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LPC Role of Clinical Supervsion

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This is part 1 of 5 in a 30 hour lecture series on Clinical Supervision for Mental Health Professionals. This was made for the Approved Clinical Supervisor Certificate through the NBCC. This ...

This is part 1 of 5 in a 30 hour lecture series on Clinical Supervision for Mental Health Professionals. This was made for the Approved Clinical Supervisor Certificate through the NBCC. This interactive workshop focuses on the major elements of being an effective Clinical Supervisor. In this workshop, participants will learn about the different roles and pertinent issues in Clinical Supervisor. Participants will learn the different roles that encompass clinical supervision, and learn the structural differences (and similarities) between consultation and clinical supervision. Participants will discuss the working alliance necessary in clinical supervision, and also discuss the roles that conflict and trust play in the supervisory relationship. Other issues discussed include covering types of feedback given to staff members and coworkers, and how best to give feedback, and the role that the experiential level of the supervisee plays in the structure of clinical supervision. Teaching methods include lecture, interactive exercises and group participation/discussion.

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LPC Role of Clinical Supervsion LPC Role of Clinical Supervsion Presentation Transcript

  • The Role of Clinical Supervision Glenn Duncan LPC, LCADC, CCS, ACSCopyright © 2012, Advanced Counselor Training Do not reproduce any workshop materials without express written consent.
  • Definition of Clinical Supervision1. To nurture the counselor’s professional (and, as appropriate, personal) development.2. To promote the development of specified skills and competencies, so as to bring about measurable outcomes.3. To raise the level of accountability in counseling services and programs. Clinical supervision is a disciplined, tutorial process wherein principles are transformed into practical skills, with four overlapping foci: administrative, evaluative, clinical and supportive.
  • The Role of Clinical Supervision Studies have found that training can be more critical than experience in the development of both supervisees and supervisors. Supervisees and supervisors have been found not to develop with unsupervised experience. Experience obtained under supervision seems to be enough to stimulate development. The scrutiny of supervision, despite the interventions used, causes the kind of self-scrutiny that allows the supervisee to improve.
  • Supervision Focus: Administrative The following are some examples of Administrative duties of the clinical supervisor:1. Structure the counselor’s work schedule.2. Ensure a comprehensive orientation to agency, client population, mission and vision statements, policies and procedures, long range strategic planning.3. Develop, evaluate and monitor policies and procedures using DCA and DAS standards as a guideline to ensure compliance (or any other regulatory body the agency answers to such as JCAHO and CARF).4. Organizational planning and structuring, coordinating, delegating tasks.
  • Supervision Focus: Administrative The following are some examples of Administrative duties of the clinical supervisor:5. Involving staff in the designing and scheduling of activities (including clinical programming, administrative activities such as when paperwork can/will be completed) to maintain clinically effective service delivery.6. Participate in the hiring/termination, performance recognition, disciplinary action, and other personnel decisions to maintain high standards of clinical care.7. Ensure workforce development and training to meet service delivery needs.
  • Supervision Focus: Clinical Clinical: the focus of the supervisory interaction is on the supervisee as a counselor. The goal of supervision is to instruct. - Evaluates observed clinical interactions. -  Identifies and reinforces appropriate actions by the supervisee. - Teaches and demonstrates counseling techniques. - Explains rationale behind specific strategies and/or interventions. - Confronts the supervisee constructively . To facilitate modeling for the supervisee, a clinical supervisor should always have clinical responsibility in one form or another (through private practice, a small caseload, co- facilitating groups, etc…).
  • Supervision Focus: Supportive Supportive functions of clinical supervision include handholding, cheerleading, coaching, morale building, burnout prevention, and encouragement of personal growth. This may be considered befriending a supervisee, but close, personal relationships are inappropriate. The role here is to help facilitate the personal and professional growth of the supervisee.
  • Supervision Focus: Evaluative Addressing counselor skills, clarifying performance standards, negotiating objectives for learning, and utilizing appropriate sanctions for job performance impairment and skill deficits.Two Stages of Evaluation: Stage 1 - Goal setting (assessing supervisee professional development level and needs, formulating realistic, measurable objectives that make performance review possible). Stage 2 - Feedback (providing clear, constructive, humane communication concerning the degree to which goals have been attained). Evaluation is essential if clinical work is to be held accountable.
  • 3 Roadblocks to Effective Evaluation1. Lack of skills in evaluating counselor performance.2. Confusion about the compatibility of evaluation and supervision.3. The anxiety-evoking aspects of evaluation. (evaluations should create positive motivation for growth rather than get in the way of improved performance by reducing energy and inhibiting risk taking.
  • Consultation Defined Consultation is a process whereby an expert enables a consultee to deliver services more effectively to a client. A consultant does this by increasing, developing, modifying, or freeing the consultee’s knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behavior with respect to the problem at hand. Counselors assume the consultee role when in need of expert knowledge from doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, and other counselors who possess high levels of expertise related to certain types of problems (e.g., sexual abuse, child abuse, and other problems that require advanced knowledge).
  • Consultant Role Counselors serve as consultants to members of other professions and to other counselors in need of their special expertise. Examples of Consultation Roles1. Providing consultation to principles and teachers who need assistance in understanding and coping with problem students.2. To physicians who need assistance in the early identification of symptoms related to substance abuse disorders.3. To lawyers who need a legal opinion as to whether your client exhibits enough good judgment in order to regain joint custody of his children.
  • Consultation vs. Supervision Consultation is an intervention that overlaps with clinical supervision. Many supervision models has “consultant” as a model or role within its model. For example, the Discrimination Model of Supervision views supervisors roles as having 3 distinct foci (interventions, conceptualizations, and personalization), and Supervisor does this within 3 distinct roles (teacher, counselor, and consultant). Thus a supervisee might have a client in which he wants to try certain skills. The supervisor may teach the supervisee new skills to help work with the client, work on which skills would best fit the client in terms of counselors counseling style, and might discuss with the supervisee different theoretical approaches which may be effective with this client.
  • Consultation vs. Supervision There are several distinctions between supervision and consultation.1. The parties in the consultation relationship are often not of the same professional discipline.2. Consultation is likely to be a one-time only event, whereas supervision is an ongoing process.3. Supervision is often imposed, whereas consultation is often freely sought.4. There may be no evaluative role for the consultant, whereas supervision always has an evaluative component.
  • Organizational Consultation When a practitioner is asked to enter an organization and "consult" the request being made has different meanings to the various requestors.1. Sometimes an organization wants a specific problem "fixed”.2. Other times information and expertise is needed.3. At times it is a personel problem.4. Perhaps an educational process for a level of staff is required. Often an organization will ask you in, without giving thought to what type of an organization they have and what it needs. Regardless of how the organization sees their request, the consultant needs a full compendium of skills.
  • Consultation ExerciseYou have been asked to come in and consult in an organizationwhich has been going through some structural and interpersonalcrises. This organization was almost torn apart by a previousmanagement team that was very destructive and divisive. This topmanagement team has since left the organization, but the rifts andclicks still exist within the organization. A new management team hascome into the organization and has attempted to deal with problemsthat they have “inherited”. One of the most divisive (former)employees was that of the middle management (clinical) director.Even though a new director has entered the team, this role is still onein which other “remaining” staff are still having problems with. Inother words, the new middle manager director finds herself caught upwith the fact that existing employees are having problems with her(some of the same employees that had problems with herpredecessor).
  • Consultation ExerciseAn employee (Frank) that previously quit under the old “regime” (due tolegitimate charges of racism of that old regime and perceived abuse by theold clinical director) has now approached the new management with arequest to be hired (his old position has reopened, and the new managementteam is considering this request). This event has rekindled an old fire thatseemed to not be totally put out, but just smoldering under the surface. Somestaff members have reacted negatively to this proposition of rehiring the oldstaff member (one staff felt this old staff member was part of the pastproblems the organization was having, and the new middle manager alsofears that her position will be further under fire if this old staff member were tobe rehired). The executive director feels this would be an excellentopportunity to fully address these issues and try to put all of this “political”unrest and divisiveness to rest.The executive director (E.D.) feels strongly about hiring this old staff member(as he has impeccable credentials and would bring to the staff a missing areaof expertise). Seeing the problems that lie ahead, the E.D. brings you in asthe organizational consultant.
  • Consultation Exercise1. What are the basic organization issues that exist, which need to be dealt with by you as the consultant?2. Given the divisiveness and fears that exist currently, what are your recommendations to the executive director regarding the hiring of this old staff person?3. What kind of interventions would you suggest for this organization so that these old patterns can be dealt with and the staff can move on from being stuck at their current level of functioning?
  • Working Alliance The working alliance, or “collaboration to change” is common in to all models of therapy, and common to the supervisory relationship. It is composed of 3 elements: 1. The bond between therapist and client (supervisor and supervisee). 2. The extent to which they agree on goals. 3. The extent to which they agree on tasks to obtain the goals. The real change in supervision occurs during the process of weakening of the relationship and then repair of the relationship.
  • Working Alliance Main FeaturesThere are 4 main features in viewing the working alliance:1. The (supervisor) must possess certain facilitating human qualities, the qualities of a good parent.2. These qualities permit the potential establishment of a power base for the (supervisor), in which the (supervisor) uses the (supervisee’s) desire to please as leverage.3. Within the context of the therapeutic relationship, experiential learning occurs through the normal developmental processes of imitation and identification.4. The success of this relationship-based learning experience depends on preexisting (supervisee) qualities that permit at least a beginning level of trust and openness.
  • Working Alliance Goals Goals in the working alliance model are defined (in part) as the expectations to the nature and quality of the supervisory relationship.  For example one such goal would be to ensure a constructive supervisory learning environment, that foster’s an awareness of others, of oneself in terms of motivation, self-efficacy. Foster two-way feedback with supervisee. Expectations can be defined as “a person’s anticipatory beliefs about the nature (i.e., roles, behaviors, interactions, and tasks) or outcome of a particular event.”  For example one such goal would be teaching the purpose of clinical supervision to the supervisee, and having the supervisee understand the boundaries that exist within that supervision relationship. The congruence of expectations (i.e., shared goals) between or among people in a relationship is at least as important, and likely more important, than the expectations of any one individual.
  • Role Induction To maximize the likelihood of supervisor-supervisee congruence in expectations for supervision, an initial negotiation or contracting should occur between them. When the supervisee does not know the role options, it is possible to educate him/her about expected behaviors and roles. This is called role induction. Another supervisory strategy is to assess participants’ expectations.
  • The Role of ConflictRole Conflict occurs:1. When the supervisees are required to engage in two or more roles that may require inconsistent behavior (e.g., needing to reveal personal and professional weaknesses while also needing to present themselves as competent to the supervisor).2. When the supervisees are required to engage in behavior that is incongruent with their personal judgment (e.g., supervisor giving directives that are inconsistent with the supervisees theoretical or ethical beliefs).
  • The Role of Conflict In any relationship, whether personal or professional, conflict will inevitably occur between the supervisor and supervisee. The conflict often stems from a “mistake” that one party has made. The manner in which the parties resolve or fail to resolve that conflict will dictate whether the relationship continues to grow and develop, or continues to stagnate. The “weakening and repair” of the working alliance between two people constitutes the basis of therapeutic change.
  • The Role of Trust Mutual trust between supervisee and supervisor is essential to effective supervision, and effects the behavior of all parties involved in this process. The supervisee and supervisor must overcome their feelings of vulnerability. - For supervisees, the vulnerability concerns their personal feelings, professional development and abilities, and even their career paths. - For supervisors, there is some personal vulnerability, but there is also professional vulnerability that stems from the responsibility to the welfare of the client.
  • The Role of Trust An atmosphere of safety is a necessary condition to counteract the vulnerability that exists in the supervisory relationship. One characteristic of trust is that it always exists in some degree: it is not an all or nothing phenomenon. It also occurs over many interactions and interpersonal risks taken together. For supervisees, the level of trust will influence the degree to which they will disclose what is occurring in interactions with the client. For supervisors, trust can help avoid too much intrusion into and control over the supervisee’s work.
  • Working Alliance & Conflict ExerciseElena is a Licensed Social Worker working in a mental health agency.This is her first job post masters, and she has been working there for over2 years. During the first year of her job, she was horribly mistreated byher clinical supervisor. This supervisor demeaned her work, and did allthat she could to point out Elena’s professional weaknesses. This oldclinical supervisor (Goofus) leaves and they hire a new clinical supervisor(Gallant). “Gallant” was told of Elena’s past woes and did her best todevelop a strong therapeutic working alliance with Elena. This work wasslow as Elena had been traumatized and was very slow to trust this newsupervisor. During clinical supervision, mistakes were made in that Elenahad taken issue with a comment the supervisor made about possibletransference issues with a client. The supervisor attempted to repair anyissues that Elena had, however, other problems would pop up (whichincluded the need to give Elena a written warning for excessive lateness).
  • Working Alliance & Conflict ExerciseThe conflict within this relationship came to a boil when, during groupsupervision, Elena decided to show a tape of her work with a client.Elena made the statement “I’m feeling very vulnerable” before showingthe tape. As the tape progressed, the supervisor interjected a point of thetape where Elena was leading the client to answer in a certain way. Thesupervisor pointed this out to Elena. Towards the end of Elena’spresentation, the supervisor praised Elena for the work she did with thisclient. Elena was distraught after this and went to the supervisor’s boss,with a plea that she could not work with her clinical supervisor due to hermisinterpretations of transference and her inconsiderate commentsregarding her work with a client. Elena felt that past history wasrepeating itself and asked this (upper management) person to intervenein some way.
  • Working Alliance and Trust Exercise1. What did the clinical supervisor do wrong, if anything, during the group supervision when Elena showed the tape?2. Are there any issues of trust that have occurred?3. If you found a problem with the clinical supervisor in the group setting, what different course of action could she have taken to avoid this problem?4. What actions, if any, should the upper management person take to help rectify this situation?5. What would be a good intervention for Elena and the Clinical Supervisor, in order to help restore the damaged working alliance,
  • The Role of Power within Supervision Social or interpersonal power is a critical factor in supervision. Power is defined as the capacity to influence the behavior of another person. Power has been categorized as:1. Referent – derived from interpersonal attraction and based on trainees perceiving that they hold in common with supervisors relevant values, attitudes, opinions, and experiences.2. Expert – the display of such resources as specialized knowledge and skills, confidence, and rationality.3. Legitimate – a consequence of perceived trustworthiness because the supervisor is a socially sanctioned provider of services who is not motivated by personal gains.
  • Supervisee Experiential Level With experience, the supervisee should develop more:1. Self-awareness of behavior and motivation within counseling sessions.2. Consistency in the execution of counseling interventions.3. Autonomy (in decision making without need of immediate supervisory feedback).4. Sophisticated ways to conceptualize the counseling process and the issues their clients present. Novice supervisees should have supervision focus on conceptualization issues with clients. Focusing on personal issues may be inappropriate unless these issues are blocking the supervisee from grasping conceptual information.
  • Supervisee Experiential Level Novice supervisees will be more rigid and less discriminating in their delivery of therapeutic interventions. More advanced supervisees are more flexible and less dominant when delivering interventions such as confrontation. - A lack of flexibility or introduction of dominance may indicate that a particular case is either personally threatening for the supervisee, or they experience the case as beyond his/her level of competence.
  • Supervisee Experiential Level Role ambiguity is a hallmark of the novice supervisor. Role ambiguity occurs when the supervisee is uncertain about role expectations the supervisor and/or agency has for him/her. Role induction should include both what the expectations are as a supervisee and what the expectations and implications are of the supervisee as helper (counselor). Role conflict emerges as an issue with more experienced. - 2 or more roles that require inconsistent behavior. - When they are required to engage in behavior that is incongruent with their personal judgment
  • Supervisee Experience and Conflict ExerciseAlex is an experienced clinician who has been in the field for over7 years. He has his LCADC, and a masters in counseling. Hecomes into supervision with you and discusses a particularlydifficult case that he has been working with for the past 4 months. The case involves a family, in which the parents are leadingcauses of the dysfunction within the only son (who is the identifiedclient). Recently Alex shifted work from individual work with theadolescent, to family work. In the context of this work, Alex hasbecome stuck in the treatment of the family. The family does notappear to want to change, despite stating they need therapy.Father espouses racist terms in therapy sessions, and motherstates that she has never really loved or bonded with her son.
  • Supervisee Experience and Conflict ExerciseAlex feels that if he continues to just work with the adolescent, thefamily is too destructive and devise (yet not enough to have thechild removed from the home), and any positive work that is donein therapy will be erased at home. At the same time, he statesthat when in family sessions he has “urges to reach over andsmack the shit out father” due to father’s racism and generalnegativity towards his son. Alex also feels negatively towards themother. The end of this discussion, Alex states that this familygoes against all that he stands for as a professional and as aChristian. Alex then questions you as to how he should proceedwith family.
  • Supervisee Exercise Questions Given the extreme nature of the role conflict that is occurring in Alex, how do you feel he should proceed with this family? Does Alex level of experience play into the decision you have made about the future direction of this case? How would your decision and feedback have been different if Alex just came out of college and this was his first job experience? Does the decision you just made cause more of a role conflict for Alex, and if so, how should this be dealt with in the supervisory process?
  • Feedback An important process of feedback is that supervisees compare the feedback they have been given to their own self-assessment. Thus supervisees are much more open to feedback if it corresponds to their own ideas as to how they are functioning. If it’s highly disparate from anything we’ve thought about, then it is harder to accept and integrate.
  • Feedback Factors that make feedback easier to accept are: 1. If it does coincide with the supervisee’s impression of his or her own behavior; 2. If it’s presented as a developmental goal, or part of a supervision plan, that it’s part of development; 3. If it’s behaviorally-linked and specific, and close in time to when the actual behavior was observed; 4. If the supervisor models a reflective process regarding the feedback. And this is, when the supervisor receives feedback, reflects upon it and integrates it into their on-going behavior or at least tries to contextualize it and understand it, and then integrate it (and models how that can be done for the supervisee).
  • Feedback Feedback that’s viewed as negative can be hard to accept and integrate, and can be de-motivational. That’s why it’s so important that even if one is giving what is deemed negative feedback that it be framed constructively, in terms of plans, action plans for improvement. Improvement is most likely if recipients are positive about receiving feedback, believe change is possible and desirable – that is, motivated to change – and use it to develop performance goals and to take action for improvement.
  • Types of Feedback Facilitative: Facilitate discussion by asking non-directive questions (e.g., “what did you see happening at that moment” … “how did you feel when the client responded in that manner”). Confrontive: Addressing specific behaviors or interventions on the part of the counselor (e.g., “why did you say that, it didn’t seem to have the effect you wanted?”). Catalytic: Asking what-if questions. The supervisor provokes the counselor to take a different perspective on the situation.
  • Types of Feedback Conceptual: A conceptual response contributes new information and a different way of visualizing the case. Examples include: 1. “There seems to be some transference going on, lets talk about how this transference affects the session” 2. “If you recall from Yalom, this group appears to be at an early stage of development. Let’s review early stage issues and see how you can get past this.” Prescriptive: Skills oriented supervisory style. Directing the counselor to respond in a particular manner the next time a certain set of circumstances occurs. This is usually done with new counselors, or counselors with limited knowledge in a particular area.
  • Guidelines for Giving Corrective FeedbackD
  • Guidelines for Giving Corrective FeedbackDeciding what to say:1. Describe the problem behavior and avoid personal attributions.2. Explain the consequences of the behavior and your feelings about it.3. Provide sufficient specific information so the receiver may become self-correcting, but not so much information as to be redundant.4. Emphasize desired, not undesired, behaviors.
  • Guidelines for Giving Corrective FeedbackDescriptive rather than judgmental (evaluative): “You interruptedAnn three times” rather than “You sure are impatient.” “You spokeclearly and your points were well organized” rather than “Greatsession.”Specific rather than general: “Your hands were in constant motionand your foot was tapping” rather than “Your non-verbals weredistracting.” It should be specific to the behavior being learned.Timely: Feedback is most effective when given closely after theincident to be reported. However, you should be sensitive to whetherthe person is able to receive the feedback at that time and place.
  • Guidelines for Giving Corrective FeedbackFocused: Feedback should be addressed to the subject at hand—the behavior being worked on. Dont overload the person withextraneous information. - "Gunny-sacking" is an example of a violation of timeliness and focus where a person suddenly unloads every complaint theyve ever had about your behavior for the last months.Checked for Accuracy: If there is any doubt that the receiverunderstands your message, ask the person to rephrase so you can besure they heard you correctly. In group situations, either sender orreceiver can ask other group members whether or not theirperceptions matched the senders.
  • Guidelines for Giving Corrective FeedbackDeciding how and when to give feedback: C = Clear:1. Give corrective feedback in a considerate tone using “I” rather than “you” messages.2. Give corrective feedback privately and immediately, rather than publicly and belatedly.Deciding how to handle the receiver’s response:1. Ask for reactions; be willing to be influenced.2. Seek agreement that a problem exists.
  • Feedback Summary: C.O.R.B.S. C = Clear: Be clear about any feedback you deliver. Vague feedback causes confusion, anxiety and frustration in supervisees. O = Owned: The feedback you give is your own perception and not the ultimate truth. R = Regular: Regular feedback is more useful to supervisees. Try to give feedback as close to the event as possible and early enough for the person to do something about it. B = Balanced: Balance the negative with the positive feedback, depending on the supervisee sandwiching of feedback may be necessary. S = Specific: Generalized feedback is hard to learn from. Phrases such as “You are a frustrating counselor” can lead to hurt and anger. “I feel frustrated when you don’t follow the recommendations the team made regarding this case” is more to the point and attached to specific behaviors.
  • Feedback and Fragility ExerciseBob O. is a relatively new therapist (less than 2 years ofexperience), and a particularly fragile soul. He clearly wears hisheart on sleeve in that his reactions to constructive criticism isvisceral in nature (he become flush, facial expressions andmannerism change). You are quite aware of his reactions to yourfeedback and this has even been openly discussed between thetwo of you. Bob O. denies the reactions and denies anydefensiveness on his part … in fact he becomes quite defensivein his denial yet given his fragility of feedback you questionwhether you should use this great opportunity to point out theprocess of the supervision relationship. Curiosity (and yourinsatiable appetite for human drama) gets the best of you and youdecide to point out that he is becoming very defensive about hisdefensiveness.
  • Feedback and Fragility ExerciseBob O. appears to be more open to this feedback and thanks youfor pointing out this behavior in him. Supervision ends, and lifegoes on. Next week Bob O. calls out sick on his next regularlyscheduled supervision appointment. You decide not to make anissue out of this in fear that this may cause a total breakdown ofhis immune system, causing further employee rolling blackouts.However, the next week passes and Bob O. calls out sick again.You decide to tempt fate and address the issue with Bob O. hisnext day back.
  • Feedback, Fragility Exercise Questions How do you handle this situation of talking with Bob O. about his latest behavior? Which type of corrective feedback (i.e., facilitative, confrontive, catalytic, conceptual, and prescriptive) should be used? Why? Give an example of a question you would use (either facilitative, confrontive, catalytic, conceptual, or prescriptive). Bob O. continues to deny that there is a problem that exists, where do you go from there?
  • The Future - Role of Clinical Supervision Supervisor and Supervisee competence can always be enhanced. Institutions and individuals have a responsibility for continuous quality improvement. State agencies and training institutions can initiate programs, tailored to institutions or individuals unique local situations (e.g., clinical supervision as it would appear in a Therapeutic Community may have different characteristics than that of an Outpatient Clinic).
  • The Future - Role of Clinical Supervision Methods for improving clinical practice Training workshops Clinical supervision Clinical and supervision guidelines Evidence-based clinical methods Practice-based clinical methods Clinical audit Outcomes monitoring and management Outcomes benchmarking Continuous quality improvement
  • The Future - Role of Clinical Supervision Useful strategies for improving clinical practice Training workshops Supervision of clinical supervision Supervision guidelines Practice-based methods Outcomes monitoring and management Practice-based methods are focused directly on the practices of the clinician and/or supervisor. In improving supervisor performance the following criteria can be used: 1) implementation of supervisor self-report measure; 2) supervisor guidelines; and 3) objective analysis of supervisor behavior. Supervisee measure of satisfaction with supervision does NOT serve as an outcomes measure of: 1) client progress; or 2) the development of clinical competencies.
  • Bibliography• Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear, R. K. (2003). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision, 3rd Ed. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Bordin, E. S. (1979). The Generalizability of the Psychodynamic Concept of the Working Alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, pp. 252-260. Cape, J. & Barkham, M. (2002). Practice improvement methods: Conceptual base, evidence-based research, and practice-based recommendations. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, pp. 285- 307. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Training Library. (2002). Training of the trainers for the community and migrant health center course (Giving Feedback).
  • Bibliography Daniels, J., & Larson, L. (2001). The impact of performance feedback on counseling self-efficacy and counselor anxiety. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41, 120-130. Falender, C. A. & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Clinical Supervision: A Competency- Based Approach. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. Falender, C. A. (2011). Online Transcript of Competency Based Supervision Overview. http://www.mirecc.va.gov/visn19/images/videos/falender.pdf Horvath, A. O. & Greenberg, L. S. (1994). The Working Alliance: Theory, Research, and Practice. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. Itzhaky, H. & Sztern, L. (1999). The take over of parent-child dynamics in a supervisory relationship: Identifying the role transformation. Clinical Social Work Journal, 27(3), Fall, 247-258.
  • Bibliography Itzhaky, H. (2000). The secret in supervision: An integral part of the social workers professional development. Families in Society, 81(5), 529-537. Latting, J. K. (1992). Giving Corrective Feedback: A Decisional Analysis. Social Work, 37(5), pp. 424 – 430.• Powell, D. J. & Brodsky, A. (2004). Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA. Robyak, J. E., Goodyear, R. K., & Prange, M. (1987). Effects of supervisor’s sex, focus, and experience on preferences for interpersonal power bases. Counselor Education and Supervision, 26, pp. 299-309.