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What is diagnostics ?  An instrument with procedures and systems which detect, measure and isolate a malfunction of a body...
Common medical conditions <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>High/Low blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>High/Low blood sugar l...
Diagnostic instruments commonly used at home Instrument Medical condition Thermometer Fever B. P. Monitor Hypertension Glu...
Fever <ul><li>Fever,  also known as pyrexia,  </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in internal body temperature to  </li></ul><ul><l...
Fever Fever is the body's reaction to pathogens;  It attempts to raise core body temperature to levels which will denature...
Diagnostic instrument used:   Thermometer
It is an instrument used to measure body temperature in degree Fahrenheit   Body Thermometer
Types of thermometer available <ul><li>Glass (Bulb) thermometer </li></ul><ul><li>Digital thermometer   </li></ul>
Bulb thermometers   <ul><li>Traditional type of thermometer. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to ta...
Digital thermometers Digital thermometers are the ones most experts currently recommend.  Nowadays inexpensive, accurate v...
Types of Digital thermometer available
Oral thermometers Ear thermometers
Oral thermometer  Omron MC-110B   
Ear thermometer <ul><li>Omron </li></ul><ul><li>Model MC-510 </li></ul>
How to use axillary (thermometers used under armpit/oral) thermometer?   Shake down the thermometer until it reads below 9...
How to use ear thermometer    (thermometer inserted under ear)?                 Wipe the thermometer probe with a soapy w...
Blood pressure
Hypertension/Hypotension What is blood pressure????
The blood pressure of a normal human is taken to be 120/80mm Hg.   BLOOD PRESSURE IS THE  FORCE EXERTED BY THE BLOOD AGAIN...
How does the heart create pressure Blood is taken through pulmonary arteries to get purified  in the lungs. Pulmonary vein...
Types of blood pressure 120 / 80 SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE PRESSURE EXERTED BY BLOOD  WHEN THE HEART  CONTRACTS DIASTOLIC BL...
MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY mm Hg mm Hg Blood Pressure measurement units
COMMON BLOOD PRESSURE COMPLICATIONS HYPERTENSION HYPOTENSION HYPER : EXCESS  TENSION: PRESSURE   i.e.on blood vessels HYPO...
CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERTENSION <ul><li>MILD HYPERTENSION: </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE HYPERTENSION: </li></ul><ul><li>SEVER...
TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS  AVAILABLE AT GUARDIAN STORES MANUAL  BLOOD PRESSURE  MONITORS
SEMI-AUTOMATIC  BLOOD PRESSURE  MONITORS TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS  AVAILABLE IN OUR STORES
AUTOMATIC  BLOOD PRESSURE  MONITOR TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS  AVAILABLE IN our STORES
AUTOMATIC  BLOOD PRESSURE  MONITOR TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS  AVAILABLE IN our STORES
Diabetes: What is Diabetes <ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia </li></ul>
Normal blood glucose levels (before meal) 80-100 mg/10micro liter of blood (after meal) 100-140 mg/10micro liter of blood
Common blood glucose related complications Hyperglycemia Hyper: more than normal  Glycemia:presence of glucose in the bloo...
Hyperglycemia results in diabetes Diabetes is marked by high levels of glucose in blood. Food   Glucose   Glucose   Glucos...
GLUCOMETER <ul><li>GLUCO : SUGAR  </li></ul><ul><li>METER :MEASURE </li></ul><ul><li>AN INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE THE  LE...
Common components <ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet device </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet </li></ul><ul><li>Strips </li><...
Common brands available <ul><li>Accu Chek (Active) </li></ul><ul><li>One Touch (Ultra/Horizon) </li></ul>
Types of glucometers available in stores
Glucometers: One touch ultra
CHROMATOGRAPHY  BASED TEST STRIP FOR  DETECTING  PREGNANCY . PREGNANCY TEST KITS
Parts of a pregnancy test kit Test strip A dropper
How does a test kit work Put few drops of the morning urine  sample on the sample window,S Wait for 3 to 5 minutes
Interpretation of results Color and test band turn pink:  positive(pregnant) Color band turns pink:  negative(not pregnant...
WEIGHING SCALES AN INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE  THE BODY WEIGHT  OF A PERSON.
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Diagnostics knowledge 1st

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Diagnostics knowledge 1st

  1. 1. [email_address]
  2. 2. What is diagnostics ? An instrument with procedures and systems which detect, measure and isolate a malfunction of a body, a body part or a body system.
  3. 3. Common medical conditions <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>High/Low blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>High/Low blood sugar level </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity/ Sudden weight loss </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diagnostic instruments commonly used at home Instrument Medical condition Thermometer Fever B. P. Monitor Hypertension Glucometer Diabetes Weighing scale Over weight/underweight
  5. 5. Fever <ul><li>Fever, also known as pyrexia, </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in internal body temperature to </li></ul><ul><li>levels which are above normal (37 </li></ul><ul><li>degrees Celsius, 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fever Fever is the body's reaction to pathogens; It attempts to raise core body temperature to levels which will denature, debilitate, or kill the pathogen. Most fevers are caused by infections and almost all infectious diseases can cause fever
  7. 7. Diagnostic instrument used: Thermometer
  8. 8. It is an instrument used to measure body temperature in degree Fahrenheit Body Thermometer
  9. 9. Types of thermometer available <ul><li>Glass (Bulb) thermometer </li></ul><ul><li>Digital thermometer </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bulb thermometers <ul><li>Traditional type of thermometer. </li></ul><ul><li>Made of glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to take oral (mouth), axillary (armpit), or rectal temperatures . </li></ul><ul><li>Although most used to contain mercury, some bulb thermometers are available without this dangerous substance. </li></ul><ul><li>The only difference between an oral thermometer and a rectal one is in the shape of the bulb. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are designed to be used in either area. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Digital thermometers Digital thermometers are the ones most experts currently recommend. Nowadays inexpensive, accurate versions are available in most drug stores. These thermometers can be used to measure the temperature by the Forehead Rectal, Oral, Armpit, Ear canal routes.
  12. 12. Types of Digital thermometer available
  13. 13. Oral thermometers Ear thermometers
  14. 14. Oral thermometer  Omron MC-110B   
  15. 15. Ear thermometer <ul><li>Omron </li></ul><ul><li>Model MC-510 </li></ul>
  16. 16. How to use axillary (thermometers used under armpit/oral) thermometer?   Shake down the thermometer until it reads below 95.9 degrees, if you're using the glass-mercury type, or turn on the thermometer if you're using the digital type.   Insert the thermometer in the mouth below tongue or armpit (in case of babies) and hold down the baby's arm so that the end of the thermometer is completely surrounded by skin.   Leave the thermometer in place for 2 to 3 minutes if using the glass-mercury type. For the digital type, wait until the thermometer signals that the process is complete.   Read the thermometer where the line of mercury ends or, if using a digital thermometer, read the display.   Clean a glass-mercury thermometer with soap and water, and sterilize it by soaking it in alcohol.   Clean a digital thermometer by following the manufacturer's instructions.
  17. 17. How to use ear thermometer (thermometer inserted under ear)?                Wipe the thermometer probe with a soapy washcloth or a tissue dabbed in isopropyl alcohol or put on a clean probe, depending on your brand of thermometer.          Turn the thermometer on.          Use a gentle rocking motion as you insert the thermometer into the ear canal or rectum. Never push or cram the probe into the body. Forcing it causes pain, especially if there is swelling in the ear canal or rectum.          Listen for the beep.          Remove the thermometer.          Read the thermometer. If you see &quot;ERR,&quot; you did not get good contact with the ear canal or rectum, and will need to take the temperature again.          Use the chart insert that comes with your thermometer to see what your normal reading should be. Clean your thermometer probe with a soapy washcloth and/or isopropyl alcohol before storing .
  18. 18. Blood pressure
  19. 19. Hypertension/Hypotension What is blood pressure????
  20. 20. The blood pressure of a normal human is taken to be 120/80mm Hg. BLOOD PRESSURE IS THE FORCE EXERTED BY THE BLOOD AGAINST THE WALLS OF THE BLOOD VESSELS.
  21. 21. How does the heart create pressure Blood is taken through pulmonary arteries to get purified in the lungs. Pulmonary veins bring the purified blood back to heart.
  22. 22. Types of blood pressure 120 / 80 SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE PRESSURE EXERTED BY BLOOD WHEN THE HEART CONTRACTS DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE PRESSURE EXERTED BY BLOOD WHEN THE HEART RELAXES
  23. 23. MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY mm Hg mm Hg Blood Pressure measurement units
  24. 24. COMMON BLOOD PRESSURE COMPLICATIONS HYPERTENSION HYPOTENSION HYPER : EXCESS TENSION: PRESSURE i.e.on blood vessels HYPO: LESS TENSION: PRESSURE i.e.on blood vessels
  25. 25. CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERTENSION <ul><li>MILD HYPERTENSION: </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE HYPERTENSION: </li></ul><ul><li>SEVERE HYPERTENSION: </li></ul>
  26. 26. TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS AVAILABLE AT GUARDIAN STORES MANUAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS
  27. 27. SEMI-AUTOMATIC BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS AVAILABLE IN OUR STORES
  28. 28. AUTOMATIC BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS AVAILABLE IN our STORES
  29. 29. AUTOMATIC BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR TYPES OF BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS AVAILABLE IN our STORES
  30. 30. Diabetes: What is Diabetes <ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia </li></ul>
  31. 31. Normal blood glucose levels (before meal) 80-100 mg/10micro liter of blood (after meal) 100-140 mg/10micro liter of blood
  32. 32. Common blood glucose related complications Hyperglycemia Hyper: more than normal Glycemia:presence of glucose in the blood. Hypoglycemia Hypo: less than normal Glycemia:presence of glucose in the blood.
  33. 33. Hyperglycemia results in diabetes Diabetes is marked by high levels of glucose in blood. Food Glucose Glucose Glucose Food Energy Diabetes Insulin
  34. 34. GLUCOMETER <ul><li>GLUCO : SUGAR </li></ul><ul><li>METER :MEASURE </li></ul><ul><li>AN INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE THE LEVEL OF GLUCOSE IN THE BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>OF A PERSON. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Common components <ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet device </li></ul><ul><li>Lancet </li></ul><ul><li>Strips </li></ul>
  36. 36. Common brands available <ul><li>Accu Chek (Active) </li></ul><ul><li>One Touch (Ultra/Horizon) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Types of glucometers available in stores
  38. 38. Glucometers: One touch ultra
  39. 39. CHROMATOGRAPHY BASED TEST STRIP FOR DETECTING PREGNANCY . PREGNANCY TEST KITS
  40. 40. Parts of a pregnancy test kit Test strip A dropper
  41. 41. How does a test kit work Put few drops of the morning urine sample on the sample window,S Wait for 3 to 5 minutes
  42. 42. Interpretation of results Color and test band turn pink: positive(pregnant) Color band turns pink: negative(not pregnant) None of the bands turn pink: invalid
  43. 43. WEIGHING SCALES AN INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE THE BODY WEIGHT OF A PERSON.

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