Season Extension        Susan Donaldson
What is season extension?   Increasing the growing season at    either end, spring and/or fall
Why try to extend theseason? Allow more time for crops to  mature Grow different varieties Move toward year-round produ...
Frost-free period   We’ll define the length of a frost-    free period as the number of days    between the date of the l...
What’s “freezing”?   The National Weather Service    defines a “freeze” as occurring    “when the surface air temperature...
How long are our frost-free    periods? Lots of variation among periods for  the last 100 years Some years have had fros...
Do frost-free periods everchange?   For the 30-year period of 1971-2000,    the average date of the last 32°    temperatu...
1991-2005 The date of last 32° reading was  May 3, and the date of first 32°  reading in the autumn was  October 19 The ...
Hard freeze A hard freeze is sometimes defined  as occurring on a date when the  temperature drops to 28°F But…you can e...
City                          Frost-Free                                       Days          Carson City                  ...
Cold damage Plants lose heat faster than the air! Anything that reflects the radiating  heat back down will prevent or a...
Season Extension:Start with cultural practices Site selection and microclimates Soil and moisture content Windbreaks an...
Take advantage ofmicroclimates Some areas around your property  warm up faster in the spring, stay  cooler or warmer in t...
Site selection #1: Hours of sunlight Prevailing winds
Windbreaks and shade                       • At right                         angles to                         prevailin ...
Shade fabrics
Shade fabric Creates a cooler microclimate to  help prevent bolting and bitterness Faster germination of cool-weather  f...
Managing moisture Plants under drought stress can be  more susceptible to cold damage Water holds warmth and releases it...
Alter soil temperatures Use clear plastic mulch to warm soil in  spring and retain extra heat in fall Cover the edges of...
Mulch to insulate plantsOrganic mulches such as straw alsodecrease radiated heat and conservemoisture, preventing cold (an...
Choose hardy crops Start and end with cold-hardy  vegetables that tolerate frost Look for short-season varieties Other ...
Spring crop transplants Start plants early Start seeds of tomatoes, peppers,  and eggplants 8 weeks early Start seeds o...
Fall crop transplants Start plants for late-season crops in  late summer Seed a second season of quick-  maturing vegeta...
Examples of late-seasoncrops    Kale    Collards    Lettuce    Spinach    Mustard greens    Arugula    Broccoli   ...
Winter harvest Decreasing levels of light in  fall/winter slow plant growth to  near-dormancy Lowest light in December a...
Vegetable planting dates   Planting dates depend upon the    plant cold-hardiness.   Semi-hardy vegetables can be    pla...
Vegetable planting dates   Plant frost-tender and cold-    sensitive vegetables after the last    frost date   Buy trans...
More tips   Grow cold-    tender herbs,    dwarf fruit    trees, etc. in    containers that    you can move    indoors
Usingprotection
Protect from early and late frosts Cover early and late season  plantings with mini-greenhouses  made from clear plastic,...
• Use hot caps  in spring• Need to vent  them• Works for  small plants• Blocks some  light
Light penetration not good;  minimal frost protection
Walls of Water Good frostprotection but  expensive
Fall freeze protection Use old sheets, blankets, draperies,  etc. Cover plants before sundown to  trap heat
October 5-9, 2011Elevation 5400 ft
Fall freeze protection Extend the covering all the way to  the ground so cold air can’t seep in Put in place before sund...
More tips Cover hardy root crops with a 6- to  12-inch-thick layer of straw or other  organic mulch in fall to prevent th...
Row covers                   •Agribon, Reemay,                    Harvest Guard, etc.                   •Come in different...
Row covers   Warm and speed the growth of    seedlings in spring   Slow the evaporation of soil moisture   Protect plan...
Row covers   Keep pests off plants but need to    remove covers for insect pollination   Protect late summer crops from ...
Cloches•Lightweight•Portable•Reusable
Cold frames Can provide 5 – 7 degrees of  protection Can be used in the spring to start  plants or in the fall for cold-...
Can add black containersfilled with water to store     heat for the night
Cold frames Don’t use wood treated with  preservatives! Slope the lid to the south Place on south side of house
Cold frames Provide for ventilation of excess  heat when temps rise above 55  degrees Cover to protect against freezing,...
Cold frame tips Ventilate   on warm days Checktemperatures with a thermometer Protectduring freezing weather: Remember ...
More cold frame tips Water: make sure plants aren’t getting too much or too little water. Hardening   plants: open the l...
Low tunnels:Hoop-supported row covers
Benefits of low tunnels About five to six weeks earlier  production in the spring Several weeks later production in  the...
Tips for low tunnels Use UV-stabilized tubing Don’t expect protection from hard  freezes Plan for access and ventilation
Building materials to construct one minitunnel for 40-inch by 30-foot raised bedQuantity      Item Description         Uni...
High tunnels (aka hoophouses) Big enough to walk into Size them to meet your needs Plant in-ground or in raised beds D...
Orient in an east-west direction tomaximize sunlight, but also consider
Structural elements Can be mobile or fixed in place End walls are most important to  strength Can incorporate an openin...
Structural elements Use a center support to increase stability Use 6-mil, greenhouse-grade, UV  stabilized polyethylene...
How to Build a High Tunnel (video)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=am1Tso2l3kcAlso seehttp://www.extension.org/pages/18356/l...
Minnesota study On average, tunnel vegetables such  as lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers  were harvested about six weeks  e...
What about winds? High tunnels placed perpendicular to  prevailing winds typically receive the  most damage, so consider ...
What about snow? A high tunnel built from ribs of 20 foot  pipe bent to create a 14 foot wide X 6  foot high structure wi...
More tips for dealing with    snow Use a center roof rib Orient the structure so prevailing  winds blow the snow off the...
NRCS High Tunnel PilotProjectEligibility Requirements: To qualify, the applicant must:    ◦ be an agricultural producer  ...
GreenhousesWalk-in, permanently placed The most expensive solution Usually have venting and heating  systems (requires e...
Do your homework Many types on the market Many plans available as well Look at the alternatives before  investing Can ...
Bozeman, MT
GreenhousesWalk-in, movable Less expensive Can be disassembled  and stored away when  not in use Usually used one to tw...
Whatever you do… Keep good records! Consider a journal that includes  varieties, dates planted, dates  matured, freezes,...
Crop rotation: varyingfamilies
Why rotate crops? Breaks the cycle of disease and pests Helps to maintain adequate nutrients Can help improve soil stru...
Considerations in crop rotationschemes Heavy feeders: leafy veggies,  brassicas, corn Soil conserving/improving: legumes...
Simpler rotation  Legumes          Nightshades  •Beans           •Tomatoes  •Peas            •Peppers  •Lentils         •P...
Another simple rotation   Root           Legumes   crops,         and   onions         brassicas  Sweet          Nightshad...
End-of-season maintenance   Clean up! Remove dead vegetation    and windfalls, compost healthy    material. Remove fallen...
End-of-season maintenance   Enrich garden beds with compost or    manure; add mulch or leaves; think    about nutrient ne...
End-of-season maintenance   Clean and oil lawnmower, other    garden equipment and tools before    storing for winter   ...
Questions?Sue Donaldsondonaldsons@unce.unr.edu775-336-0242
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension
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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Season Extension

  1. 1. Season Extension Susan Donaldson
  2. 2. What is season extension? Increasing the growing season at either end, spring and/or fall
  3. 3. Why try to extend theseason? Allow more time for crops to mature Grow different varieties Move toward year-round production and income potential Fresh greens in the winter
  4. 4. Frost-free period We’ll define the length of a frost- free period as the number of days between the date of the last 32°F temperature in the spring and the date of the first 32°F temperature in the fall.
  5. 5. What’s “freezing”? The National Weather Service defines a “freeze” as occurring “when the surface air temperature is 32°F or below over a widespread area for a climatologically significant period of time (greater than one hour).” (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2005)
  6. 6. How long are our frost-free periods? Lots of variation among periods for the last 100 years Some years have had frost-free periods of over 150 days (approximately 5 months) Other years have had frost-free periods of less than 90 days. (Reno data) KEY: lots of varibility, so you have to watch the weather predictions!
  7. 7. Do frost-free periods everchange? For the 30-year period of 1971-2000, the average date of the last 32° temperature in the spring was May 21 while the date of first 32° temperature in the autumn was October 3 (134 days).
  8. 8. 1991-2005 The date of last 32° reading was May 3, and the date of first 32° reading in the autumn was October 19 The average length of the frost- free period grew from 134 days (for 1971-2000) to 168 days for the more recent 15-year period This is an increase of a full month!
  9. 9. Hard freeze A hard freeze is sometimes defined as occurring on a date when the temperature drops to 28°F But…you can expect damage when temps drop to 32°F
  10. 10. City Frost-Free Days Carson City 90 - 116 Elko 57 - 87 Ely 53 - 81 Fallon 106 - 131 Lovelock 111 - 140 Reno 85 - 125 Tonopah 107 - 147 Winnemucca 75 - 107Based on historical data indicating 90% (first number)- 121 Yerington with temperatures above50% (second number) 82 to 32°F.probability of consecutive dayshttp://www.wrcc.dri.edu/summary/Climsmnv.html
  11. 11. Cold damage Plants lose heat faster than the air! Anything that reflects the radiating heat back down will prevent or at least greatly reduce frost formation (for example, clouds)
  12. 12. Season Extension:Start with cultural practices Site selection and microclimates Soil and moisture content Windbreaks and shade Irrigation Cultivar selection Transplants
  13. 13. Take advantage ofmicroclimates Some areas around your property warm up faster in the spring, stay cooler or warmer in the summer, or are protected from the wind South-facing slopes will be warmer Cold air settles into valleys
  14. 14. Site selection #1: Hours of sunlight Prevailing winds
  15. 15. Windbreaks and shade • At right angles to prevailin g winter winds • Consider effect on sunlight
  16. 16. Shade fabrics
  17. 17. Shade fabric Creates a cooler microclimate to help prevent bolting and bitterness Faster germination of cool-weather fall crops Shading 30 -50% in midsummer can lower leaf temps by 10 degrees or more
  18. 18. Managing moisture Plants under drought stress can be more susceptible to cold damage Water holds warmth and releases it slowly So…water before frost is expected
  19. 19. Alter soil temperatures Use clear plastic mulch to warm soil in spring and retain extra heat in fall Cover the edges of the plastic with soil to anchor it in place Temps increase by 8 to 14 degrees to a depth of 2 inches and 6 to 9 degrees to a depth of 4 inches
  20. 20. Mulch to insulate plantsOrganic mulches such as straw alsodecrease radiated heat and conservemoisture, preventing cold (and hot)extremes
  21. 21. Choose hardy crops Start and end with cold-hardy vegetables that tolerate frost Look for short-season varieties Other varieties are specially adapted to growing in long, hot days, extending your growing season into the summer (ex. slow bolting lettuces) Read seed packets and catalog descriptions
  22. 22. Spring crop transplants Start plants early Start seeds of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants 8 weeks early Start seeds of cole crops about 4 to 6 weeks early Start vine crops 1 week early
  23. 23. Fall crop transplants Start plants for late-season crops in late summer Seed a second season of quick- maturing vegetables, such as snap beans, peas, greens, radishes, cole crops, and turnips later in the season Grow cold-tolerant species in the fall
  24. 24. Examples of late-seasoncrops  Kale  Collards  Lettuce  Spinach  Mustard greens  Arugula  Broccoli  Broccoli rabe  Mache  Beets Lettuce, kale and rabe  Peas
  25. 25. Winter harvest Decreasing levels of light in fall/winter slow plant growth to near-dormancy Lowest light in December and January Many cold-weather crops must be harvested by the end of fall
  26. 26. Vegetable planting dates Planting dates depend upon the plant cold-hardiness. Semi-hardy vegetables can be planted two to four weeks before the average last killing frost date of May 15, or in cool fall temps
  27. 27. Vegetable planting dates Plant frost-tender and cold- sensitive vegetables after the last frost date Buy transplants, or start from seed indoors from mid-March through mid-April Earlier transplanting can be done when hotcaps, row covers or other protection is used
  28. 28. More tips Grow cold- tender herbs, dwarf fruit trees, etc. in containers that you can move indoors
  29. 29. Usingprotection
  30. 30. Protect from early and late frosts Cover early and late season plantings with mini-greenhouses made from clear plastic, old window sashes set on hay bales, or fabric row covers Vent the covers on warm days to prevent excessive heat buildup
  31. 31. • Use hot caps in spring• Need to vent them• Works for small plants• Blocks some light
  32. 32. Light penetration not good; minimal frost protection
  33. 33. Walls of Water Good frostprotection but expensive
  34. 34. Fall freeze protection Use old sheets, blankets, draperies, etc. Cover plants before sundown to trap heat
  35. 35. October 5-9, 2011Elevation 5400 ft
  36. 36. Fall freeze protection Extend the covering all the way to the ground so cold air can’t seep in Put in place before sundown Especially useful for the first few frosts when warmer weather is then expected
  37. 37. More tips Cover hardy root crops with a 6- to 12-inch-thick layer of straw or other organic mulch in fall to prevent the soil from freezing. Harvest as needed throughout the winter.
  38. 38. Row covers •Agribon, Reemay, Harvest Guard, etc. •Come in different weights Can provide 3to 5 degrees offrost protection
  39. 39. Row covers Warm and speed the growth of seedlings in spring Slow the evaporation of soil moisture Protect plants from wind, heavy rain, and hail Heavier fabrics provide more frost protection but block more light
  40. 40. Row covers Keep pests off plants but need to remove covers for insect pollination Protect late summer crops from fall frost Protect crops from hot temperatures and burning sun rays Must anchor with soil, wood, rocks, etc.
  41. 41. Cloches•Lightweight•Portable•Reusable
  42. 42. Cold frames Can provide 5 – 7 degrees of protection Can be used in the spring to start plants or in the fall for cold-hardy crops Use old windows or glass doors to make your own No standard size; keep width narrow enough that you can easily reach across
  43. 43. Can add black containersfilled with water to store heat for the night
  44. 44. Cold frames Don’t use wood treated with preservatives! Slope the lid to the south Place on south side of house
  45. 45. Cold frames Provide for ventilation of excess heat when temps rise above 55 degrees Cover to protect against freezing, or stack straw bales against the frame
  46. 46. Cold frame tips Ventilate on warm days Checktemperatures with a thermometer Protectduring freezing weather: Remember that cold frames give only 5-10 degrees of warmth.
  47. 47. More cold frame tips Water: make sure plants aren’t getting too much or too little water. Hardening plants: open the lid of your cold frame longer and longer each day
  48. 48. Low tunnels:Hoop-supported row covers
  49. 49. Benefits of low tunnels About five to six weeks earlier production in the spring Several weeks later production in the fall Some protection from insects and foraging animals Some protection from extreme weather conditions, such as strong winds, hail or frost http://simplegoodandtasty.com/2010/05/25/tunnel-farming
  50. 50. Tips for low tunnels Use UV-stabilized tubing Don’t expect protection from hard freezes Plan for access and ventilation
  51. 51. Building materials to construct one minitunnel for 40-inch by 30-foot raised bedQuantity Item Description Unit Price Total200 feet 1/4-inch nylon rope $0.08/ft $16.001,8-ft by 38- 6-mil greenhouse poly $0.13/sq $39.52ft sheet film ft 1/2-inch sch 40 PVC80 foot $0.22/ft $17.60 pipe20 foot 1-inch sch 40 PVC pipe$0.44/ft $8.8044 2-inch wood screw $0.05 $2.202 3/8-inch by 2-foot rebar $0.75 $1.502 Eye screw $0.50 $1.00*Prices may vary depending on Total $86.62location, etc.http://www.noble.org/Ag/Horticulture/RaisedBedGardening/mini_tunnel.html
  52. 52. High tunnels (aka hoophouses) Big enough to walk into Size them to meet your needs Plant in-ground or in raised beds Does not have an added source of heat or ventilation Can extend the season through the winter by up to three zones, or a month in the fall
  53. 53. Orient in an east-west direction tomaximize sunlight, but also consider
  54. 54. Structural elements Can be mobile or fixed in place End walls are most important to strength Can incorporate an opening for ventilation in the end walls Hoops no more than 4 feet apart Peaked-roof (vs. U shape) stronger in snowy climates
  55. 55. Structural elements Use a center support to increase stability Use 6-mil, greenhouse-grade, UV stabilized polyethylene Roll-up sides allow for ventilation
  56. 56. How to Build a High Tunnel (video)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=am1Tso2l3kcAlso seehttp://www.extension.org/pages/18356/low-cost-high-tunnel-construction
  57. 57. Minnesota study On average, tunnel vegetables such as lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers were harvested about six weeks earlier than those grown in the open, while peppers were ready nearly ten weeks ahead. Many of the tunnel plants produced as much as double the output of the outdoor crops
  58. 58. What about winds? High tunnels placed perpendicular to prevailing winds typically receive the most damage, so consider placing parallel The best protection against uplift is to ensure that posts are driven at least 24 inches into the ground Use stretch cord over the top of the plastic from one side to the other, every fourth rib
  59. 59. What about snow? A high tunnel built from ribs of 20 foot pipe bent to create a 14 foot wide X 6 foot high structure will withstand only about 10 psf This is about 2 inches of water as snow Might be as little as one foot of snow
  60. 60. More tips for dealing with snow Use a center roof rib Orient the structure so prevailing winds blow the snow off the high tunnel Remove the plastic in the winter if not under production Brush off snow using a long-handled broom (carefully!)
  61. 61. NRCS High Tunnel PilotProjectEligibility Requirements: To qualify, the applicant must: ◦ be an agricultural producer ◦ install the high tunnel(s) on cultivated land which includes existing gardens, irrigated hayland and irrigated pasture ◦ have raised or sold $1,000 worth of agricultural products http://www.nv.nrcs.usda.gov/programs /NV_high_tunnels.html
  62. 62. GreenhousesWalk-in, permanently placed The most expensive solution Usually have venting and heating systems (requires energy inputs but gives more control) In some areas, can be used year round Can add mass for thermal storage (water barrels, etc.)
  63. 63. Do your homework Many types on the market Many plans available as well Look at the alternatives before investing Can use to insulate your house when attached Consider a solar greenhouse
  64. 64. Bozeman, MT
  65. 65. GreenhousesWalk-in, movable Less expensive Can be disassembled and stored away when not in use Usually used one to two months before the last frost in the spring.
  66. 66. Whatever you do… Keep good records! Consider a journal that includes varieties, dates planted, dates matured, freezes, etc. Nurture your soil with lots of organic amendments Keep a map of what was planted where
  67. 67. Crop rotation: varyingfamilies
  68. 68. Why rotate crops? Breaks the cycle of disease and pests Helps to maintain adequate nutrients Can help improve soil structure (alternate deep-rooted plants with shallow-rooted plants) Can decrease costs
  69. 69. Considerations in crop rotationschemes Heavy feeders: leafy veggies, brassicas, corn Soil conserving/improving: legumes (peas and beans) Lighter feeders: bulb and root crops, many herbs
  70. 70. Simpler rotation Legumes Nightshades •Beans •Tomatoes •Peas •Peppers •Lentils •Potato Brassicas Cucurbits •Broccoli •Cucumbers •Cabbage •Squashes •Cauliflower •Melons
  71. 71. Another simple rotation Root Legumes crops, and onions brassicas Sweet Nightshades corn, - cucurbits tomatoes and peppers
  72. 72. End-of-season maintenance Clean up! Remove dead vegetation and windfalls, compost healthy material. Remove fallen fruit and dead leaves to decrease pest problems. Think about cover crops to enrich and stabilize soil (winter rye, triticale)
  73. 73. End-of-season maintenance Enrich garden beds with compost or manure; add mulch or leaves; think about nutrient needs for your specific crops Collect dried seed from open pollinated flowers & veggies Clean out cold frames for winter use
  74. 74. End-of-season maintenance Clean and oil lawnmower, other garden equipment and tools before storing for winter Take equipment in to be sharpened (mower blades, pruning equipment) Drain and store hoses carefully to avoid damage from freezing Clean, sand and oil garden tools before storing them for the winter
  75. 75. Questions?Sue Donaldsondonaldsons@unce.unr.edu775-336-0242
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