Distinguish the various steps in the media planning process
Understand the technical details of media objectives, such as frequency, reach, weight, continuity and cost
Learn on the basis of which criteria the media mix can be composed
Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the different advertising media
Get an overview of the criteria to be used in media planning
Understand the importance of media context for advertising effectiveness
Figure 8.1 Steps in media planning
Steps in media planning Assess the communications environment : the communications environment needs to be screened to formulate a media plan: – media planners should be acquainted with all regulations and legal aspects, as well as with local habits; – media planners should be able to judge the communications efforts of the competition on the basis of category spending, share of voice and media mix. • Describe the target audience : looking specifically at their media behaviour. • Set the media objectives : based on frequency, reach, weight, continuity, coverage and cost. • Select the media mix : looking at qualitative, quantitative and technical criteria. • Buy media .
Figure 8.2 Media objectives
M essage repetition affect advertising effectiveness
A d repetition initially increases learning, but leads to boredom and irritation later on.
According to the two-factor cognitive response model, an inverted-U relationship exists between the level of exposure on the one hand and advertising effectiveness (attitudes, purchase intention, cognitive responses) on the other hand.
At low levels of exposure, consumers develop rather negative responses due to the newness of the stimulus.
After a few exposures, the reaction becomes more positive ( ‘wear-in’ ) .
More frequent exposure again leads to more negative responses ( ‘wear-out’ ) .
P ositive responses are optimal at intermediate exposure levels.
H igh (but not excessive) repetition levels have been found to be effective because they raise brand and message recall, make consumers more resistant to brand switching, increase the believability of ad claims and function as a cue for brand quality.
Figure 8.3 Ad frequency and ad effectiveness
Beta-coefficient analysis, developed by Morgensztern, is used to analyze the relationship between the number of exposures and the degree of memorization (i.e. the percentage of the target group that remembers the ad), taking into account the medium used.
Each exposure is supposed to make a constant percentage (β) of consumers who previously could not remember the message of a campaign actually remember the message.
Provided that the β-coefficient of each medium is known, with this method the advertiser knows how often the message has to be repeated before a sufficient number of customers memorize the message, and before the marginal effect of an additional exposure becomes too small.
The -coefficient: exposure and memorization
The mathematical form of the β-coefficient model is as follows:
M n = 1 – (1 – β) ⁿ
Where: M n = memorization after n exposures
β = medium–specific memorization rate
The -coefficient: exposure and memorization
Figure 8.4 The -coefficient: exposure and memorisation
Table 8.1 -coefficients for different media Source : Quattro Saatchi, Brussels (2003)
Figure 8.5 The relation between exposures and memorization for different media Source: JFC Informatique & média, Paris, France (2003)
Table 8.2 Number of contacts for different media Source : Quattro Saatchi, Brussels (2003)
Relationship between net reach, gross and effective reach, opportunity to see and gross and effective rating points
Net reach : the sum of all target consumers reached at least once.
• Gross reach : the sum of the number of target consumers that each individual medium reaches, regardless of how many times an individual is reached.
• Effective reach : the number of target consumers who have been exposed to the advertiser’s message at an effective frequency level (i.e. at least three or four times, depending upon the medium).
• Opportunity to see : the average probability of exposure that an average target consumer (who has been reached at least once) has. It is calculated by dividing gross reach by net reach.
• Gross rating points (GRP) : the weight of a campaign. GRP is gross reach expressed as a percentage of the target group. As such, GRP levels can exceed 100%.
• Effective rating points (ERP) : effective gross reach calculated as a percentage of the target group. ERP levels can also exceed 100%.
Table 8.3 Example of reach by medium Based on : IP Peaktime (2004), Television 2004. European Key Factors . Neuilly-sur-Seine, Cedex, Brussels: IP
Figure 8.6 Gross reach and reach
By multiplying reach (in percentage) and frequency for the different media vehicles used: n GRP = ∑ ( f i x r i) i=1 Where: n = number of media vehicles fi = frequency of media vehicles i ri = percentage reach of media vehicle i By multiplying reach (in percentage) and opportunity to see: GRP = Reach x OTS Where: reach = audience across different media vehicles minus duplicated audience
Table 8.4 Reach and frequency distribution
M edia scheduling or continuity and advertising effectiveness
Advertisers have three choices in media scheduling
C ontinuous schedule is normally the most effective
T arget audience can be exposed to the ad at regular intervals, which serves as a constant reminder of the product
S ince a continuous schedule is very expensive, this might result in too low expenditures per period and thus become less effective
F lighting schedule (periods without advertising succeed periods of heavy advertising)
D isadvantage is that people will forget about the ad during the periods when the ad does not appear
P ulsing schedule (periods with more heavy advertising are followed by
periods with less advertising)
H elps to prevent the onset of forgetting
Figure 8.7 Continuous advertising
Figure 8.8 Flighting advertising
Figure 8.9 Pulsing advertising
Cost The cost of a medium is usually expressed as the cost per thousand (CPT), Meaning the cost of reaching 1000 people. Cost per thousand (CPT) is usually referred to as CPM, the “M” referring to the Roman symbol for thousand. CPM is calculated by dividing the cost of the medium (the air cost of a 15- or 30-second commercial, the cost of a one-page magazine) by the medium’s Audience. More interesting to know is the cost per thousand people of your target market, also represented by CPM – TM. Cost of the medium CPM = ───────────── x 1000 Total reach Cost of the medium CPM–TM = ───────────── x 1000 Useful reach
Figure 8.10a Percentage spend on advertising media in the European Union Based on: IP Peaktime (2004), Television 2004. European Key Factors. Neuilly-sur-Seine, Cedex, Brussels: IP
Figure 8.10b Percentage spend on advertising media in the US Based on: Ad Age Fact Pack, February 2006, Crain Communications Inc. (http://www.adage.com)
Table 8.5 Mixed media criteria to compose media plan
Medium selectivity Medium selectivity refers to the extent that a medium is directed towards the target Group. Medium selectivity can be represented by a selectivity index showing how well the target group is represented in the medium reach, relative to the universe: % of the target group in total reach Selectivity index = ─────────────────────── x 100 % of the target group in the universe Selectivity index < 100: The target group is under-represented; The vehicle is not selective on the target group Selectivity index = 100: The target group is proportionally represented Selectivity index > 100: The target group is over-represented; The vehicle is selective on the target group
Table 8.7 Impact of media context variables Based on : Moorman, M . (2003), Context Considered. The Relationship Between Media Environments and Advertising Effects , Doctoral Dissertation. Universiteit van Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Advantages and disadvantages of print and audio-visual media Print Newspapers Advantages High reach Flexible Credible Regional Large amount of information Magazines Advantages High reach Selectivity High quality of reproduction High involvement Credible Large amount of information Long life span Disadvantages Limited selectivity Low quality of reproduction Short life span Disadvantages Slow medium Less flexible High clutter
Advantages and disadvantages of print and audio-visual media Door-to-door Advantages Geographically flexible Fairly high reach Large amount of information Low cost clutter Audio-visual media TV Advantages Creativity Impact Captivity Attention High reach Geographically selective Disadvantages Less selective Low involvement Low quality of reproduction Disadvantages High cost Lack of selectivity Short life span Clutter
Advantages and disadvantages of print and audio-visual media Radio Advantages Reach Costs Selectivity Disadvantages Short life span Low involvement
Photo 8.2 Tio Pepe advertise outdoors Source : Corbis/John Hicks
Figure 8.11 Reach and frequency of advertising campaigns of Nizoral and its competitors
Figure 8.15 Communications objectives, media solutions and selected media type