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Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
Industrial robotics
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Industrial robotics

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Industrial robotics

Industrial robotics

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  • 1. SALEM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SALEM - 636 111. PAPER PRESENTATION ON INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING Presented by, HASSIFUL HUSSAN ALI A (III MECHATRONICS) PRINCE MAMMAN (III MECHATRONICS) EMAIL hasimajid@gmail.com
  • 2. ABSTRACT: A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices. Its various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. “Intelligence” as their motto, industrial equipment manufacturers are focusing on developing technology. It have the joints in many links on joints provide relative motion and links are rigid members between joints. The stress on “sensing”, “representation” and “action” is motivated by the need of distributing AI principles and methods at various levels of robot architectures, with respect to both hardware and software aspects. It proposes techniques to capture some of the search space pruning that dual evolution offers in the domain of robot programming. It explores the relationship between robot morphology and program structure, and techniques for capturing regularities across this mapping. Index Terms - Cognitive Spatial Representation, Robot Mapping, Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence in Robotics: Sensing, Representation and Action. 1. INTRODUCTION In the past, factory production lines were automated for mass production, and many industrial robots and specialized machines were introduced. Recently, flexible manufacturing systems, such as the cell production system (unlike in the line production method, an entire product is assembled by one worker), are being introduced in an increasing number of production sites in order to deal with differentiation of products and to meet diversified needs. However, many of the tasks in flexible manufacturing systems rely heavily on workers because the number of parts to be handled is larger so the time and costs required to switch product types on robots and specialized machines is greater. Recently, because of the decrease in the working population due to Japan's aging society with a falling birth rate, there are expectations that tasks which rely heavily on workers will be automated by using industrial robots in combination with sensing technology and production know-how. With “intelligence” as their motto, industrial equipment manufacturers are focusing on developing technology that will automate tasks that are currently performed by humans, but the types of tasks that have so far been automated are very limited. This paper introduces the concept of a system in which industrial robots are applied to (1) picking work, (2) medium payload handling work, (3) assembly work, etc. and also introduces the research and development of such a system. 1.1. ROBOT ANATOMY: It is the study of structure of robot. The mechanical structure of robots consist of rigid bodies (links) connected by means of joints is segmented into an arm that ensures mobility and reach ability, a wrist that confers the orientations and an end effectors that performs the required task. Manipulator is constructed of series of joints and links. A joint provides relative motion between the Input links and output links. Each joint provides the robot with one degree of freedom.
  • 3. 1.1.1. THE ROBOTIC JOINTS: A robotic joint is mechanism that permits relative motion between parts of a robotic arm. The joints of a robot are designed to move its end effector along a path from one position to another as desired. · LINEAR JOINT · ROTATIONAL JOINT · TWISTING JOINT · REVOLVING JOINT 1.1.2. ROBOT CONFIGURATION: i. Polar configurations ii. Cylindrical configurations iii. Cartesian coordinate configurations iv. Jointed arm configurations 1.1.3. POLAR CONFIGURATIONS: It has axes. · One linear joint, two rotary joints. · The rotational axis, the bent axis, and the reach axis. · It is also called spherical robots. · In this arm configuration sit is connected to base with twisting joint. 2.1. CYLINDRICALCOFIGURA - TIONS: · One rotary joint and two linear joints · The rotational axis,The bent axis,and the reach axis · It is found mostly in pick and place arms for assembly purpose. 2.1.2. CARTESIAN COORDINATES: It has three slide joints of which two are orthogonal i. Three slides are parallel to three axes ii. All arm joints are linear Movement along the entire three axis can occur simultaneously. Jointed arm coordinate system: It has three rotational axes (a) Waist rotation (b) Shoulder rotation (c) Elbow rotation 2.2. ROBOT WELDING In the use of mechanized programmable tools (robots), which completely automate a welding process by both performing the weld and handling the part. Processes such as gas metal arc welding, while often automated, are not necessarily equivalent to robot welding, since a human operator sometimes prepares the materials to be welded. Robot welding is commonly used for resistance spot
  • 4. welding and arc welding in high production applications, such as the automotive industry Robot welding is a relatively new application of robotics, even though robots were first introduced into US industry during the 1960s. The use of robots in welding did not take off until the 1980s, when the automotive industry began using robots extensively for spot welding. Since then, both the number of robots used in industry and the number of their applications has grown greatly. In 2005, more than 120,000 robots were in use in North American industry, about half of them for welding.] Growth is primarily limited by high equipment costs, and the resulting restriction to high-production applications. Robot arc welding has begun growing quickly just recently, and already it commands about 20% of industrial robot applications. The major components of arc welding robots are the manipulator or the mechanical unit and the controller, which acts as the robot's "brain". The manipulator is what makes the robot move, and the design of these systems can be categorized into several common types, such as the SCARA robot and Cartesian coordinate robot, which use different coordinate systems to direct the arms of the machine. 3. HAND GUIDING SYSTEM Assembly and handling of workpieces with complicated shapes requires precise positioning. To fully automate such tasks, expensive sensors and advanced and complicated controls are needed. In addition, there are still many problems to solve, for example, it may be impossible to measure some parts of a work piece. (a) Configuration of the entire system The positioned depending on its shape, and even if automation is successful, “minor stoppage” (equipment does not fail but temporarily stops due to minor abnormalities, though it can be restored in a short time) occurs frequently, preventing the utilization ratio from increasing. One possible solution to address
  • 5. these problems is to classify tasks into those that robots are suited for and those that humans are suited for so that robots and humans can work cooperatively. (a) Positions of the automation IHI developed a hand guiding system that complies with ISO 10218-1: 2006 in order to enable cooperative operations between industrial robots and humans can be operated in manual and automatic modes, and the robot performs tasks that can be performed based on teaching-playback and sensing. 4. COOPERATIVE HANDLING At production sites, tasks that require handling various types of parts are performed mainly by workers. When handling workpieces of different sizes, robots need to change tools, but people can handle them by using both hands with dexterity. In general, one large robot that fits the largest workpiece is used when handling work pieces of different sizes. IHI is developing a new system based on the idea that using two or more robots that fit smaller work piece provides enhanced versatility. a) Appearance of the system . In addition, because a large workpiece is handled by two or more robots, the load can be distributed. Therefore, the size of the hand can be reduced, the structure of the hand can be simplified, and more typesof workpieces can be handled with just one type of hand. (b) Result of 3D object recognition Moreover, because the robot and its hand are smaller, it is easier to keep them from interfering with workpieces as they
  • 6. approach the workpieces, offering the advantages of storing parts in bins. Furthermore, the holding positions can easily be changed by changing the robot’s program, facilitating the addition of work piece types. 5. ROBOT WELDING In the use of mechanized programmable tools (robots), which completely automate a welding process by both performing the weld and handling the part. Processes such as gas metal arc welding, while often automated, are not necessarily equivalent to robot welding, since a human operator sometimes prepares the materials to be welded. Robot welding is commonly used for resistance spot welding and arc welding in high production applications, such as the automotive industry Robot welding is a relatively new application of robotics, even though robots were first introduced into US industry during the 1960s. The use of robots in welding did not take off until the 1980s, when the automotive industry began using robots extensively for spot welding. Since then, both the number of robots used in industry and the number of their applications has grown greatly. In 2005, more than 120,000 robots were in use in North American industry, about half of them for welding. Growth is primarily limited by high equipment costs, and the resulting restriction to high-production applications. Robot arc welding has begun growing quickly just recently, and already it commands about 20% of industrial robot applications. The major components of arc welding robots are the manipulator or the mechanical unit and the controller, which acts as the robot's "brain". The manipulator is what makes the robot move, and the design of these systems can be categorized into several common types, such as the SCARA robot and Cartesian coordinate robot, which use different coordinate systems to direct the arms of the machine. 6. AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a
  • 7. Ware house. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has broadened during the late 20th century. Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) increase efficiency and reduce costs by helping to automate a manufacturing facility or warehouse. The first AGV was invented by Barrett Electronics in 1953. The AGV can tow objects behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach. The trailers can be used to move raw materials or finished product. The AGV can also store objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized rollers (conveyor) and then pushed off by reversing them. AGVs are employed in nearly every industry, including, pulp, paper, metals, newspaper, and general manufacturing. 7. RoboLogix Is a robotics simulator which uses a physics engine to emulate robotics applications. The advantages of using robotics simulation tools such as RoboLogix are that they save time. In the d They can also increase the level of safety associated with robotic equipment since various "what if" scenarios can be tried and tested before the system is activated. Robot Logic provides a platform to teach, test, run, and debug programs that have been written using a five-axis industrial robot in a range of applications and functions. These applications include pick-and- place, palletizing, welding, and painting. 8. Industrial paint robots It have been used for decades in automotive paint applications from the first hydraulic versions - which are still in use today but are of inferior quality and safety - to the latestelectronic offerings. The newest robots are accurate and deliver results with uniform film builds and exact thicknesses. Originally industrial paint robots were large and expensive, but today the price of the robots have come down to the point that general industry can now afford to have the same level of automation that only
  • 8. the big automotive manufacturers could once afford. The selection of today’s paint robot is much greater varying in size and payload to allow many configurations for painting items of all sizes. The prices vary as well as the new robot market becomes more competitive and the used market continues to expand. Painting robots are generally equipped with five or six axis, three for the base motions and up to three for applicator orientation. These robots can be used in any explosion hazard Class Division environment. 9. Robotics Simulator A robotics simulator is used to create embedded applications for a robot without depending physically on the actual machine, thus saving cost and time. In some case, these applications can be transferred on the real robot (or rebuilt) without modifications. The term robotics simulator can refer to several different robotics simulation applications. For example, in robotics applications, behavior-based robotics simulators allow users to create simple worlds of rigid objects and light sources and to program robots to interact with these worlds. Behavior-based simulation allows for actions that are more biological in nature when compared to simulators that are more binary, or computational. In addition, behavior-based simulators may "learn" from mistakes and are capable of demonstrating the anthropomorphic quality of tenacity. 9.1. Genetic Programming One way to solve the programming problem might be to use Artificial Life techniques to evolve behavior-based programs. Previously many workers have used genetic algorithms to program software agents, typically running in cellular worlds. It demonstrates the evolution of both neural networks and finite state machines through a genetic algorithm running on a bit string representation. More conventional computer programs have also been processed with genetic algorithms, such as the pioneering work of. Robot programs, and in particular behavior-based robot programs, are much more complex than any programs that have been reported in the literature to have been so evolved. A reasonable comparison might be in terms of the memory taken to represent the programs. By this measure behavior-based robot programs axe three orders of
  • 9. magnitude larger than those mutated competitively by genetic techniques. Recently, however, has shown a number of stimulating results by applying genetic algorithms directly to lisp-like programs rather than to more traditional bit strings. He has been very successful in a number of domains with this technique; rekindling earlier interest in the idea of mutating lisp program structures directly shows an example of synthesizing the base behaviors of behavior-based robot programs. He makes a number of simplifying assumptions, and reduces the search space significantly by carefully selecting the primitives by hand after examining Metric’s source code. • Most likely the evolution of robot programs must be carried out on simulated robots unfortunately there is a vast difference (which is not appreciated by people who have not used real robots) between simulated robots and physical robots and their dynamics of interaction with the environment. • The structure of the search space of possible programs is very dependent on the representation used for programs and the primitives available to be incorporated. Careful design is necessary. • Natural evolution co-evolved the structure of the physical entities and their neural controllers in a way which arguably cut down the size of its search space. 9.2. Simulations of Physical Robots The number of trials needed to test individuals precludes using physical robots for testing the bulk of the control programs produced for them by genetic means. The obvious choice is to use simulated robots and then run the successful programs on the physical robots. Previously we have been very careful to avoid using simulations for two fundamental reasons. • Without regular validation on real robots there is a great danger that much effort will go into solving problems that simply do not come up in the real world with a physical robot.. • There is a real danger (in fact, a near certainty) that programs which work well on simulated robots will completely fail on real robots because of the differences in real world sensing and actuation very hard to simulate the actual dynamics of the real world. At the time of writing no complete experiments have been carried out using the ideas in this paper. We have built a simulator for multiple R-2 robots1 It is not grid-based, but instead the coordinates of a robot can be arbitrary floating point numbers within the workspace. R-2 robots have a two wheeled. Differential drive with passive castors for stability. The simulator handles arbitrary independent velocities on the two wheels. There is a simple physics associated with motion of a robot when it has collided with in obstacle (which is all modeled as immovable cylinders).
  • 10. The sensors currently modeled are a ring of eight bump sensors, a ring of eight infrared proximity sensors, and three forward looking beacon sensors. We expect to add more sensor models. No explicit uncertainty is built into the sensor or actuator models. Noise is therefore introduced into the system by the load on the computer collector. The complete simulation is about 500 lines of combined Common Lisp and BL code. We have no hypothesis at this point about how well programs developed on the simulator will transfer to the real. CONCLUSION This report has introduced the concept of a system in which industrial robots were applied to picking work, medium payload handling work, assembly work, etc. by combining IHI’s hard-earned innovations, such as advanced sensing technology, control technology, and mechanics technology with industrial robots, and has also introduced the research and development of such a system. It is becoming possible to apply industrial robots to tasks that cannot easily be automated and thus rely heavily on human workers. In addition, robots work long hours and handle heavy objects without getting tired or making mistakes, leading to improved quality

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