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Heidi KratschUniversity of NevadaCooperativeExtension
"There are two seasonal diversions that can ease the bite of any winter. One is the January thaw. The other is the seed catalogues." - Hal Borland (wrote outdoor editorials for the New York Times from 1941-1978)
Seed catalogs and terminology Selecting your varieties Starting seeds indoors Hardening off your seedlings
Disease Tolerance vs. ResistanceTypical key fordisease-resistance: Resistant varieties are not available for all crops.V - Verticillium wiltF - Fusarium wiltN - Nematode Tolerant – may get a diseaseT - Tobacco mosaicvirus but surviveA - Alternariaalternata (crown wiltdisease) Resistant – usually will not getL - Septoria leafspot the disease
Potato (plants) Late blight Tomatoes (plants) Colorado potato beetle and Japanese beetle Garlic, onion (commercial only) Stem /bulb nematode, white rot fungushttp://agri.nv.gov/Nursery/NevadaQuarantineSummaryChart.pdf
Cultivar = cultivated variety Examples: ‘Early Girl’ tomatoes ‘Sugar Ann’ snap peas ‘Buttercrunch’ lettuce ‘Royal burgundy’ bush beans Cultivars are varieties within a crop selected for a particular characteristic.
Hybrid varieties created to meet the needs of most growing regions. Heirloom varieties better at meeting the specific needs of a region (like Nevada!)
Pelleted – encased in a clay-based pellet Treated - controls diseases and insect pests
Annuals – complete their lifecycle in one growing season Biennials – require two growing seasons to flower (ex. beets, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, celery, chard, collard, endive, kale, kohlrabi, leek, onion, parsley, parsnip, rutabaga, salsify, and turnip) Perennials – live for more than two growing seasons (asparagus, rhubarb)
Su = high sugar: sugars 9-16% (low shelf-life < 1 week) Se = sugary enhanced: sugars 14-35% (shelf- life > 1 week) Sh2 = super sweet: sugars 28-44% (shelf- life > 1 week)
Could be F1 hybrid. May not be able to save seed If pelleted, must not contain fungicide. Some contain beneficial microorganisms Don’t assume OP or heirloom are organic.
Double-Dug, Raised Beds Composting Intensive Planting Companion Planting/Crop rotation Carbon Farming Calorie Farming The Use of Open-Pollinated Seeds Whole-System Farming Methods
What vegetables will you plant? What varieties will you choose? How will you arrange your garden? When should you start? Spacing between plants? Seeds or transplants? Conventional garden or “deep” organic?
Seed Spacing Chart No. of seeds per Seeds per Area packet Vegetable packet Spacing required Spacing for seeds or Corn 150 3 per foot 50 row feet transplants (4 in.) Growing tips for each Pole beans 85 2 per foot 43 row feet (6 in.) crop Looseleaf 300 2 per foot 150 row feet Don’t forget to figure lettuce (8-12 in.) in enough for Head lettuce 300 1 per foot 300 row succession planting (10-12 in.) feet Make use of vertical Tomatoes 30 1 per 2 feet 60 row feet (indeterminate) (24 in.) space Carrots 800 4 per foot 200 row (3 in.) feet
Early Spring (March 15): cool season veggies Summer – late May / early June: warm season veggies Fall – August: cool season veggies (again)
Ideal Min soil soilVegetable temp temp March April May June July Aug Sept Oct NovBeans 65-85 60Beets 55-75 40Brassicas 55-65 40Carrots 55-65 40Corn 70-85 60Cucumber 65-85 65Lettuce 55-65 40Melon 70-85 65Peas 55-65 40Peppers 65-80 60Radishes 55-75 40Spinach 55-65 40Tomatoes 65-70 60IndoorsPlantHarvest
Seed must be viable Internal conditions of the seed must be favorable Environmental conditions must be favorable
Moisture Temperature Light Lettuce and grains Misting bench Air Medium must be well-drained Disease-free Damping-off disease Damping off
Fine-textured Uniform consistency Loose, well-aerated Holds moisture but drains well Low fertility Sterile Do not use 100% garden soil
Seed flats or plastic cell packs Must have drainage holes Sterilize if recycled: 1 part household bleach to 9 parts water for 5 minutes
Low light intensity produces pale, spindly seedlings Two 40-watt fluorescent tubes Position seedlings 6 inches below Provide 16 hours light daily
Light For photosynthesis Fertilizing Provide low level of fertilizer no more than weekly Hardening off Seedlings prepared for transplanting outdoors Prevents transplant shock Seedlings gradually exposed to cooler temperatures and reduced moisture/humidity
Plants accumulate carbohydrates (food) Cell walls thicken Temporarily slows plant growth Increase length of exposure gradually (1 to 2 weeks) Acclimatize to cold, wind, sun