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2003 Orchard View
michael@michaelsapples.com• ISA Certified Arborist– Pruning– Consults and Pruning Lessons• NV Nursery License– Retail bare...
Growing Fruit Trees andBerries in Northern NevadaMichael G. Janikwww.michaelsapples.com
Why I grow, hunt, and gather
November
Winter
Sources of Information• Handouts• UNR Cooperative Extension MasterGardenersReno 775-784-4848Winnemucca 775-623-6304• Clubs...
Reference Books
Sources for Trees• Local nurseries• Chain Discount Stores• Mail order nurseries• www.gardenwatchdog.com• www.davesgarden.com
Pollination: Pollenizers (other variety) Pollinators (bees)
Selection Criteria• What you need and want• What the tree needs and wants
Personal Needs and Likes• What type of fruit do you like?-Apples, Pears, Cherries, Berries• Continuous supply-Early, Autum...
Preserves, jams, jelly, pies
Other ways to preserve apples and grapes
Fruit Tree Needs and Likes• Climate—Hardy to USDA zones 2-6• Chill Hours—hrs 32-45°F +800 hrs• Soil—pH 6.5 Northern NV pH ...
Varieties for Northern Nevada• UNR Cooperative Extension (handout)• Other varieties for our area• Farm trails and fruit ta...
Farm Trails—Stabile’s Hillview Farm Watsonville, CANAFEX.org
Apples• Choose anearly ripening,a late, & akeeper (or 2)• Handoutvarieties plus:– Granny Smith,Arkansas Black– Honeycrisp,...
Pears• Red Bartlett• Seckel• Bosc• d’Anjou• FlemishBeauty• Pick, store,ripen,consume
Stone Fruits• Cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines• Late blooming, early ripening!
Apricots• Why don’t theyproducehere????• Extensionhandout• Tomcot,Manchurian• Harrow series:Harogem,Hargrand,Har* Ontario•...
Cherries • Sweet• Attika (Kordia)• Kristin• Gold• ‘Sour’ or“Pie” or“Tart”• Montmorency• Morello• Northstar
Plums• European and Asian• Green gage, Reine Claude• Italian prune, CastletonStanley, Empress, President• Toka• Burbank Hy...
Peaches/Nectarines• PEACHES>850 chill hours-Redhaven-Early Elberta-Elberta-Veteran-ContenderNECTARINES-Harko-Hardired-Red ...
BERRIESRASPBERRIESHeritageAutumn BlissAnna (yellow)CarolineRosannaPolanaBLACKBERRIES (Thornless)Triple CrownChesterLoganbe...
RASPBERRY Trellis, Early Spring
BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries– 5.0 pH– Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northerncatalogs
BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries– 5.0 pH– Elliot, Norsky,Patriot, checknorthern catalogs
• Grapes– Table grapes, wine grapes– Grapes for Northern Nevada– University of Minnesota– UC Davis, Wolfskill Experimental...
STRAWBERRIES• HYBRIDS– Tristar– Tribute– Everest– Apache• ALPINE– Fragissimo (white)– Baron– Capron– Mara des Bois
STRAWBERRIESCapron Mara des Bois
Currants and GooseberriesRed LakeWhite ImperialMinaj SmyriouBen LomondNutsPecans (native northern)Walnuts (Black)Almond (H...
OTHERS• Hardy kiwis• Jujubes• One Green World, Raintree, etc
NEVADA NATIVES• CHOKECHERRIES• ELDERBERRIES• CURRANTS
How Fruit Trees and Berries ArePropagated• Rhizomes (raspberries)• Stolons or runners (strawberries)• Seeds from fruit (co...
Natural Graft
Rootstocks
Ready to Graft
First cut showing cambial ring
Second cut on rootstock and scion
Whip and tongue graft
Secure graft with grafting rubber
Graft Secured
Wrap with grafting tape; wax top
Planting in Nursery Rows
Sprout on graft
Bare Root Apple Whip
More Choices• Bare root vs. potted trees• Do you need pollenizers?• Spring or Fall planting• Tree size
My Preferences• Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Grow Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties• on Dwarfing Rootstocks
Size control using rootstocks
Standard Semi-dwarf DwarfTree sizes
Standard Tree Semi Dwarf
Dwarf apple orchard
Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
Easy access to harvest
Getting Started
Take a Soil Sample!
Enhancing Soils• Agricultural sulfur (Tiger 90) to lower pH• Green cover crop: winter (annual) rye,winter wheat• Mulch and...
Soil prep
M & MMulch and Manure (composted horse)
Mineral Deficiencies• Calcium deficiency--Bitter Pit• Iron deficiency—Chlorosis• Zinc deficiency
Bitter pit—Ca deficiency
Zinc Deficiency
Chlorosis (Fe deficiency)
ChlorosisonCucumber
Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral
Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral• OVERWATERING!!!!
Treatment for mineral deficiencies• Stop Overwatering!• Analyze soil adjust pH• Apply Agricultural Sulphur• Mulch, Mulch, ...
My Preference• Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties• on Dwarfing Rootstocks.
Planting
Planting
Training Young Trees
ApicalDominanceNote the nearhorizontal limbangles
Bare Root Treenote the branch angles
Training Horizontal Limbs--Before
Training horizontal limbs--after
ForkedgrowthNote the paleleaves
Daffodils: Spring: Begin Spray Program
READ and FOLLOWPRODUCT LABELINSTRUCTIONS
Use protective gear!
Read and follow label instructions!
Know the Pest and Pesticide• Identify the pest you want to control (kill).• Read the label on the pesticide product.• Make...
“ALTERNATIVE PEST CONTROLS”
Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scale• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust• Insecticide—codling moth lar...
Dormant buds on apple
Delayed dormant buds on pear and cherry
¼ inch green tippear and cherryDormant oil sprayAphids
Aphid
Ladybug (ladybird beetle)
Aphids with Lacewing
Ladybug larvae
Beneficial Insects• Lady Bugs (Ladybird beetles)• Lacewings• Mantis
Half-inch Green Tipfungicide spray for powdery mildew
Powdery mildew
First Pink—Apple NO PESTICIDES!!!
Full Bloom
Full Bloom--Peach
Apple blossoms
Nectarine blossoms
Orchard blossoms
Pollenizers (other fruit variety), Pollinators (bees)
Bumble bee
Fruit Set on Peach—thinning time
Peach after thinning
Fruit Cluster—close up
Apple after thinning
Well-thinned Cortland apples
Codling Moth—first evening at 62 degrees
Codling moths damage apples, pears, and …
Codling moth frass
One rotten apple will spoil the barrel
KnowyourenemyLife CycleCodlingMoth3 hatchesper year
UC Davis Codling Moth Factsheet
Monitoring: Codling moth pheromone trap
Catch moths on 3 consecutive days--Biofix
Degree Day Table or Calculator
Determine when to spray• Monitor traps determine biofix• Google “codling moth degree days”• Use chart max/min temperatures...
Coming
Going
‘No Spray’ OptionBagging Fruit
Bagging option• Thin fruit• Spray• Bag
Thinning time is Bagging time
Apple after thinning
Bagged FujiPhoto courtesy of Ed Franks, hobby orchardist, Illinois, NAFEX
Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scales– Winter (optional)– ¼” green tip• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, ...
Fall
Good Cultural Practices In Autumn• Pick up fruit as it falls• Do not leave fruit on trees over winter• Paint trunks or use...
Earwig eggs in apple mummy
Earwigs
Protect TreeTrunksSunscald on Peach
Install TreeGuardsorPaint Trunks50/50 whitelatex paintand water
Clear area around trunk
Enjoy and Learn• Weekly tours• Buy the book and use it!• Google: The answer to all questions is there• University of Nevad...
bumblebee
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2013: Growing Fruit Trees and Berries in Northern Nevada
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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2013: Growing Fruit Trees and Berries in Northern Nevada

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  • Dormant oil—temp above 32 for 24 hrs
  • Dormant oil—temp above 32 for 24 hrs
  • Transcript of "Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2013: Growing Fruit Trees and Berries in Northern Nevada"

    1. 1. 2003 Orchard View
    2. 2. michael@michaelsapples.com• ISA Certified Arborist– Pruning– Consults and Pruning Lessons• NV Nursery License– Retail bare root fruit tree sales– Grafting classes• Gardening in Nevada since 1983• Master Gardener Volunteer since 1996• Monthly Fruit Tree and GardeningNewsletter
    3. 3. Growing Fruit Trees andBerries in Northern NevadaMichael G. Janikwww.michaelsapples.com
    4. 4. Why I grow, hunt, and gather
    5. 5. November
    6. 6. Winter
    7. 7. Sources of Information• Handouts• UNR Cooperative Extension MasterGardenersReno 775-784-4848Winnemucca 775-623-6304• Clubs, Organizations, Botanical Gardens• Internet• Books
    8. 8. Reference Books
    9. 9. Sources for Trees• Local nurseries• Chain Discount Stores• Mail order nurseries• www.gardenwatchdog.com• www.davesgarden.com
    10. 10. Pollination: Pollenizers (other variety) Pollinators (bees)
    11. 11. Selection Criteria• What you need and want• What the tree needs and wants
    12. 12. Personal Needs and Likes• What type of fruit do you like?-Apples, Pears, Cherries, Berries• Continuous supply-Early, Autumn, Over winter keepers-Redhaven, Veteran, Contender• Needs—Tastes—Uses-Fresh-Baking/Cooking-Sauce/Juice-Preserves, Jams, Jellies
    13. 13. Preserves, jams, jelly, pies
    14. 14. Other ways to preserve apples and grapes
    15. 15. Fruit Tree Needs and Likes• Climate—Hardy to USDA zones 2-6• Chill Hours—hrs 32-45°F +800 hrs• Soil—pH 6.5 Northern NV pH 8.5• Water• Nutrition—No need to fertilize, except• Location—Sunshine > 8 hrs/day
    16. 16. Varieties for Northern Nevada• UNR Cooperative Extension (handout)• Other varieties for our area• Farm trails and fruit tastings• My varietal recommendations (handout)• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varietieson Dwarfing Rootstocks
    17. 17. Farm Trails—Stabile’s Hillview Farm Watsonville, CANAFEX.org
    18. 18. Apples• Choose anearly ripening,a late, & akeeper (or 2)• Handoutvarieties plus:– Granny Smith,Arkansas Black– Honeycrisp,Fuji– Smokehouse,NewtownPippin• Apple Hill,Placerville, CA
    19. 19. Pears• Red Bartlett• Seckel• Bosc• d’Anjou• FlemishBeauty• Pick, store,ripen,consume
    20. 20. Stone Fruits• Cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines• Late blooming, early ripening!
    21. 21. Apricots• Why don’t theyproducehere????• Extensionhandout• Tomcot,Manchurian• Harrow series:Harogem,Hargrand,Har* Ontario• University ofMinnesota,Utah StateUniversity, etc
    22. 22. Cherries • Sweet• Attika (Kordia)• Kristin• Gold• ‘Sour’ or“Pie” or“Tart”• Montmorency• Morello• Northstar
    23. 23. Plums• European and Asian• Green gage, Reine Claude• Italian prune, CastletonStanley, Empress, President• Toka• Burbank Hybrids: Satsuma,Santa Rosa
    24. 24. Peaches/Nectarines• PEACHES>850 chill hours-Redhaven-Early Elberta-Elberta-Veteran-ContenderNECTARINES-Harko-Hardired-Red Gold-SungloMiniatures
    25. 25. BERRIESRASPBERRIESHeritageAutumn BlissAnna (yellow)CarolineRosannaPolanaBLACKBERRIES (Thornless)Triple CrownChesterLoganberryDoyle’s
    26. 26. RASPBERRY Trellis, Early Spring
    27. 27. BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries– 5.0 pH– Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northerncatalogs
    28. 28. BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries– 5.0 pH– Elliot, Norsky,Patriot, checknorthern catalogs
    29. 29. • Grapes– Table grapes, wine grapes– Grapes for Northern Nevada– University of Minnesota– UC Davis, Wolfskill Experimental Orchard, National Germplasm Repositories
    30. 30. STRAWBERRIES• HYBRIDS– Tristar– Tribute– Everest– Apache• ALPINE– Fragissimo (white)– Baron– Capron– Mara des Bois
    31. 31. STRAWBERRIESCapron Mara des Bois
    32. 32. Currants and GooseberriesRed LakeWhite ImperialMinaj SmyriouBen LomondNutsPecans (native northern)Walnuts (Black)Almond (Hall’s Hardy)Hazelnuts (dioecious)
    33. 33. OTHERS• Hardy kiwis• Jujubes• One Green World, Raintree, etc
    34. 34. NEVADA NATIVES• CHOKECHERRIES• ELDERBERRIES• CURRANTS
    35. 35. How Fruit Trees and Berries ArePropagated• Rhizomes (raspberries)• Stolons or runners (strawberries)• Seeds from fruit (colonial times)• Grafting (Clones of fruit trees withdesired characteristics)• Scions, Buds and Rootstocks
    36. 36. Natural Graft
    37. 37. Rootstocks
    38. 38. Ready to Graft
    39. 39. First cut showing cambial ring
    40. 40. Second cut on rootstock and scion
    41. 41. Whip and tongue graft
    42. 42. Secure graft with grafting rubber
    43. 43. Graft Secured
    44. 44. Wrap with grafting tape; wax top
    45. 45. Planting in Nursery Rows
    46. 46. Sprout on graft
    47. 47. Bare Root Apple Whip
    48. 48. More Choices• Bare root vs. potted trees• Do you need pollenizers?• Spring or Fall planting• Tree size
    49. 49. My Preferences• Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Grow Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties• on Dwarfing Rootstocks
    50. 50. Size control using rootstocks
    51. 51. Standard Semi-dwarf DwarfTree sizes
    52. 52. Standard Tree Semi Dwarf
    53. 53. Dwarf apple orchard
    54. 54. Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
    55. 55. Easy access to harvest
    56. 56. Getting Started
    57. 57. Take a Soil Sample!
    58. 58. Enhancing Soils• Agricultural sulfur (Tiger 90) to lower pH• Green cover crop: winter (annual) rye,winter wheat• Mulch and Manure
    59. 59. Soil prep
    60. 60. M & MMulch and Manure (composted horse)
    61. 61. Mineral Deficiencies• Calcium deficiency--Bitter Pit• Iron deficiency—Chlorosis• Zinc deficiency
    62. 62. Bitter pit—Ca deficiency
    63. 63. Zinc Deficiency
    64. 64. Chlorosis (Fe deficiency)
    65. 65. ChlorosisonCucumber
    66. 66. Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral
    67. 67. Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral• OVERWATERING!!!!
    68. 68. Treatment for mineral deficiencies• Stop Overwatering!• Analyze soil adjust pH• Apply Agricultural Sulphur• Mulch, Mulch, Mulch
    69. 69. My Preference• Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties• on Dwarfing Rootstocks.
    70. 70. Planting
    71. 71. Planting
    72. 72. Training Young Trees
    73. 73. ApicalDominanceNote the nearhorizontal limbangles
    74. 74. Bare Root Treenote the branch angles
    75. 75. Training Horizontal Limbs--Before
    76. 76. Training horizontal limbs--after
    77. 77. ForkedgrowthNote the paleleaves
    78. 78. Daffodils: Spring: Begin Spray Program
    79. 79. READ and FOLLOWPRODUCT LABELINSTRUCTIONS
    80. 80. Use protective gear!
    81. 81. Read and follow label instructions!
    82. 82. Know the Pest and Pesticide• Identify the pest you want to control (kill).• Read the label on the pesticide product.• Make sure the pest and the fruit you need tospray are both listed on the label.
    83. 83. “ALTERNATIVE PEST CONTROLS”
    84. 84. Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scale• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust• Insecticide—codling moth larvae
    85. 85. Dormant buds on apple
    86. 86. Delayed dormant buds on pear and cherry
    87. 87. ¼ inch green tippear and cherryDormant oil sprayAphids
    88. 88. Aphid
    89. 89. Ladybug (ladybird beetle)
    90. 90. Aphids with Lacewing
    91. 91. Ladybug larvae
    92. 92. Beneficial Insects• Lady Bugs (Ladybird beetles)• Lacewings• Mantis
    93. 93. Half-inch Green Tipfungicide spray for powdery mildew
    94. 94. Powdery mildew
    95. 95. First Pink—Apple NO PESTICIDES!!!
    96. 96. Full Bloom
    97. 97. Full Bloom--Peach
    98. 98. Apple blossoms
    99. 99. Nectarine blossoms
    100. 100. Orchard blossoms
    101. 101. Pollenizers (other fruit variety), Pollinators (bees)
    102. 102. Bumble bee
    103. 103. Fruit Set on Peach—thinning time
    104. 104. Peach after thinning
    105. 105. Fruit Cluster—close up
    106. 106. Apple after thinning
    107. 107. Well-thinned Cortland apples
    108. 108. Codling Moth—first evening at 62 degrees
    109. 109. Codling moths damage apples, pears, and …
    110. 110. Codling moth frass
    111. 111. One rotten apple will spoil the barrel
    112. 112. KnowyourenemyLife CycleCodlingMoth3 hatchesper year
    113. 113. UC Davis Codling Moth Factsheet
    114. 114. Monitoring: Codling moth pheromone trap
    115. 115. Catch moths on 3 consecutive days--Biofix
    116. 116. Degree Day Table or Calculator
    117. 117. Determine when to spray• Monitor traps determine biofix• Google “codling moth degree days”• Use chart max/min temperatures• Add up hours• At 200-250 hours from biofix• SPRAY
    118. 118. Coming
    119. 119. Going
    120. 120. ‘No Spray’ OptionBagging Fruit
    121. 121. Bagging option• Thin fruit• Spray• Bag
    122. 122. Thinning time is Bagging time
    123. 123. Apple after thinning
    124. 124. Bagged FujiPhoto courtesy of Ed Franks, hobby orchardist, Illinois, NAFEX
    125. 125. Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scales– Winter (optional)– ¼” green tip• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust– Half inch green to pink• Insecticide—codling moth larvae– Pheromone traps at full bloom– Determine biofix– Count degree days– Spray insecticide– Repeat for 3 hatches per year
    126. 126. Fall
    127. 127. Good Cultural Practices In Autumn• Pick up fruit as it falls• Do not leave fruit on trees over winter• Paint trunks or use tree wraps• Clear leaves and mulch away from treetrunks• Water as needed during winter months;check moisture on holidays.
    128. 128. Earwig eggs in apple mummy
    129. 129. Earwigs
    130. 130. Protect TreeTrunksSunscald on Peach
    131. 131. Install TreeGuardsorPaint Trunks50/50 whitelatex paintand water
    132. 132. Clear area around trunk
    133. 133. Enjoy and Learn• Weekly tours• Buy the book and use it!• Google: The answer to all questions is there• University of Nevada, RenoCooperative Extension 784-4848A Master Gardener is waiting for your call!michael@michaelsapples.com Newsletter
    134. 134. bumblebee

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