Bocconi University
Graduate School

Master of Science in Management

The factors that influence the E-commerce sales in th...
Summary
 Introduction
 Literature Review
 Research question
 Research model
 Application
 Results
 Additional resea...
Introduction
Increased penetration of the internet and establishment of e-commerce in recent years
have led to a need to u...
Literature Review
The existing literature on the subject can be divided in four categories based on the
nature of the elem...
Literature Review
Cultural Factors:
 The existence of five dimensions able to influence the e-commerce (Hofstede,
2002):
...
Literature Review
E-trust:
 Internet consumer trust model: the clients evaluation of the e-seller reputation
and dimensio...
Research Question
The existing theory is characterized by the absence of:
 A general study on the factors that influece t...
Party choise

Income

Vacation planning

Budget

Destination choice
Behaviors during the
vacation

Budget/Income
Age

ONLI...
Application
The described hypotheses have been tested using data generated from a voluntary
survey administered to the cli...
Application
In order to verify the validity of the proposed hypotheses three regression analysis have
been developed:
1)

...
Results
The output obtained from the first regression analysis is the following:
General Model

Std. error

T-ratio

Signi...
Results
Brazil

China

Significance

Russia

Significance

United States

Significance

Significance

(Costant)

.211

.55...
Results
The output obtained from the second regression analysis is the following:
Brazil

China

Significance

Russia

Sig...
Additional Research and Limitations
Limitations

Additional Researches

Population used in the data
collection

Considerin...
Contributions
The discoveries made prodive important information on the clientele in order to
understand the consumer beha...
Conclusions

It is possible for me to conclude that the declared research goal has been reached:

«define a general framew...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The factors that influence the E-commerce sales in the tourism industry. An intercultural study between Brazil, China, Russia and United States

507 views
295 views

Published on

The growing penetration of Internet and the increasing role of e-commerce in recent years have resulted in the need to understand and ascertain the elements that can influence online sales, in order to formulate a strategy for business success. The work uses as a starting point the discoveries made by academics to come, then, to formulate a research model specific to the tourism sector. The goal of this thesis is, therefore, provide a general framework of elements that can have a significant effect on the intention to purchase of the consumer, and understand the differences between countries such as the United States, Brazil, China and Russia.

Published in: Travel, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
507
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The factors that influence the E-commerce sales in the tourism industry. An intercultural study between Brazil, China, Russia and United States

  1. 1. Bocconi University Graduate School Master of Science in Management The factors that influence the E-commerce sales in the tourism industry. An intercultural study between Brazil, China, Russia and United States Supervisor: Professor Lei Wang Co-Examiner: Professor Sebastiano Alessio Delre Researcher: Guido Tirone
  2. 2. Summary  Introduction  Literature Review  Research question  Research model  Application  Results  Additional research and limitations  Contributions  Conclusions Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone
  3. 3. Introduction Increased penetration of the internet and establishment of e-commerce in recent years have led to a need to understand and verify factors that influence online sales with the aim to formulate a successful business strategy. The goals of this paper are:  Identify a framework of elements that can have on impact on the consumers’ purchasing decisions in the tourism industry  Understand the existing differences in internet usage and e-commerce trends between countries like United States, Brazil, China and Russia Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 1
  4. 4. Literature Review The existing literature on the subject can be divided in four categories based on the nature of the elements that compose them. Demographics factors:  The e-consumer man purchase a greater quantity of products and spend more money compared to the woman segment (Li et al., 1999; Naseri e Elliott, 2011)  The existence of a positive relationship between the income and the tendency to buy online (Zak e Knack, 2001)  The lack of empirical evidence that supports the age as an influencing factor due to non-unique results Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 2
  5. 5. Literature Review Cultural Factors:  The existence of five dimensions able to influence the e-commerce (Hofstede, 2002):  Power distance  Individualism  Masculinity  Uncertainty avoidance  Long-term orientation  The succes of a global interface is correlated to the design capacity in reflecting the cultural nuances of the targeted audience (Badre e Barber, 1998)  The various cultural origins lead to a different reaction to environmental stimulus (Chau et al., 2000) Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 3
  6. 6. Literature Review E-trust:  Internet consumer trust model: the clients evaluation of the e-seller reputation and dimension determinates their trust in the shop itself (Jarvenpaa et al., 1999)  Trust building model: the trust in the seller is influenced by his reputation and the website quality, the so called "antecedent factor" (McKnight et al., 2002) Online consumer behaviors:  The marketing stimulus, web experience and personal/environmental factors influence the consumer decisional process in its different phases (Kotler, 2003)  The social media (Facebook, Twitter, Google+) have a direct repercussion on the e-consumer tendency to buy online (Srivastava e Kim, 2007) Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 4
  7. 7. Research Question The existing theory is characterized by the absence of:  A general study on the factors that influece the sales that considers at the same time the four described categories  A comparison of the results obtained within the different economies, advanced and emerging Covering this gap represents the main goal of this paper in order to develop business and marketing stratagies that allow companies to attract the e-consumer. For this reason the research model is not focused on one only class of factors but considers the totality of elements that may have an effect on sales using as starting point the academic discoveries. Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 5
  8. 8. Party choise Income Vacation planning Budget Destination choice Behaviors during the vacation Budget/Income Age ONLINE SALES Social media Power distance Individualism Seller reputation Masculinity Website quality Uncertainty avoidance Seller knowledge E-TRUST CULTURAL FACTORS Gender CONSUMER BEHAVIORS DEMOGRAPHICS FACTORS Research Model Long-term orientation Language Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 6
  9. 9. Application The described hypotheses have been tested using data generated from a voluntary survey administered to the clients of a travel company. The data collection lasted around 12 weeks and the number of valid survey obteined has been 1074. The univariate statistics of the respondents charachtestics are: Gender Age Income Nationality Value Male Female <30 30-45 45-60 >60 <50k 50k-150k 150k-250k >250k United States Brazil China Russia Other Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone Percentage 38.55% 61.45% 2.42% 18.99% 39.76% 38.83% 9.59% 41.43% 36.69% 12.29% 34.82% 17.50% 24.40% 13.13% 10.15% 7
  10. 10. Application In order to verify the validity of the proposed hypotheses three regression analysis have been developed: 1) cultural and demographics factors, consumers behaviors and e-trust Source: survey Dependent variable: daily visits Independent variables: local language Source: 3) purchased products Independent variables: 2) Dependent variable: Travel company website Dependent variable: available budget Independent variables: consumer income Source: survey Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 8
  11. 11. Results The output obtained from the first regression analysis is the following: General Model Std. error T-ratio Significance -4.575 .936 -4.888 .000 Income .002 .000 6.968 .000 Budget .053 .004 14.588 .000 Age .001 .001 .416 .677 -.149 .037 -4.079 .000 Power distance .003 .008 .360 .719 Individualism .015 .003 6.075 .000 Regression 287.26 Masculinity .026 .008 3.239 .001 Total 589.06 Uncertainty avoidance .009 .003 3.368 .001 Long-term orientation .013 .004 3.627 .000 Location knowledge .072 .036 1.992 .047 Planning .107 .037 2.910 .004 -.002 .034 -.046 .964 .505 .051 9.864 .000 Location -.019 .005 -3.806 .000 Seller knowledge -.028 .040 -.692 .489 Seller reputation .100 .010 10.096 .000 Website quality .075 .015 5.105 .000 (Costant) Gender Social Media Party Sum of squares 48.77% Dependent variable: Purchased products Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 9
  12. 12. Results Brazil China Significance Russia Significance United States Significance Significance (Costant) .211 .557 -.461 .134 .637 .211 -.304 .077 Income .003 .000 .002 .002 .002 .004 .002 .000 Budget .024 .003 .041 .000 .033 .000 .087 .000 Age -.001 .766 .003 .358 -.010 .011 -.005 .025 Gender -.093 .238 -.391 .000 -.460 .000 .030 .577 Location knowledge .081 .249 .012 .892 .120 .184 -.002 .976 Planning .066 .348 .227 .010 .125 .162 .019 .740 Social Media .097 .161 -.016 .839 -.024 .781 -.057 .255 Party -.004 .976 .424 .000 .653 .000 .329 .000 Location -.036 .001 -.012 .301 -.017 .203 .009 .198 Seller knowledge -.082 .312 .144 .123 -.189 .078 -.035 .550 Seller reputation .122 .000 .068 .004 .108 .000 .057 .000 Website quality -.082 .046 .014 .734 -.038 .525 .051 .044 30.16% 49.13% Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 65.08% 61.90% 10
  13. 13. Results The output obtained from the second regression analysis is the following: Brazil China Significance Russia Significance Significance (Costant) 10.361 .000 10.386 .000 8.136 .000 Mother tongue 14.802 .000 10.800 .000 22.668 .000 Dependent Variable: website’s daily visit The output obtained from the third regression analysis is the following: General Brazil Significance (Costant) Income China Significance Russia Significance United States Significance Significance 4.707 .000 3.185 .000 4.330 .000 4.828 .000 5.627 .000 .013 .000 .018 .000 .017 .000 .015 .003 .005 .050 Dependent Variable: available budget Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 11
  14. 14. Additional Research and Limitations Limitations Additional Researches Population used in the data collection Considering the proposed theoretical model proceed to verify it on an diversified and bigger population Number of countries examined Analyzing a greater example of countries in order to identify the existing differences between developed and emerging economies Limited budget variance explained by the income Investigate further elements that can affect the budget Lack of Social Media relevance Analyzing the seller use of social media and their influence on the consumer behavior Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 12
  15. 15. Contributions The discoveries made prodive important information on the clientele in order to understand the consumer behavior and to support the decision making process. The same can be used for three separate purposes:  Identify the elements to focus on during the creation of marketing campaigns due to their significance in influencing the e-consumer purchasing behavior  Understand the existing differences between the different cultures and their impact on the propensity to shopping online  Create a succussful global interface for the wbsite in order to increase the number of daily unique visits Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 13
  16. 16. Conclusions It is possible for me to conclude that the declared research goal has been reached: «define a general framework of elements able to influence the onlise sales in the tourism industry" Graduate Thesis - Guido Tirone 14

×