Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing Fruits and Berries

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  • Dormant oil—temp above 32 for 24 hrs
  • Dormant oil—temp above 32 for 24 hrs

Transcript

  • 1. 2003 Orchard View
  • 2. michael@michaelsapples.com• ISA Certified Arborist – Pruning – Consults and Pruning Lessons• NV Nursery License – Retail bare root fruit tree sales – Grafting classes• Gardening in Nevada since 1983• Master Gardener Volunteer since 1996• Monthly Fruit Tree and Gardening Newsletter
  • 3. Growing Fruit Trees andBerries in Northern Nevada Michael G. Janik www.michaelsapples.com
  • 4. Sources of Information• Handouts• UNR Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners Reno 775-784-4848 Winnemucca 775-623-6304• Clubs, Organizations, Botanical Gardens• Internet• Books
  • 5. Reference Books
  • 6. Sources for Trees• Local nurseries• Chain Discount Stores• Mail order nurseries• www.gardenwatchdog.com• www.davesgarden.com
  • 7. Selection Criteria• What you need and want• What the tree needs and wants
  • 8. Personal Needs and Likes• What type of fruit do you like? -Apples, Pears, Cherries, Berries• Continuous supply -Early, Autumn, Over winter keepers -Redhaven, Veteran, Contender• Needs—Tastes—Uses -Fresh -Baking/Cooking -Sauce/Juice -Preserves, Jams, Jellies
  • 9. Preserves, jams, jelly, pies
  • 10. Other ways to preserve apples and grapes
  • 11. Fruit Tree Needs and Likes• Climate—Hardy to USDA zones 2-6• Chill Hours—hrs 32-45°F +800 hrs• Soil—pH 6.5 Northern NV pH 8.5• Water• Nutrition—No need to fertilize, except• Location—Sunshine > 8 hrs/day
  • 12. Varieties for Northern Nevada• UNR Cooperative Extension (handout)• Other varieties for our area• Farm trails and fruit tastings• My varietal recommendations (handout)• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties on Dwarfing Rootstocks
  • 13. Farm Trails—Stabile’s Hillview Farm Watsonville, CA NAFEX.org
  • 14. • Choose an early ripening, a late, & aApples keeper (or 2) • Handout varieties plus: – Granny Smith, Arkansas Black – Honeycrisp, Fuji – Smokehouse, Newtown Pippin • Apple Hill, Placerville, CA
  • 15. Pears• Red Bartlett• Seckel• Bosc• d’Anjou• Flemish Beauty• Pick, store, ripen, consume
  • 16. Stone Fruits• Cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines• Late blooming, early ripening!
  • 17. • Why don’t theyApricots produce here???? • Extension handout • Tomcot, Manchurian • Harrow series: Harogem, Hargrand, Har* Ontario • University of Minnesota, Utah State University, etc
  • 18. Cherries • Sweet • Attika (Kordia) • Kristin • Gold • ‘Sour’ or “Pie” or “Tart” • Montmorency • Morello • Northstar
  • 19. Plums• European and Asian• Green gage, Reine Claude• Italian prune, Castleton Stanley, Empress, President• Burbank Hybrids: Satsuma, Santa Rosa
  • 20. • PEACHES >850 chill hours -Redhaven -Early Elberta -Elberta -Veteran -Contender NECTARINES -Red Gold -SunglowPeaches/Nectarines Miniatures
  • 21. BERRIES RASPBERRIES Heritage Autumn Bliss Anna (yellow) Caroline Rosana BLACKBERRIES (Thornless) Triple Crown Chester Loganberry
  • 22. BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries – 5.0 pH – Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northern catalogs
  • 23. BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries – 5.0 pH – Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northern catalogs
  • 24. • Table Grapes – “Grapes in Your Backyard” – Suffolk Red, Einset, seedless Concord, Glenora, Candice, Neptune, and many more
  • 25. STRAWBERRIES• HYBRIDS – Tristar – Tribute – Everest – Apache• ALPINE – Fragissimo (white) – Baron – Capron – Mara des Bois
  • 26. Currants and Gooseberries Red Lake White Imperial Minaj Smyriou Ben Lomond Nuts Pecans (native northern) Walnuts (Black) Almond (Hall’s Hardy)
  • 27. How Fruit Trees and Berries Are Propagated• Rhizomes (raspberries)• Stolons or runners (strawberries)• Seeds (colonial times)• Grafting (Clones of fruit trees with desired characteristics)• Scions, Buds and Rootstocks
  • 28. Natural Graft
  • 29. Rootstocks
  • 30. Ready to Graft
  • 31. First cut showing cambial ring
  • 32. Second cut on rootstock and scion
  • 33. Whip and tongue graft
  • 34. Secure graft with grafting rubber
  • 35. Graft Secured
  • 36. Wrap with grafting tape; wax top
  • 37. Planting in Nursery Rows
  • 38. Sprout on graft
  • 39. Bare Root Apple Whip
  • 40. More Choices• Bare root vs. potted trees• Do you need pollenizers?• Spring or Fall planting• Tree size
  • 41. My Preferences • Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Grow Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties • on Dwarfing Rootstocks
  • 42. Size control using rootstocks
  • 43. Standard Semi-dwarf Dwarf Tree sizes
  • 44. Standard Tree Semi Dwarf
  • 45. Dwarf apple orchard
  • 46. Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
  • 47. Easy access to harvest
  • 48. Getting Started
  • 49. Take a Soil Sample!
  • 50. Enhancing Soils• Agricultural sulfur (Tiger 90) to lower pH• Green cover crop: winter (annual) rye, winter wheat• Mulch and Manure
  • 51. Soil prep
  • 52. M&MMulch and Manure (composted horse)
  • 53. Mineral Deficiencies• Calcium deficiency--Bitter Pit • Iron deficiency—Chlorosis • Zinc deficiency
  • 54. Bitter pit—Ca deficiency
  • 55. Zinc Deficiency
  • 56. Chlorosis (Fe deficiency)
  • 57. Chlorosis onCucumber
  • 58. Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral
  • 59. Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral• OVERWATERING!!!!
  • 60. Treatment for mineral deficiencies • Stop Overwatering! • Analyze soil adjust pH • Apply Agricultural Sulphur • Mulch, Mulch, Mulch
  • 61. My Preference • Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties • on Dwarfing Rootstocks.
  • 62. Planting
  • 63. Planting
  • 64. Training Young Trees
  • 65. ApicalDominanceNote the nearhorizontal limb angles
  • 66. Bare Root Tree note the branch angles
  • 67. Training Horizontal Limbs--Before
  • 68. Training horizontal limbs--after
  • 69. Forked growthNote the pale leaves
  • 70. Spring: Begin Spray Program
  • 71. READ and FOLLOW PRODUCT LABEL INSTRUCTIONS
  • 72. Use protective gear!
  • 73. Read and follow label instructions!
  • 74. Know the Pest and Pesticide• Identify the pest you want to control (kill).• Read the label on the pesticide product.• Make sure the pest and the fruit you need to spray are both listed on the label.
  • 75. “ALTERNATIVE PEST CONTROLS”
  • 76. Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scale• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust• Insecticide—codling moth larvae
  • 77. Dormant buds on apple
  • 78. Delayed dormant buds on pear and cherry
  • 79. ¼ inch green tippear and cherry Dormant oil spray Aphids
  • 80. Aphid
  • 81. Ladybug (ladybird beetle)
  • 82. Aphids with Lacewing
  • 83. Ladybug larvae
  • 84. Beneficial Insects• Lady Bugs• Lacewings• Mantis
  • 85. Half-inch Green Tipfungicide spray for powdery mildew
  • 86. Powdery mildew
  • 87. First Pink—Apple NO PESTICIDES!!!
  • 88. Full Bloom
  • 89. Full Bloom--Peach
  • 90. Apple blossoms
  • 91. Nectarine blossoms
  • 92. Orchard blossoms
  • 93. Pollenizers (other fruit variety), Pollinators (bees)
  • 94. Bumble bee
  • 95. Fruit Set on Peach—thinning time
  • 96. Peach after thinning
  • 97. Fruit Cluster—close up
  • 98. Apple after thinning
  • 99. Well-thinned Cortland apples
  • 100. Codling Moth—first evening at 62 degrees
  • 101. Codling moths damage apples, pears, and …
  • 102. Codling moth frass
  • 103. One rotten apple will spoil the barrel
  • 104. Know your enemyLife Cycle Codling Moth3 hatches per year
  • 105. UC Davis Codling Moth Factsheet
  • 106. Monitoring: Codling moth pheromone trap
  • 107. Catch moths on 3 consecutive days--Biofix
  • 108. Degree Day Table or Calculator
  • 109. Determine when to spray• Monitor traps determine biofix• Google “codling moth degree days”• Use chart max/min temperatures• Add up hours• At 200-250 hours from biofix• SPRAY
  • 110. Coming
  • 111. Going
  • 112. ‘No Spray’ Option Bagging Fruit
  • 113. Thinning time is Bagging time
  • 114. Bagging option• Thin fruit• Spray• Bag
  • 115. Bagged FujiPhoto courtesy of Ed Franks, hobby orchardist, Illinois, NAFEX
  • 116. Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scales – Winter (optional) – ¼” green tip• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust – Half inch green to pink• Insecticide—codling moth larvae – Pheromone traps at full bloom – Determine biofix – Count degree days – Spray insecticide – Repeat for 3 hatches per year
  • 117. Fall
  • 118. Good Cultural Practices In Autumn • Pick up fruit as it falls • Do not leave fruit on trees over winter • Paint trunks or use tree wraps • Clear leaves and mulch away from tree trunks • Water as needed during winter months; check moisture on holidays.
  • 119. Earwig eggs in apple mummy
  • 120. Earwigs
  • 121. Protect Tree TrunksSunscald on Peach
  • 122. Install Tree Guards orPaint Trunks50/50 whitelatex paint and water
  • 123. Clear area around trunk
  • 124. Enjoy and Learn• Weekly tours• Buy the book and use it!• Google: The answer to all questions is there• University of Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension 784-4848A Master Gardener is waiting for your call!michael@michaelsapples.com Newsletter
  • 125. bumblebee