Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Restoring Older Fruit Trees
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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Restoring Older Fruit Trees

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  • Make cuts on branch bard ridge so collar heals over itself. Do not paint or seal cuts. Make proper top cuts. Do not top trees ; control height with variety and rootstocks. Control growth direction; generally, prune to downward facing buds for horizontal limb growth. Prune to buds or branches. Do not leave stubs. Prune roots as you would and should a limb or branch.
  • Dormant Pruning: Do in Jan/Feb apples; at pink tip for stone fruits. Prune to a bud going in the direction you want the limb to go.

Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Restoring Older Fruit Trees Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Restoring Older Fruit Trees Presentation Transcript

  • PV orchard aerial view 03
  • PRUNING AND RESTORING OLD NEGLECTED FRUIT TREES Michael G. Janik ISA Certified Arborist www.michaelsapples.com
  • Training vs. Pruning
  • My Favorite Pruning Books
  • Right toolfor the right job Loppers Pruners Saws Clean Sanitized Sharp
  • Anvil vs. Bypass Shears
  • PruningThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
  • Firewood pruning ‘03
  • Firewood Pruning ‘04
  • Firewood Tree ‘05
  • Firewood Tree ‘08
  • Firewood Tree 2010
  • Shade AppleOpen to allowsunlight and airflow
  • Starling Special Dwarfing RootstocksGenetic Miniatures
  • Upright growthAcute limb angles Spring Bare root treesHorizontal Scaffold Limbs
  • HUH??? Need low, horizontalscaffold limbsDo not planton easements
  • Garden,Orchard or Yard?
  • Topping x 3
  • NaturalTargetPruning
  • Proper pruning cut, before
  • Proper pruning cut, after
  • Well-sealed pruning scar
  • Cut back to a branch or bud
  • Open to infection
  • Natural Target Pruning II• Always cut back to a bud or branch• Always angle the cut away from the bud• Choose growth direction
  • Angle cut away from bud
  • Select bud growth direction
  • Cut to a Branch, Bud, or Fruiting Spur
  • Apical Dominance• Apical dominance is a tree’s response to a pruning cut• All pruning cuts cause the same reaction in a tree• Proper pruning uses apical dominance to shape trees
  • Apical Dominance
  • Size control using rootstocks• Standard—25 ft and up• Semi-Dwarf or half-standard – 8 to18 ft apples, pears – 15 to 20+ ft stone fruits (cherries, plums, etc• Genetic Dwarf/Miniatures—5-8 ft• Varietal vigor
  • Standard Semi-Dwarf
  • Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
  • Easy access to harvest
  • PruningForms for Fruit Trees
  • Training A Central Leader Tree• Apples, Pears, plums, and cherries• Dwarf Pyramid or Pyramid• French Axe• Spindle Bush
  • 1st Year
  • Training Horizontal Limb Growth
  • Training using Clothespins 1st year
  • 2 year, etc; before nd
  • 2nd year, etc; after
  • 2nd Year
  • 2yr dwarf pyramid pear
  • 3rd and Subsequent Years
  • Scaffold limbs, fruiting shoots
  • Cut out vigorous growth
  • Vigorous growth removed
  • RegrowthNext Summer
  • Always removeone of any split shoots
  • Split Trunk
  • Thin forked branch growth
  • Mature dwarf pyramid
  • Centralleader pear in bloom
  • Semi-dwarf Central Leader
  • SupportedFrench Axe
  • Central Leader Pears Oregon
  • Central Leader Pears
  • Summary Training aCentral Leader
  • Training an Open Center Tree• Stone fruits, esp. peaches, nectarines• Lowest limb 12-18 inches• 3-5 limbs at low angle form a vase shape• Allows sunlight needed to ripen fruit
  • Training anOpen Center Tree
  • 1yr Open Center Cherry
  • 2yr Open Center Cherry
  • Open Centeroriental pear
  • Open center peach
  • Texas peach orchard
  • Texas peach tree
  • Peach tree at Monticello
  • Winter vs. Summer Pruning• Winter (Dormant) Pruning – Promotes vegetative growth in the spring – Use to train young trees• (Late) Summer and Fall pruning – Reduces food storage in roots and hence reduces tree growth in spring – Use on older, overgrown trees to open and rejuvenate the tree. – Use to establish fruiting spurs
  • Restoring Neglected Fruit Trees
  • Rejuvenating Neglected Trees• Always – Remove dead, diseased, and damaged wood – Remove crossing/rubbing branches – Remove water sprouts at limb junction – Remove suckers at the root junction• Never – Remove more than 20% green wood each year – Never fertilize
  • Arroyo 2004
  • Arroyo 2008
  • Arroyo Before After
  • 90 yr old Delicious
  • Quincy, CA apple treeHeading Back, Apple Tree, Quincy, CA
  • Standard pear
  • Apple
  • Before After
  • After After 2nd year 3rd year
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • Semi dwarf, before
  • Semi dwarf, after
  • Red Del 09 Before
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • Apple, before
  • Apple, after
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • GRANNY SMITHBEFORE AFTER
  • REVOVE UPRIGHT WATER SPROUTS BEFORE AFTER
  • PEACH TREE
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • Nectarines Spring 08
  • Nectarines Summer 08
  • OPEN WELL-PRUNED PEACH
  • CHERRY TREEBEFORE AFTER
  • BEFORE AFTER
  • Pruning for Fruit• Apples and Pears – Spur bearing – Tip Bearing• Plums and Cherries• Nectarines and Peaches
  • Pear flower buds on spurs
  • Peach flower on last year’s growth
  • Pruning for spur fruit
  • Renewal Pruning of Spurs
  • Fruiting spurs on mature tree
  • Pruning for Peaches & Nectarines
  • Peach flower and leaf buds
  • New and old growth on peach
  • Summary• Apical Dominance• Cut to a branch or bud• Choose bud/growth direction• Training vs. Pruning• References, Google It!• Buy a Pruning Book and Use It!