A district-aligned curriculum is defined as total and complete alignment between the curriculum, assessment, and instruction for all students to achieve the highest level of student achievement. (mouse click) The written curriculum or the identified standards, (mouse click) the taught curriculum or the opportunity to learn the standards, (mouse click) and the tested curriculum or the system that measures student attainment of these standards must all be the same. Region IV ESC uses this symbol for all products and professional development to focus this important concept as the core for all services for students. (mouse click) We have added the circular symbol to acknowledge the importance of using assessment data to plan subsequent instruction. English, 2000; Steffy, 1995
Use this slide and the next to examine the literary, the expository, and the crossover sections of an appropriate TAKS scoring guide.
For reading and language arts, performance assessments make the reading and writing connection overt to teachers and students. Research confirms that all students benefit from a strong reading and writing connection. When students respond through writing to what they have read, writing and reading improve. Written responses require higher-order thinking and critical-thinking skills.
As instruction is delivered throughout the six-weeks curriculum “chunks” questioning strategies are critical. They are a critical piece of the actual delivery of the instructional plans. The Research-Based Questioning Strategies Handout gives effective questioning strategies that mirror the assessment questioning strategies, and these are the same ones that should be used during the delivery of instruction. Trainer Notes: Allow participants to review and discuss the Research-Based Questioning Strategies Handout and how this handout can be used during the delivery of instruction.
Because there is no one correct answer for a performance assessment, sample student responses that have been scored can be helpful to both the teacher and the student. For the student, examining models of good, quality writing is an effective learning strategy. Research suggests that the provision of good models and actively engaging students in assessing and discussing the samples is one of the most effective methods of teaching writing. For teachers, student sample responses can serve as sample baseline papers to use when scoring responses to the performance assessments. Additional performance assessments and scored student samples for those assessments can be found online at www.readingbenchmarks.org. This website is referenced as an instructional resource in the Region IV ESC Scope and Sequence. On the website, you choose the grade level, the process to be assessed, and the textbook. Sample solution A for the question shows a score point 4 paper while sample solution D shows a score point 1 paper. Each of the scored samples on the website has an annotation to explain the scoring. Davis & Hill, 2003
Targeting the TAKS Open-Ended Response Hitting the Mark in the ELA Classroom TCTELA 41st Annual Conference January 20, 2006
Welcome! Diane Peterson Education Specialist, Secondary Language Arts email@example.com 713.744.6829
Writing Responses for the TAKS Open-Ended Items Examine open-ended item student responses to identify the qualities and components of a successful response. Participants will analyze the TAKS Reading Rubrics and discuss the resultant “best practices” in the ELA classroom.
2. Content scoring—what skills does the open-ended item assess? 3. Best practices—what should I see in the ELA classroom?
Curriculum Assessment Instruction Improved Student Achievement English, 2000 Written Curriculum (TEKS) Identified Standards Taught Curriculum Opportunity to Learn the Standards Tested Curriculum (TAKS) Measures the Attainment of the Standards
What Is the “ OER ”? The TAKS open-ended items are three short answer questions that require the student to write a multi-sentence response . These items are based upon the “triplet” found in the Reading/ELA section of TAKS assessments for grades 9-11 Exit. OER = O pen- E nded R esponse
What Is the Triplet? 1 st Part : a published literary work, either a short story or an excerpt from a novel
What Is the Triplet? 2 nd Part : a published expository (informational, nonfiction) passage, either an article from a newspaper or magazine, an excerpt from a memoir, a journal entry, essay, editorial, or an excerpt from a biography or autobiography
What Is the Triplet? 3 rd Part : a visual media selection reflecting a web page, advertisement, or poster which enables students to make visual connections to the other two passages
What Is the Triplet? 1 st part (literary) + 2 nd part (expository) + 3 rd part (visual media) = a thematically-linked triplet!
What “Parts” Are Needed for a Successful Response?
TWO-PARTER : Students must offer a reasonable idea and pull textual evidence that validates that idea.
THREE-PARTER : Change questions call for two pieces of evidence.
FOUR-PARTER : Cross-over responses must include analysis from each piece and evidence from each piece.
Crafting a Response 1. Provide a clear answer to the question. 2. Provide multiple pieces of support directly from the passage. Direct quotations (usually partial), paraphrases (author’s words in student writer’s own words), or synopses (specific summary) are acceptable. All sentences should connect to each other and it should be clear why the evidence given is significant to the answer. 3. Connect the answer to the support. This is not done with a separate sentence but should be clear from the idea and choice of evidence. 4. Craft the answer into a coherent , logical progression of ideas and evidence that answers the question fully and proves the statement .
(10) Reading/literary response. The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:
(B) use elements of text to defend, clarify, and negotiate responses and interpretations.
Types of Items Objective 2: The student will apply knowledge of literary elements to understand culturally diverse written texts. The first open-ended item is based on the literary selection.
Types of Items Objective 3: The student will demonstrate the ability to analyze and critically evaluate culturally diverse written texts and visual representations. The second item is based on the expository selection.
Types of Items Objective 3: The student will demonstrate the ability to analyze and critically evaluate culturally diverse written texts and visual representations. The third item is based on both selections.
We should “construct lessons that help make the comprehension processes visible.”
Students need “demonstrations of effective strategy use.”
“Thoughtful Literacy” Alllington, 2001
systematic, explicit instruction teacher modeling guided practice independent practice assessing progress and adjusting instruction systematic, explicit instruction teacher modeling guided practice independent practice assessing progress and adjusting instruction
Creating Questions Use question stems to create questions for literary pieces you are reading in class. Literary Stems What was one conflict ____ faced in “_____”? In “____” how does ____ connect to _____? How does _____ change from the beginning to the end of “___”? What is the major conflict _____ faces in “_____”?
Creating Questions Literary Stems In “______,” what does ____ learn from his/her experience with ____? In “_____,” why does ____ ____? (character) (action)
Creating Questions Expository Stems In “_____,” has ____ fulfilled his/her dream? In “_____,” how have the author’s experiences shaped his/her attitude toward others? How does the author’s attitude toward _____ change over the course of “_____”?
Creating Questions Expository Stems Why is “_____” a good title for this selection? Why are memories of _____ important to _____? In “____,” who do you think is more successful, ____ or ____?
Creating Questions Crossover Stems How does the idea of taking a risk apply to both “___” and “___”? How do the parents in “___” and “____” attempt to share their cultural heritage with their children? Which of the siblings from “____” and “____” would you like to have as a brother/sister?
Creating Questions Crossover Stems How is the concept of __ important in both “___” and “__”? How is the idea of ____important in both “___” and “___”? What is one characteristic shared by (____) and (____). char. from lit. passage char. from exp. Passage How is ___ an important theme in both “___” and “___”?
Pairing Works Use paired works in class frequently. Genres/Forms to consider in pairing works Films/“Movies” Television Shows Songs Poems Research Findings Magazine Articles Artwork Web Pages
Pairing Works The Catcher in the Rye “Acquainted with the Night” by J.D. Salinger by Robert Frost Novel Poem Example Connection: The city as a lonely, uncomfortable place
Pairing Works To Kill a Mockingbird Radio by Harper Lee By Mike Rich Novel Film Example Connection: Men attempting to effect a change in racial tolerance
Pairing Works Romeo and Juliet “Teen Love Hurts: Falling In Love Makes Teens Prone to Depression and Alcohol Abuse” by William Shakespeare by Malcolm Ritter Novel News Article Example Connection: The negative effects of teenagers falling in love
Pairing Works “ The Gettysburg Address” “Frederick Douglass” by Abraham Lincoln by Robert Hayden Speech Poem Example Connection: Leaving legacies beyond physical monuments