A&pch23 (1)

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A&pch23 (1)

  1. 1. Chapter 23: The Respiratory System Biol 141 A & P
  2. 2. The Respiratory System <ul><li>Cells produce energy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for maintenance, growth, defense, and division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>through mechanisms that use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Oxygen <ul><li>Is obtained from the air by diffusion across delicate exchange surfaces of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Is carried to cells by the cardiovascular system which also returns carbon dioxide to the lungs </li></ul>3D Movie of Respiratory System PLAY
  4. 4. 5 Functions of the Respiratory System <ul><li>Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood </li></ul><ul><li>Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment </li></ul><ul><li>Produces sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in olfactory sense </li></ul>
  5. 5. Components of the Respiratory System Figure 23–1 3D Peel-Away of Respiratory System PLAY
  6. 6. Organization of the Respiratory System <ul><li>The respiratory system is divided into the upper respiratory system , above the larynx, and the lower respiratory system , from the larynx down </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Respiratory Tract <ul><li>Consists of a conducting portion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consists of a respiratory portion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are air-filled pockets within the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where all gas exchange takes place </li></ul></ul>The Respiratory Tract PLAY
  8. 8. The Respiratory Epithelium Figure 23–2
  9. 9. The Respiratory Epithelium <ul><li>For gases to exchange efficiently: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alveoli walls must be very thin (< 1 µ m) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surface area must be very great (about 35 times the surface area of the body) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Respiratory Mucosa <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an epithelial layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an areolar layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lines conducting portion of respiratory system </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Lamina Propria <ul><li>Underlies areolar tissue </li></ul><ul><li>In the upper respiratory system, trachea, and bronchi: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains mucous glands that secrete onto epithelial surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the conducting portion of lower respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains smooth muscle cells that encircle lumen of bronchioles </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Structure of Respiratory Epithelium <ul><li>Changes along respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Is a very delicate, simple squamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Contains scattered and specialized cells </li></ul><ul><li>Lines exchange surfaces of alveoli </li></ul>
  13. 13. How are delicate respiratory exchange surfaces protected from pathogens, debris, and other hazards?
  14. 14. The Respiratory Defense System <ul><li>Consists of a series of filtration mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Removes particles and pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>* Components of the Respiratory Defense System </li></ul><ul><li>Goblet cells and mucous glands : produce mucus that bathes exposed surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia : sweep debris trapped in mucus toward the pharynx ( mucus escalator ) </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration in nasal cavity removes large particles </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar macrophages engulf small particles that reach lungs </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Upper Respiratory System Figure 23–3
  16. 16. The Nose <ul><li>Air enters the respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through nostrils or external nares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>into nasal vestibule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nasal hairs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are in nasal vestibule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the first particle filtration system </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Nasal Cavity <ul><li>The nasal septum : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divides nasal cavity into left and right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mucous secretions from paranasal sinus and tears: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clean and moisten the nasal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superior portion of nasal cavity is the olfactory region : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides sense of smell </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Air Flow <ul><li>From vestibule to internal nares : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through superior , middle, and inferior meatuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meatuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constricted passageways that produce air turbulence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>warm and humidify incoming air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trap particles </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Palates <ul><li>Hard palate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms floor of nasal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separates nasal and oral cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft palate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extends posterior to hard palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divides superior nasopharynx from lower pharynx </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Air Flow <ul><li>Nasal cavity opens into nasopharynx through internal nares </li></ul><ul><li>The Nasal Mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Warm and humidify inhaled air for arrival at lower respiratory organs </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing through mouth bypasses this important step </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Pharynx and Divisions <ul><li>A chamber shared by digestive and respiratory systems </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from internal nares to entrances to larynx and esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Nasopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Oropharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Laryngopharynx </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Nasopharynx <ul><li>Superior portion of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Contains pharyngeal tonsils and openings to left and right auditory tubes </li></ul><ul><li>The Oropharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Middle portion of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates with oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>The Laryngopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior portion of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from hyoid bone to entrance to larynx and esophagus </li></ul>
  23. 23. What is the structure of the larynx and its role in normal breathing and production of sound?
  24. 24. Anatomy of the Larynx Figure 23–4 <ul><li>Air Flow- </li></ul><ul><li>From the pharynx enters the larynx : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a cartilaginous structure that surrounds the glottis </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cartilages of the Larynx <ul><li>3 large, unpaired cartilages form the larynx : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the thyroid cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cricoid cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the epiglottis </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Thyroid Cartilage <ul><li>Also called the Adam’s apple </li></ul><ul><li>Is a hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Forms anterior and lateral walls of larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments attach to hyoid bone, epiglottis, and laryngeal cartilages </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Cricoid Cartilage <ul><li>Is a hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Form posterior portion of larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments attach to first tracheal cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Articulates with arytenoid cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>The Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of elastic cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments attach to thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cartilage Functions <ul><li>Thyroid and cricoid cartilages support and protect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the glottis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the entrance to trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During swallowing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the larynx is elevated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the epiglottis folds back over glottis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevents entry of food and liquids into respiratory tract </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Glottis Figure 23–5 <ul><li>3 pairs of Small Hyaline Cartilages of the Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cuneiform cartilages </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Cartilage Functions <ul><li>Corniculate and arytenoid cartilages function in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opening and closing of glottis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of sound </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Ligaments of the Larynx <ul><li>Vestibular ligaments and vocal ligaments : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extend between thyroid cartilage and arytenoid cartilages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are covered by folds of laryngeal epithelium that project into glottis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) The Vestibular Ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lie within vestibular folds : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which protect delicate vocal folds </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Sound Production <ul><li>Air passing through glottis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vibrates vocal folds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces sound waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Sound Variation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound is varied by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tension on vocal folds: slender and short =high pitched, thicker and longer = low pitched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voluntary muscles (position arytenoid cartilage relative to thyroid cartilage) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Speech <ul><li>Is produced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phonation : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sound production at the larynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>articulation : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>modification of sound by other structures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Laryngeal Musculature <ul><li>The larynx is associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles of neck and pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsic muscles that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control vocal folds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open and close glottis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing reflex: food or liquids went “down the wrong pipe” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Anatomy of the Trachea Figure 23–6 What is the structure of airways outside the lungs?
  36. 36. The Trachea <ul><li>Also called the windpipe </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from the cricoid cartilage into mediastinum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where it branches into right and left pulmonary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Submucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneath mucosa of trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains mucous glands </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Tracheal Cartilages <ul><li>15–20 tracheal cartilages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen and protect airway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discontinuous where trachea contacts esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ends of each tracheal cartilage are connected by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an elastic ligament and trachealis muscle </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The Primary Bronchi <ul><li>Right and left primary bronchi : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>separated by an internal ridge (the carina ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) The Right Primary Bronchus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is larger in diameter than the left </li></ul><ul><li>Descends at a steeper angle </li></ul>
  39. 39. Structure of Primary Bronchi <ul><li>Each primary bronchus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>travels to a groove ( hilus ) along medial surface of the lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilus- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where pulmonary nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics enter lung </li></ul><ul><li>Anchored in meshwork of connective tissue </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Root of the Lung <ul><li>Complex of connective tissues, nerves, and vessels in hilus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchored to the mediastinum </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Gross Anatomy of the Lungs Figure 23–7 <ul><li>Left and right lungs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are in left and right pleural cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The base : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inferior portion of each lung rests on superior surface of diaphragm </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Lobes of the Lungs <ul><li>Lungs have lobes separated by deep fissures </li></ul><ul><li>1) The Right Lung- Has 3 lobes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>superior, middle, and inferior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separated by horizontal and oblique fissures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) The Left Lung- Has 2 lobes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superior and inferior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are separated by an oblique fissure </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Relationship between Lungs and Heart Figure 23–8
  44. 44. Lung Shape <ul><li>Right lung: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is wider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is displaced upward by liver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left lung: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is displaced leftward by the heart forming the cardiac notch </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. The Bronchial Tree <ul><li>Is formed by the primary bronchi and their branches </li></ul><ul><li>Extrapulmonary Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>The left and right bronchi branches outside the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapulmonary Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Branches within the lungs </li></ul>
  46. 46. Bronchi and Lobules Figure 23–9 A Primary Bronchus Branches to form secondary bronchi (lobar bronchi) 1 secondary bronchus goes to each lobe
  47. 47. Secondary Bronchi <ul><li>Branch to form tertiary bronchi , also called the segmental bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Each segmental bronchus : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supplies air to a single bronchopulmonary segment- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right lung has 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The left lung has 8 or 9 </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Bronchial Structure <ul><li>The walls of primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contain progressively less cartilage and more smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing muscular effects on airway constriction and resistance </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. The Bronchioles Figure 23–10 Bronchitis: Inflammation of bronchial walls: causes constriction and breathing difficulty
  50. 50. The Bronchioles <ul><li>Each tertiary bronchus branches into multiple bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 tertiary bronchus forms about 6500 terminal bronchioles </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Bronchiole Structure <ul><li>Bronchioles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have no cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are dominated by smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulates smooth muscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controls diameter of bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controls airflow and resistance in lungs </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Bronchodilation <ul><li>Dilation of bronchial airways </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by sympathetic ANS activation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchoconstriction </li></ul><ul><li>Constricts bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parasympathetic ANS activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>histamine release (allergic reactions) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Asthma <ul><li>Excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation severely restricts airflow </li></ul>
  54. 54. Pulmonary Lobules <ul><li>Are the smallest compartments of the lung </li></ul><ul><li>Are divided by the smallest trabecular partitions ( interlobular septa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Each terminal bronchiole delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule </li></ul><ul><li>Each pulmonary lobule is supplied by pulmonary arteries and veins </li></ul>
  55. 55. Exchange Surfaces <ul><li>Within the lobule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each terminal bronchiole branches to form several respiratory bronchioles , where gas exchange takes place </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Alveolar Organization Figure 23–11 <ul><li>Respiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli along alveolar ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar ducts end at alveolar sacs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common chambers connected to many individual alveoli </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. An Alveolus <ul><li>Has an extensive network of capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Is surrounded by elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of simple squamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of thin, delicate Type I cells </li></ul><ul><li>Patrolled by alveolar macrophages , also called dust cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contains septal cells ( Type II cells ) that produce Surfactant- an oily secretion which </li></ul><ul><li>1) Contains phospholipids and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>2) Coats alveolar surfaces and reduces surface tension </li></ul>
  58. 58. Respiratory Distress <ul><li>Difficult respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>due to alveolar collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>caused when septal cells do not produce enough surfactant </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Respiratory Membrane - The thin membrane of alveoli where gas exchange takes place <ul><li>3 Parts of the Respiratory Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous epithelial lining of alveolus </li></ul><ul><li>Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary </li></ul><ul><li>Fused basal laminae between alveolar and endothelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion- Across respiratory membrane is very rapid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because distance is small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gases (O 2 and CO 2 ) are lipid soluble </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Inflammation of Lobules <ul><li>Also called pneumonia : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>causes fluid to leak into alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compromises function of respiratory membrane </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Blood Supply to Respiratory Surfaces <ul><li>Each lobule receives an arteriole and a venule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory exchange surfaces receive blood: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from arteries of pulmonary circuit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a capillary network surrounds each alveolus: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as part of the respiratory membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood from alveolar capillaries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>passes through pulmonary venules and veins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>returns to left atrium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Blood Supply to the Lungs <ul><li>Capillaries supplied by bronchial arteries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide oxygen and nutrients to tissues of conducting passageways of lung </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Venous blood bypasses the systemic circuit and flows into pulmonary veins </li></ul>
  63. 63. Blood Pressure <ul><li>In pulmonary circuit is low (30 mm Hg) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary vessels are easily blocked by blood clots, fat, or air bubbles, causing pulmonary embolism </li></ul>
  64. 64. Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes Figure 23–8
  65. 65. Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes <ul><li>2 pleural cavities : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are separated by the mediastinum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each pleural cavity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>holds a lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is lined with a serous membrane (the pleura ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pleura consist of 2 layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal pleura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visceral pleura </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pleural fluid : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lubricates space between 2 layers </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Respiration <ul><li>Refers to 2 integrated processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External respiration- Includes all processes involved in exchanging O 2 and CO 2 with the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal respiration- Also called cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involves the uptake of O 2 and production of CO 2 within individual cells </li></ul>
  67. 67. 3 Processes of External Respiration <ul><li>Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas diffusion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>across membranes and capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport of O 2 and CO 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between alveolar capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between capillary beds in other tissues </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. What physical principles govern the movement of air into the lungs?
  69. 69. Pulmonary Ventilation <ul><li>Is the physical movement of air in and out of respiratory tract </li></ul><ul><li>Provides alveolar ventilation </li></ul>InterActive Physiology: Respiratory System: Anatomy Review: Respiratory Structures PLAY
  70. 70. Gas Pressure and Volume Figure 23–13 Atmospheric Pressure <ul><li>The weight of air: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has several important physiological effects </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Boyle’s Law <ul><li>Defines the relationship between gas pressure and volume: </li></ul><ul><li>P = 1/V </li></ul><ul><li>In a contained gas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external pressure forces molecules closer together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of gas molecules exerts pressure on container </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation Respiration: Pressure Gradients PLAY Figure 23–14 <ul><li>Pressure Difference </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure </li></ul>
  73. 73. A Respiratory Cycle <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an inspiration (inhalation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an expiration (exhalation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes volume changes that create changes in pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of thoracic cavity changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with expansion or contraction of diaphragm or rib cage </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Compliance of the Lung <ul><li>An indicator of expandability </li></ul><ul><li>Low compliance requires greater force </li></ul><ul><li>High compliance requires less force </li></ul><ul><li>Factors That Affect Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Connective-tissue structure of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Level of surfactant production </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility of the thoracic cage </li></ul>
  75. 75. Pressure and Volume Changes with Inhalation and Exhalation Figure 23–15 <ul><li>Can be measured inside or outside the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Normal atmospheric pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 atm or Patm at sea level: 760 mm Hg </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Intrapulmonary Pressure <ul><li>Also called intra-alveolar pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Is relative to P atm </li></ul><ul><li>In relaxed breathing, the difference between P atm and intrapulmonary pressure is small: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>about —1 mm Hg on inhalation or +1 mm Hg on expiration </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Maximum Intrapulmonary Pressure <ul><li>Maximum straining, a dangerous activity, can increase range: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from —30 mm Hg to +100 mm Hg </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Intrapleural Pressure <ul><li>Pressure in space between parietal and visceral pleura </li></ul><ul><li>Averages —4 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum of —18 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Remains below P atm throughout respiratory cycle </li></ul>
  79. 79. The Respiratory Pump <ul><li>Cyclical changes in intrapleural pressure operate the respiratory pump: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which aids in venous return to heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount of air moved in and out of lungs in a single respiratory cycle </li></ul>
  80. 80. Injury to the Chest Wall <ul><li>Pneumothorax: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows air into pleural cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atelectasis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also called a collapsed lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>result of pneumothorax </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. What are the origins and actions of the respiratory muscles responsible for respiratory movements?
  82. 82. The Respiratory Muscles Figure 23–16a, b <ul><li>Most important are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external intracostal muscles of the ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessory respiratory muscles : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activated when respiration increases significantly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 83. The Respiratory Muscles Figure 23–16c, d
  84. 84. The Mechanics of Breathing <ul><li>Inhalation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>always active </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exhalation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>active or passive </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. 3 Muscle Groups of Inhalation <ul><li>Diaphragm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contraction draws air into lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of normal air movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External intracostal muscles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assist inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of normal air movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory muscles assist in elevating ribs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sternocleidomastoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serratus anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pectoralis minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scalene muscles </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Muscles of Active Exhalation <ul><li>Internal intercostal and transversus thoracis muscles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depress the ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abdominal muscles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compress the abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>force diaphragm upward </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Modes of Breathing <ul><li>Respiratory movements are classified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by pattern of muscle activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>into quiet breathing and forced breathing </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Quiet Breathing (Eupnea) <ul><li>Involves active inhalation and passive exhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragmatic breathing or deep breathing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is dominated by diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costal breathing or shallow breathing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is dominated by ribcage movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic Rebound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When inhalation muscles relax: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elastic components of muscles and lungs recoil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>returning lungs and alveoli to original position </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Forced Breathing <ul><li>Also called hyperpnea </li></ul><ul><li>Involves active inhalation and exhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted by accessory muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum levels occur in exhaustion </li></ul>
  90. 90. Respiratory Rates and Volumes <ul><li>Respiratory system adapts to changing oxygen demands by varying: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of breaths per minute ( respiratory rate ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the volume of air moved per breath ( tidal volume ) </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Respiratory Minute Volume <ul><li>Amount of air moved per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Is calculated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory rate  tidal volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures pulmonary ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomic Dead Space </li></ul><ul><li>Only a part of respiratory minute volume reaches alveolar exchange surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of air remaining in conducting passages is anatomic dead space </li></ul>
  92. 92. Alveolar Ventilation <ul><li>Amount of air reaching alveoli each minute </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tidal volume — anatomic dead space  respiratory rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alveoli contain less O 2 , more CO 2 than atmospheric air: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because air mixes with exhaled air </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Alveolar Ventilation Rate <ul><li>Determined by respiratory rate and tidal volume: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for a given respiratory rate: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increasing tidal volume increases alveolar ventilation rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for a given tidal volume: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increasing respiratory rate increases alveolar ventilation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Figure 23–17
  95. 95. Lung Volume <ul><li>Total lung volume is divided into a series of volumes and capacities useful in diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Function Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Measure rates and volumes of air movements </li></ul>
  96. 96. 4 Pulmonary Volumes <ul><li>Resting tidal volume: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a normal respiratory cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after a normal exhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residual volume: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after maximal exhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimal volume (in a collapsed lung) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after a normal inspiration </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. 4 Calculated Respiratory Capacities <ul><li>Inspiratory capacity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional residual capacity (FRC): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expiratory reserve volume + residual volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total lung capacity: </li></ul><ul><li> vital capacity + residual volume </li></ul>
  98. 98. Gas Exchange <ul><li>Occurs between blood and alveolar air </li></ul><ul><li>Across the respiratory membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>partial pressures of the gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diffusion of molecules between gas and liquid </li></ul></ul>InterActive Physiology: Respiratory System: Gas Exchange PLAY
  99. 99. The Gas Laws <ul><li>Diffusion occurs in response to concentration gradients </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of diffusion depends on physical principles, or gas laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Boyle’s law </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Composition of Air <ul><li>Nitrogen (N 2 ) about 78.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O 2 ) about 20.9% </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapor (H 2 O) about 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) about 0.04% </li></ul>
  101. 101. Gas Pressure <ul><li>Atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produced by air molecules bumping into each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each gas contributes to the total pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in proportion to its number of molecules ( Dalton’s law ) </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Partial Pressure <ul><li>The pressure contributed by each gas in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>All partial pressures together add up to 760 mm Hg </li></ul>
  103. 103. Henry’s Law Figure 23–18 <ul><li>When gas under pressure comes in contact with liquid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gas dissolves in liquid until equilibrium is reached </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At a given temperature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amount of a gas in solution is proportional to partial pressure of that gas </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Gas Content & Solubility in body fluids <ul><li>The actual amount of a gas in solution (at given partial pressure and temperature) depends on the solubility of that gas in that particular liquid </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 is very soluble </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 is less soluble </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 has very low solubility </li></ul>
  105. 105. Diffusion and the Respiratory Membrane <ul><li>Direction and rate of diffusion of gases across the respiratory membrane determine different partial pressures and solubilities </li></ul>
  106. 106. Efficiency of Gas Exchange <ul><li>Due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– substantial differences in partial pressure across the respiratory membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– distances involved in gas exchange are small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 and CO 2 are lipid soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– total surface area is large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– blood flow and air flow are coordinated </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressure Figure 23–19 An Overview of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration PLAY <ul><li>Normal Partial Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>In pulmonary vein plasma: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCO2 = 40 mm Hg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PO2 = 100 mm Hg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PN2 = 573 mm Hg </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. O 2 and CO 2 <ul><li>Blood arriving in pulmonary arteries has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low P O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high P CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The concentration gradient causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 to enter blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 to leave blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid exchange allows blood and alveolar air to reach equilibrium </li></ul>
  109. 109. Mixing <ul><li>Oxygenated blood mixes with unoxygenated blood from conducting passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers the PO 2 of blood entering systemic circuit (about 95 mm Hg) </li></ul>Respiration: Gas Mixture in Air PLAY
  110. 110. Interstitial Fluid <ul><li>P O 2 40 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>P CO 2 45 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration gradient in peripheral capillaries is opposite of lungs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 diffuses into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 diffuses out of blood </li></ul></ul>
  111. 111. How is oxygen picked up, transported, and released in the blood? What is the structure and function of hemoglobin?
  112. 112. Gas Pickup and Delivery <ul><li>Blood plasma can’t transport enough O 2 or CO 2 to meet physiological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cells ( RBCs ) </li></ul><ul><li>Transport O 2 to, and CO 2 from, peripheral tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Remove O 2 and CO 2 from plasma, allowing gases to diffuse into blood </li></ul>
  113. 113. Oxygen Transport <ul><li>O 2 binds to iron ions in hemoglobin (Hb) molecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a reversible reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each RBC has about 280 million Hb molecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each binds 4 oxygen molecules -saturated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The percentage of heme units in a hemoglobin molecule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that contain bound oxygen </li></ul></ul>Respiration: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport PLAY
  114. 114. Oxyhemoglobin Saturation Curve Figure 23–20 (Navigator) Environmental Factors Affecting Hemoglobin PO2 of blood, Blood pH, Temperature Metabolic activity within RBCs
  115. 115. Oxyhemoglobin Saturation Curve <ul><li>Is a graph relating the saturation of hemoglobin to partial pressure of oxygen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher P O 2 results in greater Hb saturation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a curve rather than a straight line: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>because Hb changes shape each time a molecule of O 2 is bound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each O 2 bound makes next O 2 binding easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows Hb to bind O 2 when O 2 levels are low </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Oxygen Reserves <ul><li>O 2 diffuses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from peripheral capillaries (high PO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>into interstitial fluid (low PO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount of O 2 released depends on interstitial PO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 3/4 may be reserved by RBCs </li></ul><ul><li> Carbon Monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>CO from burning fuels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>binds strongly to hemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes the place of O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can result in carbon monoxide poisoning </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. pH, Temperature, and Hemoglobin Saturation Figure 23–21
  118. 118. The Oxyhemoglobin Saturation Curve <ul><li>Is standardized for normal blood (pH 7.4, 37°C) </li></ul><ul><li>When pH drops or temperature rises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more oxygen is released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curve shift to right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When pH rises or temperature drops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less oxygen is released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curve shifts to left </li></ul></ul>
  119. 119. The Bohr Effect <ul><li>Is the effect of pH on hemoglobin saturation curve </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by CO 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 diffuses into RBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an enzyme, called carbonic anhydrase, catalyzes reaction with H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dissociates into hydrogen ion (H + ) and bicarbonate ion (HCO 3 — ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen ions diffuse out of RBC, lowering pH </li></ul>
  120. 120. 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (BPG) <ul><li>RBCs generate ATP by glycolysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forming lactic acid and BPG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPG directly affects O 2 binding and release: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more BPG, more oxygen released </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPG levels rise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when pH increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when stimulated by certain hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If BPG levels are too low: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hemoglobin will not release oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  121. 121. Fetal and Adult Hemoglobin Figure 23–22
  122. 122. Fetal and Adult Hemoglobin <ul><li>The structure of fetal hemoglobin : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>differs from that of adult Hb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the same P O 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fetal Hb binds more O 2 than adult Hb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which allows fetus to take O 2 from maternal blood </li></ul></ul>
  123. 123. KEY CONCEPT <ul><li>Hemoglobin in RBCs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carries most blood oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases it in response to low O 2 partial pressure in surrounding plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If P O 2 increases, hemoglobin binds oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>If P O 2 decreases, hemoglobin releases oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>At a given P O 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hemoglobin will release additional oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if pH decreases or temperature increases </li></ul></ul>
  124. 124. How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood? Carbon Dioxide Transport Figure 23–23 (Navigator) Respiration: Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Exchange PLAY InterActive Physiology: Respiratory System: Gas Transport PLAY
  125. 125. Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) <ul><li>Is generated as a byproduct of aerobic metabolism (cellular respiration) </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 in the Blood Stream </li></ul><ul><li>May be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>converted to carbonic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bound to protein portion of hemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dissolved in plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicarbonate Ions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move into plasma by an exchange mechanism (the chloride shift ) that takes in Cl — ions without using ATP </li></ul>
  126. 126. CO 2 in the Blood Stream <ul><li>70% is transported as carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which dissociates into H + and bicarbonate (HCO 3 — ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>23% is bound to amino groups of globular proteins in Hb molecule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forming carbaminohemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7% is transported as CO 2 dissolved in plasma </li></ul>
  127. 127. KEY CONCEPT <ul><li>CO 2 travels in the bloodstream primarily as bicarbonate ions, which form through dissociation of carbonic acid produced by carbonic anhydrase in RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser amounts of CO 2 are bound to Hb or dissolved in plasma </li></ul>
  128. 128. Summary: Gas Transport Figure 23–24
  129. 129. Control of Respiration <ul><li>Gas diffusion at peripheral and alveolar capillaries maintain balance by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in blood flow and oxygen delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in depth and rate of respiration </li></ul></ul>InterActive Physiology: Respiratory System: Control of Respiration PLAY
  130. 130. Local Regulation of O 2 Transport (1 of 2) <ul><li>O 2 delivery in tissues and pickup at lungs are regulated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rising P CO 2 levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relaxes smooth muscle in arterioles and capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination of lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shifting blood flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P CO 2 levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  131. 131. Respiratory Centers of the Brain <ul><li>When oxygen demand rises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac output and respiratory rates increase under neural control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have both voluntary and involuntary components </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate respiratory muscles </li></ul><ul><li>In response to sensory information </li></ul>
  132. 132. Voluntary Centers <ul><li>In cerebral cortex affect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory centers of pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor neurons that control respiratory muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Respiratory Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 pairs of nuclei in the reticular formation of medulla oblongata and pons </li></ul>
  133. 133. Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers of the Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>Set the pace of respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Can be divided into 2 groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspiratory center </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in quiet and forced breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiratory and expiratory center </li></ul><ul><li>Functions only in forced breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral respiratory group (VRG) </li></ul>
  134. 134. Quiet Breathing Figure 23–25a <ul><li>Brief activity in the DRG: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates inspiratory muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DRG neurons become inactive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowing passive exhalation </li></ul></ul>
  135. 135. Forced Breathing Figure 23–25b <ul><li>Increased activity in DRG: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates VRG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which activates accessory inspiratory muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After inhalation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expiratory center neurons stimulate active exhalation </li></ul></ul>
  136. 136. The Apneustic and Pneumotaxic Centers of the Pons <ul><li>Paired nuclei that adjust output of respiratory rhythmicity centers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulating respiratory rate and depth of respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Apneustic Center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides continuous stimulation to its DRG center </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumotaxic Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit the apneustic centers </li></ul><ul><li>Promote passive or active exhalation </li></ul>
  137. 137. Respiratory Centers and Reflex Controls Figure 23–26 <ul><li>Interactions between VRG and DRG: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establish basic pace and depth of respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pneumotaxic center: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modifies the pace </li></ul></ul>
  138. 138. SIDS <ul><li>Also known as sudden infant death syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupts normal respiratory reflex pattern </li></ul><ul><li>May result from connection problems between pacemaker complex and respiratory centers </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Reflexes- Changes in patterns of respiration induced by sensory input </li></ul>
  139. 139. 5 Sensory Modifiers of Respiratory Center Activities <ul><li>Chemoreceptors are sensitive to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P CO 2 , P O 2 , or pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of blood or cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baroreceptors in aortic or carotic sinuses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensitive to changes in blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
  140. 140. 5 Sensory Modifiers of Respiratory Center Activities <ul><li>Stretch receptors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respond to changes in lung volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irritating physical or chemical stimuli: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in nasal cavity, larynx, or bronchial tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other sensations including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abnormal visceral sensations </li></ul></ul>
  141. 141. Chemoreceptor Reflexes <ul><li>Respiratory centers are strongly influenced by chemoreceptor input from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* cranial nerve IX - The glossopharyngeal nerve: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from carotid bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulated by changes in blood pH or P O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* cranial nerve X -The vagus nerve: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from aortic bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulated by changes in blood pH or P O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* receptors that monitor cerebrospinal fluid- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are on ventrolateral surface of medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to P CO 2 and pH of CSF </li></ul>
  142. 142. Chemoreceptor Responses to PCO 2 Figure 23–27
  143. 143. <ul><li>Hypercapnia - An increase in arterial P CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to restore homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoventilation- A common cause of hypercapnia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abnormally low respiration rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows CO 2 build-up in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperventilation- Excessive ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in abnormally low P CO 2 ( hypocapnia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates chemoreceptors to decrease respiratory rate </li></ul>
  144. 144. Baroreceptor Reflexes <ul><li>Carotid and aortic baroreceptor stimulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affects blood pressure and respiratory centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When blood pressure falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiration increases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When blood pressure increases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiration decreases </li></ul></ul>
  145. 145. Protective Reflexes <ul><li>Triggered by receptors in epithelium of respiratory tract when lungs are exposed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>toxic vapors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals irritants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanical stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause sneezing, coughing, and laryngeal spasm </li></ul>
  146. 146. Apnea <ul><li>A period of suspended respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Normally followed by explosive exhalation to clear airways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sneezing and coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laryngeal Spasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporarily closes airway: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to prevent foreign substances from entering </li></ul></ul>
  147. 147. The Cerebral Cortex and Respiratory Centers <ul><li>Strong emotions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can stimulate respiratory centers in hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Temporarily closes airway: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to prevent foreign substances from entering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anticipation of strenuous exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can increase respiratory rate and cardiac output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by sympathetic stimulation </li></ul></ul>
  148. 148. KEY CONCEPTS <ul><li>A basic pace of respiration is established between respiratory centers in the pons and medulla oblongata, and modified in response to input from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, stretch receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general, CO 2 levels, rather than O 2 levels, are primary drivers of respiratory activity </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory activity can be interrupted by protective reflexes and adjusted by the conscious control of respiratory muscles </li></ul>
  149. 149. Changes in Respiratory System at Birth (1) <ul><li>Before birth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonary vessels are collapsed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lungs contain no air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During delivery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>placental connection is lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood P O 2 falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P CO 2 rises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At birth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>newborn overcomes force of surface tension to inflate bronchial tree and alveoli and take first breath </li></ul></ul>
  150. 150. Changes in Respiratory System at Birth (2) <ul><li>Large drop in pressure at first breath: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pulls blood into pulmonary circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closing foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>redirecting fetal blood circulation patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsequent breaths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fully inflate alveoli </li></ul></ul>
  151. 151. Respiratory Performance and Age Figure 23–28
  152. 152. 3 Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System <ul><li>Elastic tissues deteriorate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing lung compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lowering vital capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arthritic changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>restrict chest movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limit respiratory minute volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphysema: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affects individuals over age 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depending on exposure to respiratory irritants ( e.g., cigarette smoke) </li></ul></ul>
  153. 153. Integration with Other Systems <ul><li>Maintaining homeostatic O 2 and CO 2 levels in peripheral tissues requires coordination between several systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems </li></ul></ul>
  154. 154. Coordination of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems <ul><li>Improves efficiency of gas exchange: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by controlling lung perfusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increases respiratory drive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through chemoreceptor stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raises cardiac output and blood flow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through baroreceptor stimulation </li></ul></ul>
  155. 155. The Respiratory System and Other Systems Figure 23–29
  156. 156. SUMMARY (1 of 4) <ul><li>5 functions of the respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gas exchange between air and circulating blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moving air to and from exchange surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protection of respiratory surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitating olfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structures and functions of the respiratory tract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lamina propria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory defense system </li></ul></ul>
  157. 157. SUMMARY (2 of 4) <ul><li>Structures and functions of the upper respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the nose and nasal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structures and functions of the larynx: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cartilages and ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the laryngeal musculature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structures and functions of the trachea and primary bronchi </li></ul>
  158. 158. SUMMARY (3 of 4) <ul><li>Structures and functions of the lungs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lobes and surfaces, the bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the bronchioles, alveoli and alveolar ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood supply to the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pleural cavities and membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory physiology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary ventilation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the mechanics of breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory rates and volumes </li></ul></ul>
  159. 159. SUMMARY (4 of 4) <ul><li>Gas exchange: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the gas laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diffusion and respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas pickup and delivery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>partial pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen transport (RBCs and hemoglobin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local regulation (lung perfusion, alveolar ventilation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory centers of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voluntary control of respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in the respiratory system at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Aging and the respiratory system </li></ul>

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