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1.   Actual Performance2.   Attempted Performance / Tender of     Performance / Offer of Performance             J J Maini...
1.   It must be unconditional2.   It must be made at proper time and place3.   A person to whom the tender is made must   ...
6.   The tender must be made to proper person7.   Tender for the delivery of goods must be for     the quantity and qualit...
Where a promisor has made an offer of  performance to the promisee and the offer  has not been accepted :1. The promisor i...
1.   If the parties to a contract agree to     novation, rescission or alteration, the     original contract need not be p...
3.   When a voidable contract is rescinded, the     other party need not perform his promise.     (Sec. 64)4.   When the f...
1.    By the Promisor2.    By the Agent3.    By the representative4.    By Third Person ( Sec.41)    If it appears from t...
   Only the promisee or his agent can demand    ……..             J J Maini, MIMIT Malout            9
  It is for the parties to a contract to decide about the   time and place of contract for the performance of   contract....
2. Sec. 47. Time and place for performance of  promise, where time is specified and no  application to be made When a pro...
3. Sec. 48 Application for performance on certain  day to be at proper time and place When a promise is to be performed o...
4. Sec.49 Place for the performance of  promise, where no application to be made  and no place fixed for performance When...
5. Sec.50 Performance in manner or at time  prescribed or sanctioned by promisee The performance of any promise may be  m...
1.   When time is of the essence of the contract2.   When time is not of the essence3.   Extension of time, performance wi...
   When two or more person have made a joint    promise, then, unless a contrary intention    appears by the contract, al...
 When two or more persons make a joint promise,  the promisee may, in the absence of express  agreements to the contrary,...
   Sharing of loss by default in contribution : If    any one of two or more joint promisors make    default in such cont...
   Where two or more persons have made a joint    promise, a release of one of such joint promisors by    the promisee do...
   When a person has made a promise to two or    more persons jointly, then unless contrary    intention appears from the...
 Promises which form consideration or part of  the consideration for each other are called  reciprocal promises1. Simulta...
2.   Conditional Reciprocal promises- 3 rulesa. Sec. 52 Order of performance of reciprocal   promises Where the order in ...
   b) Sec. 53 Liability of party preventing event    on which contract is to take effect   When a contract contains reci...
c) Sec. 54 Effect of default as to the promise which   should be performed, in contract consisting of   reciprocal promise...
3. Reciprocal promises one legal and the other   illegal  Sec.57. Reciprocal promise to do things legal,  and also other t...
4.   Alternative promise one branch being illegal     Sec. 58 In the case of an alternative promise,     one branch of whi...
1.   Appropriation by Debtor ( Sec. 59)2.   Appropriation by Creditor ( Sec.60)3.   Appropriation by Law ( Sec.61)     Pri...
   Sec. 59 Application of payment where debt    to be discharged is indicated   Where a debtor, owing several distinct d...
   Sec. 60. Application of payment where debt to    be discharged is not indicated   Where the debtor has omitted to int...
   Sec. 61 Application of payment where    neither party appropriates   Where neither party makes any appropriation,    ...
a.   By an act of partiesb.   By operation of law            J J Maini, MIMIT Malout   31
Performance of contract
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Performance of contract

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  1. 1. 1. Actual Performance2. Attempted Performance / Tender of Performance / Offer of Performance J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 2
  2. 2. 1. It must be unconditional2. It must be made at proper time and place3. A person to whom the tender is made must be given opportunity of inspection of goods or articles4. The tender must be whole and not of the part5. The tender must be in proper form – tender of money in current coins J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 3
  3. 3. 6. The tender must be made to proper person7. Tender for the delivery of goods must be for the quantity and quality as stipulated in the contract8. A tender made to one of the several joint promisees has the same legal consequences as a tender to all of them J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 4
  4. 4. Where a promisor has made an offer of performance to the promisee and the offer has not been accepted :1. The promisor is not responsible for non- performance;1. nor does he thereby loses his rights under the contract J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 5
  5. 5. 1. If the parties to a contract agree to novation, rescission or alteration, the original contract need not be performed (Sec.62)2. The promisee may dispense with or remit performance by the promisor in whole or in part or may extend the time for the performance or may accept any satisfaction in lieu of thereof. ( Sec.63) J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 6
  6. 6. 3. When a voidable contract is rescinded, the other party need not perform his promise. (Sec. 64)4. When the failure of performance has been caused by the promisee’s neglect or refusal, the promisor will be executed. (Sec. 67) J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 7
  7. 7. 1. By the Promisor2. By the Agent3. By the representative4. By Third Person ( Sec.41) If it appears from the nature of the case that it was the intention of the parties to any contract that any promise contain in it should be performed by the promisor himself, such promise must be performed by the promisor. In other cases, the promisor or his representative may employ a competent person to perform it. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 8
  8. 8.  Only the promisee or his agent can demand …….. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 9
  9. 9.  It is for the parties to a contract to decide about the time and place of contract for the performance of contract.1. Sec.46 Time for performance of promise, where no application is to be made and no time is specified Where, by the contract, a promisor is to perform his promise without application by the promisee, and no time for performance is specified, the engagement must be performed within a reasonable time. Explanation : The question “what is a reasonable time” is, in each particular case, a question of fact. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 10
  10. 10. 2. Sec. 47. Time and place for performance of promise, where time is specified and no application to be made When a promise is to be performed on a certain day, and the promisor has undertaken to perform it without the application by the promisee, the promisor may perform it at any time during the usual hours of business on such day and at the place at which the promise ought to be performed. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 11
  11. 11. 3. Sec. 48 Application for performance on certain day to be at proper time and place When a promise is to be performed on a certain day, and the promisor has not undertaken to perform it without application by the promisee, it is the duty of the promisee to apply for the performance at a proper place within the usual hours of business. Explanation : The question “what is proper time and place” is, in each particular case, a question of fact. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 12
  12. 12. 4. Sec.49 Place for the performance of promise, where no application to be made and no place fixed for performance When a promise is to be performed without application by the promisee, and not place is fixed for the performance of it, it is the duty of the promisor to apply to the promisee to appoint a reasonable place for the performance of the promise, and to perform it at such a place. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 13
  13. 13. 5. Sec.50 Performance in manner or at time prescribed or sanctioned by promisee The performance of any promise may be made in any manner, or at any time which the promisee prescribes or sanctions. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 14
  14. 14. 1. When time is of the essence of the contract2. When time is not of the essence3. Extension of time, performance within extended time is proper performance J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 15
  15. 15.  When two or more person have made a joint promise, then, unless a contrary intention appears by the contract, all such persons, during their joint lives, and, after the death of any of them, his representative jointly with the survivor or survivors, and, after the death of the last survivor the representatives of all jointly, must fulfil the promise. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 16
  16. 16.  When two or more persons make a joint promise, the promisee may, in the absence of express agreements to the contrary, compel any one or more of such joint promisors to perform the whole promise. Each promisor may compel contribution : Each of two or more joint promisors may compel every other joint promisor to contribute equally with himself to the performance of the promise, unless a contrary intention appears from the contract. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 17
  17. 17.  Sharing of loss by default in contribution : If any one of two or more joint promisors make default in such contribution, the remaining joint promisors must bear the loss arising from such default in equal shares. Explanation: Nothing in this section shall prevent a surety from recovering, from his principal, payments made by the surety on behalf of the principal, or entitle the principal to recover anything from the surety on account of payments made by the principal. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 18
  18. 18.  Where two or more persons have made a joint promise, a release of one of such joint promisors by the promisee does not discharge the other joint promisor, neither does it free the joint promisor so released from responsibility to the other joint promisor or joint promisors. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 19
  19. 19.  When a person has made a promise to two or more persons jointly, then unless contrary intention appears from the contract, the right to claim performance rests, as between him and them, with them during their joint lives, and, after the death of any one of them, with the representative of such deceased person jointly with the survivor or survivors, and, after the death of the last survivor, with the representatives of all jointly. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 20
  20. 20.  Promises which form consideration or part of the consideration for each other are called reciprocal promises1. Simultaneous reciprocal promises ( Sec. 51) – Where two promises are to be performed simultaneously, they are known as mutual and concurrent. When a contract consists of reciprocal promises to be simultaneously performed, a promisor need not perform his promise unless the promisee is ready and willing to perform his reciprocal promise. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 21
  21. 21. 2. Conditional Reciprocal promises- 3 rulesa. Sec. 52 Order of performance of reciprocal promises Where the order in which reciprocal promises are to be performed is expressly fixed by the contract, they shall be performed in that order, and where the orders is not expressly fixed by the contract, they shall be performed in that order which the nature of transaction requires. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 22
  22. 22.  b) Sec. 53 Liability of party preventing event on which contract is to take effect When a contract contains reciprocal promises and one party to the contract prevents the other from performing his promise, the contract becomes voidable at the option of the party so prevented; and he is entitled to compensation from the other party for any loss which he may sustain as a consequence of the non- performance of the contract. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 23
  23. 23. c) Sec. 54 Effect of default as to the promise which should be performed, in contract consisting of reciprocal promises When a contract consists of reciprocal promises, such that one of them cannot be performed, or that its performance cannot be claimed till the other has been performed, and the promisor of the promise last mentioned fails to perform it, such promisor cannot claim the performance of the reciprocal promise, and must make compensation to the other party to the contract for any loss which such other party may sustain by the non-performance of the contract. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 24
  24. 24. 3. Reciprocal promises one legal and the other illegal Sec.57. Reciprocal promise to do things legal, and also other things illegal Where persons reciprocally promise, firstly to do certain things which are legal, and, secondly under specified circumstances, to do certain other things which are illegal, the first set of promise is a contract, but the second is a void agreement. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 25
  25. 25. 4. Alternative promise one branch being illegal Sec. 58 In the case of an alternative promise, one branch of which is legal and other other illegal, the legal branch alone can be enforced. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 26
  26. 26. 1. Appropriation by Debtor ( Sec. 59)2. Appropriation by Creditor ( Sec.60)3. Appropriation by Law ( Sec.61) Principal and Interest J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 27
  27. 27.  Sec. 59 Application of payment where debt to be discharged is indicated Where a debtor, owing several distinct debts to one person, makes a payment to him, either with express intimation, or under circumstances implying, that the payment is to be applied to the discharge of some particular debt, the payment if accepted, must be applied accordingly. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 28
  28. 28.  Sec. 60. Application of payment where debt to be discharged is not indicated Where the debtor has omitted to intimate, and there are no other circumstances indicating to which debt the payment is to be applied, the creditor may apply it at his discretion to any lawful debt actually due and payable to him from the debtor, whether its recovery is or is not barred by the law in force, for the time being as to the limitations of suits. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 29
  29. 29.  Sec. 61 Application of payment where neither party appropriates Where neither party makes any appropriation, the payment shall be applied in discharge of the debts in order of time, whether they are or are not barred by the law in force for the time being as to the limitation of suits. If the debts are of equal standing, the payment shall be applied in discharge of each proportionally. J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 30
  30. 30. a. By an act of partiesb. By operation of law J J Maini, MIMIT Malout 31
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