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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Spring 2013: Berries and Brambles
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  • 1. Berries to BramblesDale HildebrandtMaster GardenerCertified Arborist
  • 2. Sage says:“There isnothing likeraspberriesin themorning !!”
  • 3. • Imagine, strolling out your back door,basket in one hand and a cup of tea inthe other. You pick tasty, riperaspberries. We also enjoy the beautifulspring flowers and wonderful summershade from our trees.• How do we do this ???
  • 4. Choices• What type of berries (soft fruit) do youwant go grow?Blackberries, raspberries, strawberries,grapes, currants, or gooseberriesHybrid bramble fruits – loganberries andboysenberriesUnusual fruit (simply impossible & tooexpensive to transport) mulberriesPrickly pears
  • 5. Planning• Growing berries, and grapes requiresmore attention and research thangrowing a vegetable or flower garden.• So what do I need to consider???Site requirementsGrowth habits and formCold hardinessHeat zone requirements
  • 6. PlanningSpacingIrrigationFertilizationPruning practicesPollinationDiseases …I did not know we have thathere!!!Pest control . . . Those pesky fruit eaters.Protection . . . Security systems, etc.HarvestingStorage – now what
  • 7. So Have You Done Your Homework?• Let’s see what we are really talkingabout.Site requirements –• SoilInorganic minerals, and organics / humus.Pore space (water to air ratio).Texture – looking for a medium aggregate.pH of 5.6 – 7.0 for small fruit (berries and grapes)and pH of 6.0 – 7.0 for pome and stone fruit.Water holding capacity – needs to be moderate tohigh.Adequate microbial activity.Adequate nutritional level.
  • 8. More Homework• Growth habits.Roots (must have).Flowers (must have).Fruits (depends on Mother Nature).• Form.UprightTrailingSingle leaderMulti-trunked• Cold Hardy.Tolerance of a plant to the expected coldtemperature in an area.Ability to survive (or the application of longunderwear).
  • 9. More Homework• Heat zone requirements.How a plant performs in the summer heat in aparticular geographic area / microclimate (what typeof sunscreen is required?? SPF 15 or SPF 40).Twelve zones which are defined by the averagenumber of days above 86 Fahrenheit for the growingseasonLatitude – longitude – altitude – attitude
  • 10. Berries• Selection of fruit production season.Strawberries.• Day-neutrals (DN’s).Crop is almost continual from July to the first frostin the fall.Produce very few runners.• Everbearers (EB’s).Two crops per year, June – July and fall.Produce a few runners.• June-bearers (JB’s).Produce one crop per year, June – July.Produce many runners.
  • 11. More BerriesRaspberries.• Summer-bearing (everbearing).Biennial canes. First year’s growth (primocane) bearsno fruit. Berries will be produced on the followingyear’s growth.• Fall-bearingFruit on the top of the cane in the first year.Production is in the late summer or fall.Fruit in the second year will be on the remainingportion of the cane (floricane).
  • 12. Berry SelectionsCurrants.• Red, white and . . . black.• No other silly details to confuse you . . . yet.Gooseberries.• Green, red and pink.• No pesky details here either . . . yet.Grapes.• American, European and hybrid.• Relax, no details here . . . yet.
  • 13. Bodacious Berries• VarietyStrawberries.• DN’sFern, tribute and tristar.• EB’sOzark beauty, and quinalt.• JB’sHood.Raspberries.• Summer-bearing.Cuthbert, Latham, Newburgh and Willamette.
  • 14. Bodacious, Beautiful Berries• Everbearing.Heritage, Indian summer, Ranere, and Delaware.Grapes• American.Concord• European.InterlakenHimrod (not nimrod).• Hybrid.Verdelet• So are you overwhelmed yet ????
  • 15. Grapes• Yes, they do grow in Nevada.• Grape plant growth.Grapevines are easy to grow . . . but . . . Youneed to give the vines good care so thathigh-quality fruit is produced.The most difficult aspect of grapeproduction is pruning and training toachieve a good yield of high-quality fruit.
  • 16. Grape-ology (Terms)• Trunk.Permanent, aboveground stem of the vine.• Arms (the arm bone’s connected to the trunk bone). Wood that’s two or more years old; shortbranches of the trunk from which canes orspurs develop.• Cordon.A long arm, usually trained along awire, from which canes or spurs develop.
  • 17. Grape Pictures• The foundationof a grapeplant is it’strunk.
  • 18. More Grape-ology• Cane (used by MG’s after long days in the garden).A mature shoot after leaf fall.• Spur (what Wendy uses on us when we misbehave).A cane pruned back to one, two or threebuds.• Shoot (what we want to do to those garden pests).New green growth with leaves, tendrils, andoften flower clusters, developing from abud of a cane or spur.• LateralA branch of a shoot.
  • 19. Pictures Help• A picture makes allthis wonderful grape-ology make sense 
  • 20. The Last of Grape-ology• Sucker (doesn’t include bubble gum in the center).Also called a “water sprout;” a shootgrowing from old wood, often the trunkbase, rather than from shoots or canes.• Node.Thickened portion of the shoot where theleaf and lateral bud are located.• Internode.Portion of the shoot or cane between twonodes.
  • 21. Grape Cuttings• Old cane cutsrequired to makecuttings.Cuttings, 3 budslong showing basaland top ends.• Proper way to setcutting in apropagation bed.
  • 22. Training the first year.Short parallel lines show the pruning cuts
  • 23. • Cane pruning, firstwinter.• Cane pruning, 2nd.Growing season.Note the pruningcuts.
  • 24. • Cane pruning, 2ndwinter.Note the pruning cuts• Cane pruning, 3rdseason.
  • 25. • Cane pruning, 3rd winterbefore pruning.Black canes will beretained for nextseason’s fruiting wood.• Canepruning, 3rdwinter afterpruning.
  • 26. • Cane pruning, 4thwinter before pruningBlack canes will beretained for nextseason’s fruiting wood.• Cane pruning,4th winter afterpruning.
  • 27. Pruning – Basic Considerations• Before training or pruning a plant, visualize theresults of the action.Once a branch is pruned out or removed, it cannotbe replaced.• Train as much as possible and remove as littleas possible.Bending and tying shoots instead of cutting themout. Use sharp pruning tools to make clean cuts.• Discard or compost pruned out shoots andbranches.These plant parts will serve as dwelling sites forinsects and diseases and should be removed fromthe area to reduce pest populations.
  • 28. Basic Considerations• Different types of fruit and theircultivars differ significantly in growthhabits and therefore require differentapproaches in training and pruning toachieve optimal fruit production andquality.• THAT MEANS MORE HOMEWORK !!!
  • 29. Pruning and trainingGooseberry, currant and blueberry bushesGrow without support.Raspberries, blackberries & hybridbramble fruit will need training and tying.Standard gooseberries and red currantsrequire staking.
  • 30. Basic Considerations• A few general guidelines.Immediately Removal any growth that isDEAD, DAMAGED or DISEASEDsometimes known as “the three D”Thin out crowed and congested areas sothat light can get in and air can circulate.Tie up or cut back and growth that ishanging too low or touching the ground.
  • 31. After Harvesting raspberries,blackberries, and hybrid bramble fruit, cutout the canes that have fruited, as theywon’t fruit again.Each winter, remove a few of the olderstems from the established blueberry,gooseberries and current bushes. This willmake way for new growth..Prune sideshoots on gooseberries, redcurrent and white currents in both winterand summer to encourage them to producelots of fruit spurs. But don’t do this withblack currents, they fruit differently.
  • 32. Routinely remove strawberry runners, usingthe to propagate new plants if required.Nets are the only guaranteed protection,and a specially constructed, walk-in fruitcage is the ultimate defense.
  • 33. Routine CareWatering - Water regularly, once to twicea week in a dry summer especially when theberries are beginning to fatten up. Try toavoid splashing the canes or you may spreadfungal infections.Feeding - Raspberries are hungry plantsand do need feeding. In spring, topdressthe soil around the plants with a general,blended fertilizer to boost levels ofnitrogen, phosphate and potash.
  • 34. Care continuedMulching – After feeding, water the soil.The spread a 2-3 inch thick mulch of wellcomposted material around the plants,without letting it touch the canesthemselves.Netting – Summer-bearing raspberriesneed nets to keep off birds. Fall-bearingvarieties seem to generate less interestand can be grown without netting.
  • 35. Frost protectionRaspberries flower later in the year thanmost other soft fruits and are lesssusceptible to frost damage.Pick raspberries when it’s dry – although, ifit’s wet, EAT AND ENJOY in the garden.Slightly underripe berries are better forcooking & freezing
  • 36. Ok – I am overwhelmedThe best way to not to be overwhelmed isused the resources that are available toyou!Do your homework!!!Use Cooperative Extension informationsheets that are University based and areaspecific.DO YOUR HOMEWORKASK QUESTIONSTHANKS FOR COMING