a socially constructed complex of values, ideas, attitudes, institutions, meanings & symbols that shape and are shaped by behaviour & maybe passed on thru generations
relatively permanent divisions in a society into which individuals or families may be categorized
based on perceived status & prestige.
Sub- or Micro-culture
a sub-group with its own distinguishing modes of behaviour.
Behaviours, rights, duties expected of an individual in a group by other members
structures & standards influence behaviour.
groups we actually belong to
We wish to associate with this group.
We do not want to be identified with this group.
how roles, groups & norms influence individual behaviour.
influential people in a group who
purchase new products early
serve as information sources for others
TV, newspapers, magazines, Internet communication
the media need "stories"
Sellers & Marketers
"seeding" the media. Pay media producers for product placement in "publication channels"
From a Fashion house to Primark
Advertising, promotions & incentives
Word-of-mouth - viral
Consumer thinks, feels, is involved & acts Behaviour, action Goals Needs, desires, wants drive construes achieve satisfy A simple need-satisfaction Motivation Model Social & psychological construction – after Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs
a simple “needs that motivate" theory - not personality
Classes of needs
our needs & satisfactions are gratified & balanced but ….
chronic need deficiencies (neurosis?) motivates action
simple descriptive, but very limited & partial
cognitive & developmental implications especially the concept of self-actualisation
Personality & self concept
Towards a brand personality:
“ the brand & Me”
down to earth, honest, wholesome, cheerful
daring, spirited, imaginative, up-to-date
reliable, intelligent, successful
higher class, charming
e.g. Take care of pennies & £ will take care of themselves
Levi Jeans ? Swaferga ? Branston baked beans ? Chicken jalfrazi ? Top Gear ? Yesterday Channel ? Lands End ?
Components of Attitude Attitude (overall orientation toward object or idea) Cognitive (knowledge & beliefs about a subject/object) Affective (overall feelings or emotive reactions) Behavioural (how we tend to behave) A person’s enduring favourable or unfavourable evaluation of some object or idea
attributes & variables a consumer uses when evaluating products & services
different members of buying centre obviously may use different criteria
e.g. a teenager or a WAG (self-image), a parent (for the baby), an OAP (price or risk reduction)
life cycle costs
Consumer Problem-Solving Categories
Advertising may influence a change – also promotions (2 for 1), branding to keep product in customer’s mind
Limited problem solving (LPS)
buyer has some experience, may check prices etc. Buyers can advertise to stimulate & compare or reduce risk of brand switching
Extended problem solving (EPS)
Research all choice alternatives + examine solutions
alternatives are differentiated & numerous
high deliberation & involvement time
personally relevant (risks)
high potential for cognitive dissonance
self-image risks social factors
Cognitive dissonance (after Festinger)
discomfort when facing logical inconsistencies in our thinking (cognitions) e.g. a belief in animal rights may be seen as inconsistent with eating meat or wearing fur.
We may feel anxiety assoc. with bad decisions: guilt, shame, anger, embarrassment, stress or other. This can lead to rationalisation: justifications to support our choices or change in attitudes, beliefs & behaviours.
When ideas are consistent … harmony or consonance.
If cognitions are unrelated, they are "irrelevant" not dissonant.
Aesop's "The Fox and the Grapes"
A fox sees some tasty, grapes high on the vine but can't think how to reach them. He concludes that the grapes are probably not worth eating anyway (not yet ripe, too sour).
Nb. dissonance in the desire for something unattainable & so the fox irrationally decides that the "thing" must be flawed (Sour Grapes).
we know that cigarettes cause lung cancer
we want to live a long and healthy life
quit smoking & reduce the tension between the contradictory ideas or
deny conclusions about lung cancer or justify our smoking
“ Only a few smokers become ill". "It only happens to very heavy smokers“. "If smoking does not kill me, something else will." "I am a smart, reasonable person who makes good decisions." Easier to make excuses than to change behaviour. Humans are rationalizing and not always rational.
slang (UK) for a subcultural stereotype
Aspirants who want to be in a "class" above their actual class.
spend on fashion for upward social mobility.
fixated on fashion 'designer' clothing, handbags, gold jewelery e.g. Burberry,
trying to adopt lifestyle of admired, referent class but not seen as successful.
considered to be in poor taste, ignorant,
labelled as "trying too hard, not worthy enough".
VALS2 psychographic groups
How do you see each category behaving as buyers?
Forrester Technographics customer segments by motivation, desire & ability to invest in technology
Start here Explain the customer behaviour appeals being used by … each of the following …
a selected product group within e.g. Gillette
a company within the earth-moving equipment industry e.g. JCB , Caterpillar , Komatsu etc
A group within the hotel sector including: Hilton , Accor , Travelodge , Townhouse
What common or different customer behaviour appeals are being used by
Explain the following in terms of consumer behaviour debate
return of goods policies e.g. B&Q, Next on-line
2-for-1, 20% bigger
interest free for
3 months (over £300)
"Never knowingly undersold" - John Lewis Partnership
free delivery over £15 (Amazon)
main dealer trade in values, old car-new car
easy financing terms
mobile phone automatic new model + cheaper contract + extras
home deliveries e.g. Tesco
£15 (21 days in advance), £26 (7 days), £55 – with on-line booking - Travelodge
4x Tesco Club Card points value for Cafe Rouge vouchers (£8 = £32)
We want customer to have positive experiences from purchase but they may experience
Pre-purchase, purchase or post-purchase
attitudes & behaviour should be consistent with one another. If you buy a car & your friend thinks that it is rubbish …..
uncertainty – "Have I made the right decision?"
feel anxiety, disappointment, remorse
discrepancy between expectation & experience
reflect on opportunity cost and lost - difficult decision, many alternatives