. e.g Hexachlorophene. Because of its toxic effect it penetrate human skin. So it used only when an alternative preservative has not been shown to be as effective.
  28. 28. Safety measures  Respirator must be used in all the gas storage places.(specifically chemical gas)  Body should be fully covered whenever people are interacting with hazardous chemicals.  When skin burn happens due to chemicals use alkaline solution always instead of water.
  29. 29. GAS HAZARDS
  30. 30. THREE MAJOR TYPES OF GAS HAZARDS 1. Flammable Risk of fire and / or explosion e.g. Methane, Butane, Propane
  31. 31. 2. Toxic Risk of Poisoning e.g. Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Chlorine
  32. 32. 3. Asphyxiant Risk of suffocation e.g. Oxygen deficiency. Oxygen can be consumed or displaced by another gas.
  33. 33. Gas Safety at Work The Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 require the following:  All gas appliances, pipe work and safety devices must be maintained in a safe condition and be inspected by a competent person.  When a gas appliance is installed, it must be located in a position that is easily accessible for use, inspection and maintenance.  Employers, the self-employed, or anyone responsible for business premises, must not allow a gas appliance to be used it may be dangerous.
  34. 34. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY • It occurred on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. • The official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.
  35. 35. THE RELEASE OF GAS • In November 1984, most of the safety systems were not functioning and many valves and lines were in poor condition. • Several vent gas scrubbers had been out of service. • The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel pipelines. The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F) and raised the pressure. This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank, releasing a large volume of toxic gases. About 30 metric tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) escaped from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60 minutes.
  37. 37. EXAMPLE OF WORK EQUIPMENT Work Equipment Examples Hand tools Hammers, Knives, Screwdrivers etc. Power tools powered screw drivers, drill machine etc. Machinery Photocopiers, food production line etc. Apparatus Bunsen burners Other Ladders etc.
  38. 38. CAUSES AND PREVENTIONS  Rotating Machinery causes Machinery with rotating parts can catch loose clothing, hands or hair, potentially causing serious injuries. Prevention Ensure rotating shafts, belts and pulleys are covered by guards, lids or covers.  Tools Causes Careless use of tools or use of tools in poor condition can cause injuries to the hands, eyes, head and limbs. Prevention regularly check tools for defects or damage
  39. 39.  Magnets Causes Large, powerful magnets or electromagnets can attract other magnets or iron/nickel objects which can cause painful pinching of fingers or hands if caught between the two. Prevention inform peoples of this hazard before such magnets are used.  Glassware Causes Any kind of glassware has the potential to break, thus creating the risk for cuts. Preventions • wear goggles for eye protection. • use heat-resistant glassware. • clean up any broken glass immediately and dispose of in a special waste bin.
  40. 40. DUST HAZARDS
  41. 41. How does dust hurt you?
  42. 42. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) : ‘Obstructive’ lung conditions which reduces airflow out of the lungs.  Asthma :Another obstructive lung disease, which can be caused by exposure to irritants at work place and causes shortness of breath.  Cancers :Tumours, particularly of the lung and nose, are related to substances commonly encountered at work including asbestos, silica, nickel, cadmium and wood dust.
  43. 43.  Heart disease :Dust-affected lungs put extra strain on the heart, which can lead to right-sided heart failure.  Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) :An allergic condition, which affects workers exposed to biological dusts, causing conditions including farmers’ lung.
  44. 44. PREVENTIONS  Safe machinery and equipment :• Dusty work processes should be isolated if possible. • An exhaust ventilation system is often needed to suck dust away.  Safe procedures :• Standardised working procedures are needed in areas where dust can be a problem. • Information and training is important. • Warning signs may be needed.
  45. 45.  Respirators If steps 1 and 2 are not completely effective then an approved respirator is needed. Make sure that (A) It fits properly and is the right kind of respirator (B) Training in how to use it is provided and (C) Maintenance checks are carried out.
  47. 47. AIR POLLUTION CAUSES :1. Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities. 2. Burning Fossil Fuels. 3. Household and Farming Chemicals. COMMON AIR POLLUTANT : Carbon monoxide  Lead Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide
  48. 48. Effect on health : Acidification Asthma Cancer (like lung cancer)  COPD Effect on children(risk of asthma, pneumonia etc)
  49. 49. How to avoid air pollution ? Practice • Recycling • Reusing • Waste minimisation • Mitigating • Preventing • Compost
  50. 50. Pollution control devices 1. Dust collection systems • Baghouses • Cyclones • Electrostatic precipitators 2. Scrubbers • Baffle spray scrubber • Cyclonic spray scrubber • Ejector venturi scrubber • Mechanically aided scrubber • Spray tower • Wet scrubber
  51. 51. WATER POLLUTION CAUSES  Industrial waste  Sewage and waste water  Ocean and marine dumping  Oil Pollution
  52. 52. Effect on health  Diseases like Cholera  Malaria  Typhoid (spread during the rainy season )  Aquatic life gets destroyed
  53. 53. Control of water pollution Pollution control devices Sewage treatment •Sedimentation (Primary treatment) •Activated sludge biotreaters (Secondary treatment; also used for industrial wastewater) •Aerated lagoons •Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff) Industrial wastewater treatment •API oil-water separators •Biofilter •Dissolved air flotation (DAF) •Powdered activated carbon treatment •Ultrafiltration
  54. 54.  Throw waste material only in dust bin.  Use water wisely. Do not keep the tap running when not in use.  Do not throw chemicals, oils, paints and medicines down the sink.  don’t overuse pesticides and fertilizers in farm.  Rivers should not be used for washing clothes or bathing animals in.
  55. 55. SOIL POLLUTION CAUSES • Application of pesticides and fertilizers • Mining • Oil and fuel dumping • Disposal of coal ash • Leaching from landfills • Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil • Discharging urine and faeces in the open
  56. 56. Effects by soil pollution • Causes problems in the human respiratory system. • Causes problems on the skin. • Causes various kinds of cancers. • Very bad smell and odour in the town. • Landfills breed rodents like rats, mice and insects, who in-turn transmit diseases.
  57. 57. Prevention on soil pollution • More and more land should be brought under farming. • Trees should be planted everywhere. • Waste matter should be disposed immediately. • Avoid using more fertilizers and Pesticides. • Don’t dump oil and fuel on the ground.
  58. 58. REFERENCES  Pharmaceutical And Production Management C.V.S Subrahmanyam 