• Imagine, strolling out your back door,basket in one hand and a cup of tea inthe other. You pick tasty, riperaspberries. We also enjoy the beautifulspring flowers and wonderful summershade from our trees.• How do we do this ???
Choices• What type of berries (soft fruit) do youwant go grow?Blackberries, raspberries, strawberries,grapes, currants, or gooseberriesHybrid bramble fruits – loganberries andboysenberriesUnusual fruit (simply impossible & tooexpensive to transport) mulberriesPrickly pears
Planning• Growing berries, and grapes requiresmore attention and research thangrowing a vegetable or flower garden.• So what do I need to consider???Site requirementsGrowth habits and formCold hardinessHeat zone requirements
PlanningSpacingIrrigationFertilizationPruning practicesPollinationDiseases …I did not know we have thathere!!!Pest control . . . Those pesky fruit eaters.Protection . . . Security systems, etc.HarvestingStorage – now what
So Have You Done Your Homework?• Let’s see what we are really talkingabout.Site requirements –• SoilInorganic minerals, and organics / humus.Pore space (water to air ratio).Texture – looking for a medium aggregate.pH of 5.6 – 7.0 for small fruit (berries and grapes)and pH of 6.0 – 7.0 for pome and stone fruit.Water holding capacity – needs to be moderate tohigh.Adequate microbial activity.Adequate nutritional level.
More Homework• Growth habits.Roots (must have).Flowers (must have).Fruits (depends on Mother Nature).• Form.UprightTrailingSingle leaderMulti-trunked• Cold Hardy.Tolerance of a plant to the expected coldtemperature in an area.Ability to survive (or the application of longunderwear).
More Homework• Heat zone requirements.How a plant performs in the summer heat in aparticular geographic area / microclimate (what typeof sunscreen is required?? SPF 15 or SPF 40).Twelve zones which are defined by the averagenumber of days above 86 Fahrenheit for the growingseasonLatitude – longitude – altitude – attitude
Berries• Selection of fruit production season.Strawberries.• Day-neutrals (DN’s).Crop is almost continual from July to the first frostin the fall.Produce very few runners.• Everbearers (EB’s).Two crops per year, June – July and fall.Produce a few runners.• June-bearers (JB’s).Produce one crop per year, June – July.Produce many runners.
More BerriesRaspberries.• Summer-bearing (everbearing).Biennial canes. First year’s growth (primocane) bearsno fruit. Berries will be produced on the followingyear’s growth.• Fall-bearingFruit on the top of the cane in the first year.Production is in the late summer or fall.Fruit in the second year will be on the remainingportion of the cane (floricane).
Berry SelectionsCurrants.• Red, white and . . . black.• No other silly details to confuse you . . . yet.Gooseberries.• Green, red and pink.• No pesky details here either . . . yet.Grapes.• American, European and hybrid.• Relax, no details here . . . yet.
Bodacious Berries• VarietyStrawberries.• DN’sFern, tribute and tristar.• EB’sOzark beauty, and quinalt.• JB’sHood.Raspberries.• Summer-bearing.Cuthbert, Latham, Newburgh and Willamette.
Bodacious, Beautiful Berries• Everbearing.Heritage, Indian summer, Ranere, and Delaware.Grapes• American.Concord• European.InterlakenHimrod (not nimrod).• Hybrid.Verdelet• So are you overwhelmed yet ????
Grapes• Yes, they do grow in Nevada.• Grape plant growth.Grapevines are easy to grow . . . but . . . Youneed to give the vines good care so thathigh-quality fruit is produced.The most difficult aspect of grapeproduction is pruning and training toachieve a good yield of high-quality fruit.
Grape-ology (Terms)• Trunk.Permanent, aboveground stem of the vine.• Arms (the arm bone’s connected to the trunk bone). Wood that’s two or more years old; shortbranches of the trunk from which canes orspurs develop.• Cordon.A long arm, usually trained along awire, from which canes or spurs develop.
Grape Pictures• The foundationof a grapeplant is it’strunk.
More Grape-ology• Cane (used by MG’s after long days in the garden).A mature shoot after leaf fall.• Spur (what Wendy uses on us when we misbehave).A cane pruned back to one, two or threebuds.• Shoot (what we want to do to those garden pests).New green growth with leaves, tendrils, andoften flower clusters, developing from abud of a cane or spur.• LateralA branch of a shoot.
Pictures Help• A picture makes allthis wonderful grape-ology make sense
The Last of Grape-ology• Sucker (doesn’t include bubble gum in the center).Also called a “water sprout;” a shootgrowing from old wood, often the trunkbase, rather than from shoots or canes.• Node.Thickened portion of the shoot where theleaf and lateral bud are located.• Internode.Portion of the shoot or cane between twonodes.
Grape Cuttings• Old cane cutsrequired to makecuttings.Cuttings, 3 budslong showing basaland top ends.• Proper way to setcutting in apropagation bed.
Training the first year.Short parallel lines show the pruning cuts
• Cane pruning, firstwinter.• Cane pruning, 2nd.Growing season.Note the pruningcuts.
• Cane pruning, 2ndwinter.Note the pruning cuts• Cane pruning, 3rdseason.
• Cane pruning, 3rd winterbefore pruning.Black canes will beretained for nextseason’s fruiting wood.• Canepruning, 3rdwinter afterpruning.
• Cane pruning, 4thwinter before pruningBlack canes will beretained for nextseason’s fruiting wood.• Cane pruning,4th winter afterpruning.
Pruning – Basic Considerations• Before training or pruning a plant, visualize theresults of the action.Once a branch is pruned out or removed, it cannotbe replaced.• Train as much as possible and remove as littleas possible.Bending and tying shoots instead of cutting themout. Use sharp pruning tools to make clean cuts.• Discard or compost pruned out shoots andbranches.These plant parts will serve as dwelling sites forinsects and diseases and should be removed fromthe area to reduce pest populations.
Basic Considerations• Different types of fruit and theircultivars differ significantly in growthhabits and therefore require differentapproaches in training and pruning toachieve optimal fruit production andquality.• THAT MEANS MORE HOMEWORK !!!
Pruning and trainingGooseberry, currant and blueberry bushesGrow without support.Raspberries, blackberries & hybridbramble fruit will need training and tying.Standard gooseberries and red currantsrequire staking.
Basic Considerations• A few general guidelines.Immediately Removal any growth that isDEAD, DAMAGED or DISEASEDsometimes known as “the three D”Thin out crowed and congested areas sothat light can get in and air can circulate.Tie up or cut back and growth that ishanging too low or touching the ground.
After Harvesting raspberries,blackberries, and hybrid bramble fruit, cutout the canes that have fruited, as theywon’t fruit again.Each winter, remove a few of the olderstems from the established blueberry,gooseberries and current bushes. This willmake way for new growth..Prune sideshoots on gooseberries, redcurrent and white currents in both winterand summer to encourage them to producelots of fruit spurs. But don’t do this withblack currents, they fruit differently.
Routinely remove strawberry runners, usingthe to propagate new plants if required.Nets are the only guaranteed protection,and a specially constructed, walk-in fruitcage is the ultimate defense.
Routine CareWatering - Water regularly, once to twicea week in a dry summer especially when theberries are beginning to fatten up. Try toavoid splashing the canes or you may spreadfungal infections.Feeding - Raspberries are hungry plantsand do need feeding. In spring, topdressthe soil around the plants with a general,blended fertilizer to boost levels ofnitrogen, phosphate and potash.
Care continuedMulching – After feeding, water the soil.The spread a 2-3 inch thick mulch of wellcomposted material around the plants,without letting it touch the canesthemselves.Netting – Summer-bearing raspberriesneed nets to keep off birds. Fall-bearingvarieties seem to generate less interestand can be grown without netting.
Frost protectionRaspberries flower later in the year thanmost other soft fruits and are lesssusceptible to frost damage.Pick raspberries when it’s dry – although, ifit’s wet, EAT AND ENJOY in the garden.Slightly underripe berries are better forcooking & freezing
Ok – I am overwhelmedThe best way to not to be overwhelmed isused the resources that are available toyou!Do your homework!!!Use Cooperative Extension informationsheets that are University based and areaspecific.DO YOUR HOMEWORKASK QUESTIONSTHANKS FOR COMING