Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Reap What You SowPresentation Transcript
Harvesting and StoringVegetables, Fruits and Herbs Wendy Hanson Mazet
Helpful links andresourcesGetting Started with a VegetableGardenwww.unce.unr.edu/publications/files/ho/2010/fs1015.pdfSearching for Fact Sheets?www.extension.orgwww.growyourownnevada.com
Onions Garlic•Onion bulbs varies to each variety – • Harvest when the leaves losein general 2 to 4‖ in diameter. color and the tops begin to fall•Pull all onions when the tops fall over.over.•Allow harvested onions dry for a 1 –2 days with the tops on•Then clip 1 inch above bulb beforestoring them in a cool, dry place.Green Onions•Harvest green onions when theyare 6 to 8 inches tall.
Peas Spinach• If the peas will be shelled, • Harvested when the large harvest the pods when they are leaves are 4 to 6 inches long. shiny green and fully developed. • Pull the larger, whole plants or• Overly mature peas are of poor harvest the older leaves and quality. allow new growth to develop.• For the edible pod varieties, harvest when the pods are fully developed (about 3 inches.
Greens - SwissChard Rhubarb• beet • Only the long, thick leaf greens, collards, dandelions, kale, petioles, the ―stalks,‖ are edible. mustard greens, turnip greens, and • Wait until the second season, or others. the third season if the plants were• Break off the outer leaves when started from seed. they are 6 to 10 inches long and • To pick, hold the stalk before they start to yellow. firmly, pull, and twist.• Avoid wilted or flabby leaves.
Root Crops JerusalemRadishes artichoke:• Harvest radishes when they • Dig the tubers after early fall are about 1 inch in diameter. frosts or in very early spring before the new growth starts.
Beets Carrots• Pull early beets when they are • Carrots are ready to be about 2 inches in diameter. If harvested when they are small they are allowed to get much and succulent. larger, they become • Do not let them get over about woody, especially in warm, dry 1 inch in diameter. weather. • Always pull the largest carrots• For late-crop beets, remove all in the row. but about 1½ inches of the tops.
Potatoes• Mature tubers can be harvested after leaves have dried or when tubers have reached full size.• For Irish potatoes, a good harvest size is 2 to 3 inches in diameter.• Harvest ―new‖ potatoes at any size, but generally do not dig before they are 1¼ to 1½ inches in diameter, 7-8 weeks after planting.• Let the potatoes dry several hours in garden after digging them.
Cucumbers Beans• Harvest them when fruits are • Harvest these beans when the bright, firm. pods are well filled but have• A rule of thumb: harvest sweet not begun to yellow. pickles at 1½ to 2 inches long; Beans—snap:• Harvest dills when they are 3 • For maximum to 4 inches long, bright tenderness, harvest snap green, and less crisp. beans when the pods are• Avoid yellowed almost full size but before the cucumbers, unless it is a seeds begin to bulge. lemon cuc.
Winter SquashPumpkins: Winter Squash• Pick pumpkins when they are • when the fruits are full size. full size, the rind is firm and The rind is firm and glossy and glossy, and the bottom of the bottom (portion touching soil) fruit is cream to orange of fruit is cream to orange colored. colored.• Harvest before frost or when • Light frost will not damage rind resist fingernails mature fruit. scratches. Leave a 2 to 4 inch stem with the fruit.
MelonsMuskmelon (cantaloupes): Honeydew:• Lift and twist – if ripe it will • These do not slip from the vine easily slip off the stem when ripe.• The outer rind should not • When the bottom is yellowish have any green color. to creamy white. • The rind should be slightly softWatermelon: at the blossom end and have a• Harvest watermelon when faint, pleasant odor. the fruits are full size and have a dull surface and a cream-colored ground spot.• The Thump Test – If it’s a dull sound , similar to tapping your forehead, it’s not ripe. A hollow sound, similar to tapping you chest means it’s ripe.
Summer Squash Corn• Harvest squash when it is 4 • Watch corn for signs of to 6 inches long for yellow ripeness for earliest harvest. crookneck squash, 6 to 8 • Corn silks darken and dry inches long for yellow out as the ears mature. straight neck, and 3 to 4 • As the kernels fill out toward inches in diameter for white the top, the ends become scallop. more rounded instead of pointed.• A glossy color indicates • Pick sweet corn in the milk tenderness. stage, when a milk like juice exudes from the kernels if crushed with a thumbnail.
Peppers Eggplant• Harvest bell • Harvest eggplants peppers when they when the fruits are are full and have near full size—but well-formed lobes. still firm and bright in• Immature peppers color. are pale, soft, pliable, a • Older fruits become nd thin fleshed. soft, seedy, and dull• Mature peppers turn colored. orange or red; this does not mean that they are hotter.
Tomatoes• Harvest tomatoes when they are fully colored but still firm.• Harvest red tomatoes for eating fresh, cooking, or canning.• Do not can overripe tomatoes!• If necessary, pick mature green or slightly pink tomatoes and ripen them at room temperature, out of direct sunlight.
Indeterminate vs. Determinate
Pip FruitsApples• Pick ripe apples from the tree by pulling fruit upward and outward while rotating Pears the fruit slightly. • Pears picked when slightly• Frost will not sweeten or immature will ripen with mature apples or other better quality than pears fruit. Sugars accumulate that are over mature when with bright, warm (not hot) picked. days and cool nights regardless of frost. • Most mature, ready to ripen pears will usually detach when "tilted" to a horizontal position from their usual vertical hanging position.
Stone Trees Stone fruits include peaches, plums, cherries, and apricots: all have a hard pitPeach/ Apricot/ Nectarine• As fruits ripen, the flesh softens and the skin changes from green to purple, red, orange.• To test ripeness by applying pressure (the flesh should yield to gentle thumb pressure.)• To harvest without hurting the fruit buds for next year’s crop, twist the fruit slightly while pulling.• harvested without the stems attached
Cherry• Fruit maturity can be determined by color• sweet cherries are hand- harvested leaving the pedicels intact.• Harvest with stems attached
ShrubsCane Fruit Gooseberry• Ready to pick when they • Can be picked when they easily separate from the reach full size, but are not receptacle or core. fully ripe. (At this stage, the• Blackberries do not separate fruit are green, tart, and still from the core, so ripeness quite hard.) should be judged by color • Pick when ripened to a and taste. pinkish color and sweeter• All bramble fruit are flavor. extremely perishable & should be harvested frequently.
GrapesGrapes• Color, size, sweetness, and flavor are the most useful indicators of table grape maturity.• Berry color will change from green to blue, red, or white as the different grape varieties approach maturity.• Color alone should not be the sole basis for harvesting grapes. The berries of many varieties change color long before they are fully ripe.
Strawberries Currants• Strawberries are • Fully ripe currants are fully ripe when slightly soft, juicy, and uniformly red. develop the• Pick the berries with characteristic color of the cap and stem the variety. attached to retain firmness and • Most currant varieties quality. are red at maturity, a• When harvesting, few are white. pinch the stem off • Harvest currants by about 1/4 inch picking the fruit clusters above the cap. from the plant then stripping individual berries from the stem.
Herbs•The time of day and time of seasoncan affect the quantity of oil presentin the leaves of your herbs. The oilpresent in the leaves can determinethe flavor intensity of the herb and itsnutritional content or medicinalvalue.•Harvest your herbs before theplants flower.•Remove any flower heads from theplant to ensure it keeps producing asmany leaves as possible.•For more information on herbs:www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/components/M1223.pdf
Food Safety• Your life depends on it!• Only use fresh, clean food• When canning, know the pH and your altitude• Maintain proper temperatures, avoid the ―danger zone‖• Label everything with name & date to ensure it is consumed within its
Cold StorageRefrigerated, 33°to 38° Cold Storage, 39° to 50°• Vegetables: • Squashes, Onions & – All Veggies except Potatoes tomatoes – Must be washed, dried, and cured – Keep a high relative before storage humidity – Onions can be stored in • Use crisper drawer mesh bags • Perforated plastic bags • Apples (store away from – Root Vegetables should other vegetables and have the greens removed to a ¼‖ and the tap root cut fruits as they emit off ethylene gas) – Must be kept humid to prevent shriveling Storing Vegetables at Home - Fact Sheet A1135 http://nchfp.uga.edu/how/store/wisc_vegetables.pdf
Freezing temperatures 20°- 30°Vegetables• Most should be blanched prior to freezing; blanching is immersing in boiling water then quickly cooling. Time varies with the vegetable• Vacuum sealing, freezer- specific plastic bags and boxes, and glass canning jars bestPreserving Food: Freezing VegetablesComplete information on freezing food at home, Pub # FDNS-E-43-5The University of Georgia Cooperative Extensionhttp://www.fcs.uga.edu/ext/pubs/fdns/FDNS-E-43-05.pdf
Freezing temperatures 20°- 30°Meats & Dairy• Meats should be repackaged into freezer paper or vacuum sealed if they are purchased in plastic wrapped styrofoam containers• Cheese should be packed in freezer paper or vacuum sealed Feb. 2011
DehydratingMeats & Dairy Fruits & Vegetables• Must be temperature • To prevent browning dip controlled. A minimum of fruits in lemon juice. 160° required to ensure • Some fruits need to be safety. blanched before drying
ResourcesNational Center for Home Food Preservationwww.nchfp.uga.eduBall / Kerrwww.freshpreserving.comCanning Pantryhttp://www.canningpantry.com/