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  1. 1. PERCEPTION Jiwan Jyoti Maini Faculty, MIMIT MaloutEmail:
  3. 3. Blind Men & Elephant
  4. 4. • One of the most famous versions of the 19th Century was the poem "The Blind Men and the Elephant" by John Godfrey Saxe (1816–1887). American poet John Godfrey Saxe based this poem, on a fable that was told in India many years ago. It is a good warning about how our sensory perceptions can lead to some serious misinterpretations; especially when the investigations of the component parts of a whole, and their relations in making up the whole, are inadequate and lack co-ordination.• And so these men of Hindustan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong, Though each was partly in the right And all were in the wrong.
  5. 5. The poem begins: V.I. The Fourth reached out his eager hand,It was six men of Hindustan And felt about the knee. To learning much inclined, "What most this wondrous beast is like Who went to see the Elephant Is mighty plain," quoth he; (Though all of them were blind), "Tis clear enough the Elephant That each by observation Is very like a tree!" Might satisfy his mind VI. II. The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,The First approached the Elephant, Said: "Een the blindest man And happening to fall Can tell what this resembles most; Against his broad and sturdy side, Deny the fact who can, At once began to bawl: This marvel of an Elephant "God bless me!-but the Elephant Is very like a fan!" Is very like a wall!" VII. III. The Sixth no sooner had begunThe Second, feeling of the tusk, About the beast to grope, Cried: "Ho!-what have we here Than, seizing on the swinging tail So very round and smooth and sharp? That fell within his scope, To met is mighty clear "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant This wonder of an Elephant Is very like a rope!" Is very like a spear!" VIII. IV. And so these men of IndostanThe Third approached the animal, Disputed loud and long, And happening to take Each in his own opinion The squirming trunk within his hands, Exceeding stiff and strong, Thus boldly up and spake: Though each was partly in the right, "I see," quoth he, "the Elephant And all were in the wrong! Is very like a snake!"
  6. 6. Perception.. A social experiment April 9, 2010THE SITUATIONIn Washington, DC, at a Metro Station,on a cold January morning in 2007, thisman with a violin played six Bach piecesfor about 45 minutes.During that time, approximately 2,000people went through the station, mostof them on their way to work.After about 3 minutes, a middle-agedman noticed that there was a musicianplaying.He slowed his pace and stopped for afew seconds, and then he hurried on tomeet his schedule.
  7. 7. About 4 minutes later: The violinist received his first dollar. A woman threw money in the hat and, without stopping, continued to walk.• At 6 minutes: A young man leaned against the wall to listen to him, then looked at his watch and started to walk again. At 10 minutes: A 3-year old boy stopped, but his mother tugged him along hurriedly. The kid stopped to look at the violinist again, but the mother pushed hard and the child continued to walk, turning his head the whole time. This action was repeated by several other children, but every parent – without exception – forced their children to move on quickly.• At 45 minutes: The musician played continuously. Only 6 people stopped and listened for a short while. About 20 gave money but continued to walk at their normal pace. The man collected a total of $32.
  8. 8. • After 1 hour: He finished playing and silence took over. No one noticed and no one applauded. There was no recognition at all.• No one knew this, but the violinist was Joshua Bell, one of the greatest musicians in the world. He played one of the most intricate pieces ever written, with a violin worth $3.5 million dollars. Two days before, Joshua Bell sold-out a theater in Boston where the seats averaged $100 each to sit and listen to him play the same music. This is a true story. Joshua Bell, playing incognito in the D.C. Metro Station, was organized by the Washington Post as part of a social experiment about perception, taste, and people’s priorities.• This experiment raised several questions: *In a common-place environment, at an inappropriate hour, do we perceive beauty? *If so, do we stop to appreciate it? *Do we recognize talent in an unexpected context?
  9. 9. • One possible conclusion reached from this experiment could be this: If we do not have a moment to stop and listen to one of the best musicians in the world, playing some of the finest music ever written, with one of the most beautiful instruments ever made . . ..• How many other things are we missing as we rush through life?
  10. 10. Quotes• “Change the way you • “To change ourselves look at things and the effectively, we first had to things you look at change our perceptions.” change.” ― Stephen R. Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly ― Wayne W. Dyer Effective People
  11. 11. • “I believe I am in Hell, • “Life is 10 percent what therefore I am.” you make it ― Arthur Rimbaud and 90 percent how you take it.” ― Irving Berlin
  12. 12. PerceptionPerception is the process of receivinginformation about and making sense of theworld around us.It involves deciding which information tonotice, how to categorize this information andhow to interpret it within the framework ofexisting knowledge.
  13. 13. What is Perception ?• A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions (stimuli) in order to give meaning to their environment.• People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
  14. 14. PerceptionYou can see a white vase as figure against ablack background, or two black faces inprofile on a white background
  15. 15. What do you see?Now what do you see?
  17. 17. WHAT IS PERCEPTION? YOURinterpretation of realityafter information/stimuli is …
  18. 18. CONT.. Filtered out  Selected  Organized  Defined ….using YOUR existing…
  19. 19. CONT..KnowledgeNeedsBeliefsValuesAssumptionsAttitudes.
  20. 20. PRICE/QUALITY RELATIONSHIPThe perception of price asan indicator of productquality (e.g., the higherthe price, the higher theperceived quality of theproduct).
  21. 21. SOME MARKETING VARIABLES INFLUENCING CONSUMER PERCEPTIONNature of ProductPhysical Attributes of ProductPackage DesignBrand NameAdvertisements & CommercialsPosition of AdEditorial Environment
  22. 22. DISTORTING INFLUENCES Physical Appearances Stereotypes Irrelevant Cues First Impressions Jumping to Conclusions Halo Effect
  23. 23. HOW CONSUMERS HANDLE RISKSeek InformationStay Brand LoyalSelect by Brand ImageRely on Store ImageBuy the Most Expensive ModelSeek Reassurance
  24. 24. The Perceptual Process1. Sensation 3.Organization – An individual’s ability to – The process of placing detect stimuli in the selected perceptual immediate environment. stimuli into a framework2. Selection for “storage.” – The process a person 4.Translation uses to eliminate some of – The stage of the the stimuli that have perceptual process at been sensed and to retain which stimuli are others for further interpreted and given processing. meaning.
  25. 25. • Perceptual Process Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Receiving Stimuli Location,Size,contrast, (External & Internal) Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Interpreting Figure Background , Attribution ,Stereotyping, Perceptual Grouping Halo Effect, Projection ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior
  26. 26. Factors influencing perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.
  27. 27. • Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations Factors in the situation Perception • Time • Work Setting • Social Setting Factors in the Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity
  28. 28. Perceptual organization• It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects.• Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are- Figure ground- Perceptual grouping
  29. 29. Figure-Ground Illustration•Field-ground differentiation – The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.
  30. 30. PERCEPTUAL GROUPING• Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern.• It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn.• Some factors underlying grouping are-continuity-closure-proximity-similarity
  31. 31. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others
  32. 32. Shortcuts in judging others• Selective Perception : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes.• Halo Effect : Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.• Contrast Effect : Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.• Projection : Attributing ones own characteristics to other people.• Stereotyping : Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that persons belongs.
  33. 33. PERCEPTIONRelationships: PerceptionDifferent people have different perception. One mans meat could be another mans poison. A couple bought a donkey from the market.On the way home, a boy commented, "Very stupid. Why neither of them ride on the donkey?" Upon hearing that, the husband let the wife ride on the donkey. He walked besides them.Later, an old man saw it and commented, "The husband is the head of family. How can the wife ride on the donkeywhile the husband is on foot?" Hearing this, the wife quickly got down and let the husband ride on the donkey.
  34. 34. Further on the way home, they met an old Lady. She commented, "How can the man ride on the donkey but let the wife walk. He is no gentleman."The husband thus quickly asked the wife to join him on the donkey. Then, they met a young man. He commented, "Poor donkey, how can you hold up the weight of two persons. They are cruel to you." Hearing that, the husband and wife immediately climbed down from the donkey and carried it on their shoulders.It seems to be the only choice left. Later, on a narrow bridge, the donkey was frightened and struggled. They lost their balance and fell into the river. You can never have everyone praise you, nor will everyone condemn you. Never in the past, not at present, and never will be in the future.Never bother about what others say if your own conscience is clear.
  35. 35. Biggest Weakness Can Become Your Biggest StrengthSometimes your biggest weakness can become your biggeststrength.Take, for example, the story of one 10-year-old boy whodecided to study judo despite the fact that he had lost his leftarm in a devastating car accident.The boy began lessons with an old Japanese judo master. Theboy was doing well, so he couldnt understand why, after threemonths of training the master had taught him only one move."Sensei," the boy finally said, "Shouldnt I be learning moremoves?"
  36. 36. "This is the only move you know, but this is the only move youll ever need to know," the Sensei replied.Not quite understanding, but believing in his teacher, the boy kept training.Several months later, the sensei took the boy to his first tournament.Surprising himself, the boy easily won his first two matches.The third match proved to be more difficult, but after some time, his opponent became impatient and charged; the boy deftly used his one move to win the match.
  37. 37. Still amazed by his success, the boy was now in the finals.This time, his opponent was bigger, stronger, and more experienced. For a while, the boy appeared to be overmatched. Concerned that the boy might get hurt, the referee called a time-out. He was about to stop the match when the Sensei intervened."No," the Sensei insisted, "Let him continue."Soon after the match resumed, his opponent made a critical mistake: He dropped his guard. Instantly, the boy used his move to pin him. The boy had won the match and the tournament. He was the champion.
  38. 38. On the way home, the boy and Sensei reviewed every move in each and every match. Then the boy summoned the courage to ask what was really on his mind."Sensei, how did I win the tournament with only one move?""You won for two reasons," the Sensei answered. "First, youve almost mastered one of the most difficult throws in all of judo. And second, the only known defense for that move is for your opponent to grab your left arm."The boys biggest weakness had become his biggest strength. can-become-your.html
  39. 39. PerceptionSuccess Principle• By simply turning his focus to one side, he would have easily exited his prison. Rather, due to his intent on one direction, he remained confined, captive. Every day in our life we focus on one side of the problem, not looking at it from others point of view. If there is any one secret of success, it lies in the ability to get the other persons point of view and see things from that persons angle as well as from your own.Motivational Quotes• “ Perception is strong and sight weak. In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and to take a distanced view of close things.”
  40. 40. What do you see?
  41. 41. Thank You!