Finland & NigeriaHofstede’s DimensionsLayer of CultureParson’s Dimensions
• Hofstede’s dimensions are1. Power distance2. Individualism versus collectivism3. Masculinity versus femininity4. Uncertainty avoidance5. Long-term versus short-term orientation
FINLAND NIGERIAPOWER DISTANCE Being independent, hierarchy for People accept hierarchical order convenience, equal rights, superiors which everybody has place and needs accessible, coaching leader, management no further justification.Hiererchy in facilitates and empowers. Power is organization is reflecting inherent decentralized. Employees expect to be inequalities,centralization is consulted. popular.Ideal boss is benevolent Control is disliked and attitude towards autocrat. managers are informal.INDIVIDUALISIM / Individualistic society. Collecivist society.Extended familly High preference for a loosely-knit social and relationship.Loyalty is importantCOLLECTIVISM framework in which individuals are and over-rides other societal rules and expected to take care of themselves and regulations.Everyone takes their immediate families only. Offence responsibility for fellow members of causes guilt and a loss of self-esteem.The their group.Offence leads to shame employer/employee relationship is a and loss of face.Employer/employee contract based on mutual relationships are perceived in moral advantage, hiring and promotion decisions terms (like a family link), hiring and are supposed to be based on merit promotion decisions take account of only, management is the management of the employee’s in- individuals. group, management is the management of groups.MASCULINITY / Feminine society.Working in order to Masculine society.People live to work. live.managers strive for consensus, people Managers are expected to be decisiveFEMININTY value equality, solidarity and quality in and assertive, the emphasis is on their working lives. Conflicts are resolved equity, competition and performance by compromise and negotiation.Effective and conflicts are resolved by fighting manager is supportive.Decision making them out. with involvement.
FINLAND NIGERIAUNCERTAINITY AVOIDANCE Medium high prefernce for Preference for avoiding uncertainity avoidance. uncertainity. Maintaining rigid codes of belief Same with Finland. and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.People have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation.LONG /SHORT TERM Short term orientation culture. Short term orientation culture. exhibits great respect for Same with Finland.ORIENTATION traditions, a relatively small propensity to save.Strong concern with establishing the Truth i.e. normative.
• Layers of culture for Finland(outer-middle-inner layer)• FinlandBehavior:Talk in moderate tones and do not do anything to call attention to yourself.Serial conversation is the rule - i.e. listen to the speaker, wait for them to finish andthen reply. Interrupting is rude.Food/Eating:Finnish cuisine has western European,Scandinavian and Russian elements. Lunch is between 11.00 and 13.00.Evening mealsat home are 17.00-18.00.Meal concludes with coffee. Language:Finnish is mainlanguage but also they know Swedish,all traffic signs have Finnish and Swedishexplanation. English is widely spoken in Finland.French, Spanish and Russian arepopular in school and among adults.Greeting:When greeting, the parties shake handsand make eye contact.Finnish handshake is brief and firm, and involves no supportinggestures such as touching the shoulder or upper arm.Finns have a strong sense of national identity.There is a long tradition of sexual equality in the sense that womens participation inpolitical activity and public life has been encouraged.Respecting old people,taking care of poors,disabled people are important.Most people in Finland are at least nominally members of a Christian church.
• Nigeria The culture of Nigeria is shaped by Nigerias multiple ethnic Western influences, especially in urban centers, have transformed Nigerian eating habits in many ways. People are familiar with the canned, frozen, and prepackaged foods found in most Western-style supermarkets. Foreign restaurants also are common in larger cities. Food in Nigeria is traditionally eaten by hand. However, with the growing influence of Western culture, forks and spoons are becoming more common. groups. Soccer is extremely popular among the youth. The music of Nigeria includes many kinds of folk and popular music. Men are dominant over women in all areas. A handshake and a long list of well wishes for a counterparts family and good health are expected when meeting someone. Shaking hands, eating, or passing things with the left hand are unacceptable. The left hand is reserved for personal toiletries and is considered dirty. It is estimated that 50 percent of Nigerians are Muslim, 40 percent are Christian, and the remaining 10 percent practice various indigenous religions.
• Parson’s Dimension1. Universalism versus Particularism2. Individualism versus Communitarianism3. Neutral versus Emotional4. Specific versus Diffuse5. Achievement versus Ascription
FINLAND NIGERIAUniversalism versus Particularism Finland has universalist culture. Nigeria has particularist culture. Believing ideas and practices can be Legal contracts aare modified.People get applied everywhere without to know each other better.People modification.Focusing on more change the way in which deals are formal rules than relationships. executed.Individualism versus They have individualistic culture. They have communitarianist culture.CommunitarianismNeutral versus Emotional They have emotional culture. Nigeria has more emotional culture than Finland.Smile a great deal, talk loudly when they are excited, and greet each other with a great deal of enthusiasm.Specific versus Diffuse Finland has diffuse culture. Nigeria has more diffuse culture than individuals guard their public space Finland. carefully. People are notquickly invited into a person’s open, public space. Individuals in these cultures often appear to be indirect and introverted, and work.Achievement versus Ascription Finland has achievement culture. Nigeria has ascription culture. based on Finnish culture gives high status to age, gender,or social connections. For high achievers,such as the example, in an ascription culture, a company’s number-one person who has been with the company salesperson. for 40 years may be listened to carefully because of the respect that others havefor the individual’s age and longevity with the firm.