0
2003 Orchard View
michael@michaelsapples.com• ISA Certified Arborist  – Pruning  – Consults and Pruning Lessons• NV Nursery License  – Retai...
Growing Fruit Trees andBerries in Northern Nevada      Michael G. Janik    www.michaelsapples.com
Sources of Information• Handouts• UNR Cooperative Extension Master  Gardeners      Reno 775-784-4848      Winnemucca 775-6...
Reference Books
Sources for Trees•   Local nurseries•   Chain Discount Stores•   Mail order nurseries•   www.gardenwatchdog.com•   www.dav...
Selection Criteria• What you need and want• What the tree needs and wants
Personal Needs and Likes• What type of fruit do you like?    -Apples, Pears, Cherries, Berries• Continuous supply     -Ear...
Preserves, jams, jelly, pies
Other ways to preserve apples and grapes
Fruit Tree Needs and Likes•   Climate—Hardy to USDA zones 2-6•   Chill Hours—hrs 32-45°F +800 hrs•   Soil—pH 6.5      Nort...
Varieties for Northern Nevada•   UNR Cooperative Extension (handout)•   Other varieties for our area•   Farm trails and fr...
Farm Trails—Stabile’s Hillview Farm Watsonville, CA                    NAFEX.org
• Choose an           early ripening,           a late, & aApples     keeper (or 2)         • Handout           varieties ...
Pears• Red Bartlett• Seckel• Bosc• d’Anjou• Flemish  Beauty• Pick, store,  ripen,  consume
Stone Fruits• Cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines• Late blooming, early ripening!
• Why don’t theyApricots     produce             here????           • Extension             handout           • Tomcot,   ...
Cherries   • Sweet           • Attika (Kordia)           • Kristin           • Gold           • ‘Sour’ or             “Pie...
Plums•   European and Asian•   Green gage, Reine Claude•   Italian prune, Castleton    Stanley, Empress,    President•   B...
• PEACHES                     >850 chill hours                     -Redhaven                     -Early Elberta           ...
BERRIES    RASPBERRIES      Heritage      Autumn Bliss      Anna (yellow)      Caroline      Rosana    BLACKBERRIES (Thorn...
BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries  – 5.0 pH  – Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northern    catalogs
BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries  – 5.0 pH  – Elliot, Norsky,    Patriot, check    northern catalogs
• Table Grapes  – “Grapes in Your Backyard”  – Suffolk Red, Einset, seedless Concord, Glenora,    Candice, Neptune, and ma...
STRAWBERRIES• HYBRIDS  –   Tristar  –   Tribute  –   Everest  –   Apache• ALPINE  – Fragissimo (white)  – Baron  – Capron ...
Currants and Gooseberries          Red Lake        White Imperial        Minaj Smyriou         Ben Lomond          Nuts   ...
How Fruit Trees and Berries Are              Propagated• Rhizomes (raspberries)• Stolons or runners (strawberries)• Seeds ...
Natural Graft
Rootstocks
Ready to Graft
First cut showing cambial ring
Second cut on rootstock and scion
Whip and tongue graft
Secure graft with grafting rubber
Graft Secured
Wrap with grafting tape; wax top
Planting in Nursery Rows
Sprout on graft
Bare Root Apple Whip
More Choices•   Bare root vs. potted trees•   Do you need pollenizers?•   Spring or Fall planting•   Tree size
My Preferences    • Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Grow Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties          • on Dwarfi...
Size control using rootstocks
Standard     Semi-dwarf   Dwarf           Tree sizes
Standard Tree   Semi Dwarf
Dwarf apple orchard
Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
Easy access to harvest
Getting Started
Take a Soil Sample!
Enhancing Soils• Agricultural sulfur (Tiger 90) to lower pH• Green cover crop: winter (annual) rye,  winter wheat• Mulch a...
Soil prep
M&MMulch and Manure (composted horse)
Mineral Deficiencies• Calcium deficiency--Bitter Pit • Iron deficiency—Chlorosis       • Zinc deficiency
Bitter pit—Ca deficiency
Zinc Deficiency
Chlorosis (Fe deficiency)
Chlorosis   onCucumber
Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral
Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral• OVERWATERING!!!!
Treatment for mineral deficiencies •   Stop Overwatering! •   Analyze soil adjust pH •   Apply Agricultural Sulphur •   Mu...
My Preference   • Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties         • on Dwarfing Roots...
Planting
Planting
Training Young Trees
ApicalDominanceNote the nearhorizontal limb    angles
Bare Root Tree note the branch angles
Training Horizontal Limbs--Before
Training horizontal limbs--after
Forked  growthNote the pale   leaves
Spring: Begin Spray Program
READ and FOLLOW PRODUCT LABEL  INSTRUCTIONS
Use protective gear!
Read and follow label instructions!
Know the Pest and Pesticide• Identify the pest you want to control (kill).• Read the label on the pesticide product.• Make...
“ALTERNATIVE PEST CONTROLS”
Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scale• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust• Insecticide—codling moth lar...
Dormant buds on apple
Delayed dormant buds on pear and cherry
¼ inch green tippear and cherry                   Dormant oil spray                       Aphids
Aphid
Ladybug (ladybird beetle)
Aphids with Lacewing
Ladybug larvae
Beneficial Insects• Lady Bugs• Lacewings• Mantis
Half-inch Green Tipfungicide spray for powdery mildew
Powdery mildew
First Pink—Apple   NO PESTICIDES!!!
Full Bloom
Full Bloom--Peach
Apple blossoms
Nectarine blossoms
Orchard blossoms
Pollenizers (other fruit variety), Pollinators (bees)
Bumble bee
Fruit Set on Peach—thinning time
Peach after thinning
Fruit Cluster—close up
Apple after thinning
Well-thinned Cortland apples
Codling Moth—first evening at 62 degrees
Codling moths damage apples, pears, and …
Codling moth frass
One rotten apple will spoil the barrel
Know  your enemyLife Cycle Codling   Moth3 hatches per year
UC Davis Codling Moth Factsheet
Monitoring: Codling moth pheromone trap
Catch moths on 3 consecutive days--Biofix
Degree Day Table or Calculator
Determine when to spray•   Monitor traps determine biofix•   Google “codling moth degree days”•   Use chart max/min temper...
Coming
Going
‘No Spray’ Option  Bagging Fruit
Thinning time is Bagging time
Bagging option• Thin fruit• Spray• Bag
Bagged FujiPhoto courtesy of Ed Franks, hobby orchardist, Illinois, NAFEX
Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scales  – Winter (optional)  – ¼” green tip• Fungicide—scale, p. mild...
Fall
Good Cultural Practices In Autumn • Pick up fruit as it falls • Do not leave fruit on trees over winter • Paint trunks or ...
Earwig eggs in apple mummy
Earwigs
Protect Tree     TrunksSunscald on Peach
Install Tree   Guards     orPaint Trunks50/50 whitelatex paint and water
Clear area around trunk
Enjoy and Learn• Weekly tours• Buy the book and use it!• Google: The answer to all questions is there• University of Nevad...
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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing Fruits and Berries

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  • Dormant oil—temp above 32 for 24 hrs
  • Dormant oil—temp above 32 for 24 hrs
  • Transcript of "Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing Fruits and Berries"

    1. 1. 2003 Orchard View
    2. 2. michael@michaelsapples.com• ISA Certified Arborist – Pruning – Consults and Pruning Lessons• NV Nursery License – Retail bare root fruit tree sales – Grafting classes• Gardening in Nevada since 1983• Master Gardener Volunteer since 1996• Monthly Fruit Tree and Gardening Newsletter
    3. 3. Growing Fruit Trees andBerries in Northern Nevada Michael G. Janik www.michaelsapples.com
    4. 4. Sources of Information• Handouts• UNR Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners Reno 775-784-4848 Winnemucca 775-623-6304• Clubs, Organizations, Botanical Gardens• Internet• Books
    5. 5. Reference Books
    6. 6. Sources for Trees• Local nurseries• Chain Discount Stores• Mail order nurseries• www.gardenwatchdog.com• www.davesgarden.com
    7. 7. Selection Criteria• What you need and want• What the tree needs and wants
    8. 8. Personal Needs and Likes• What type of fruit do you like? -Apples, Pears, Cherries, Berries• Continuous supply -Early, Autumn, Over winter keepers -Redhaven, Veteran, Contender• Needs—Tastes—Uses -Fresh -Baking/Cooking -Sauce/Juice -Preserves, Jams, Jellies
    9. 9. Preserves, jams, jelly, pies
    10. 10. Other ways to preserve apples and grapes
    11. 11. Fruit Tree Needs and Likes• Climate—Hardy to USDA zones 2-6• Chill Hours—hrs 32-45°F +800 hrs• Soil—pH 6.5 Northern NV pH 8.5• Water• Nutrition—No need to fertilize, except• Location—Sunshine > 8 hrs/day
    12. 12. Varieties for Northern Nevada• UNR Cooperative Extension (handout)• Other varieties for our area• Farm trails and fruit tastings• My varietal recommendations (handout)• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties on Dwarfing Rootstocks
    13. 13. Farm Trails—Stabile’s Hillview Farm Watsonville, CA NAFEX.org
    14. 14. • Choose an early ripening, a late, & aApples keeper (or 2) • Handout varieties plus: – Granny Smith, Arkansas Black – Honeycrisp, Fuji – Smokehouse, Newtown Pippin • Apple Hill, Placerville, CA
    15. 15. Pears• Red Bartlett• Seckel• Bosc• d’Anjou• Flemish Beauty• Pick, store, ripen, consume
    16. 16. Stone Fruits• Cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines• Late blooming, early ripening!
    17. 17. • Why don’t theyApricots produce here???? • Extension handout • Tomcot, Manchurian • Harrow series: Harogem, Hargrand, Har* Ontario • University of Minnesota, Utah State University, etc
    18. 18. Cherries • Sweet • Attika (Kordia) • Kristin • Gold • ‘Sour’ or “Pie” or “Tart” • Montmorency • Morello • Northstar
    19. 19. Plums• European and Asian• Green gage, Reine Claude• Italian prune, Castleton Stanley, Empress, President• Burbank Hybrids: Satsuma, Santa Rosa
    20. 20. • PEACHES >850 chill hours -Redhaven -Early Elberta -Elberta -Veteran -Contender NECTARINES -Red Gold -SunglowPeaches/Nectarines Miniatures
    21. 21. BERRIES RASPBERRIES Heritage Autumn Bliss Anna (yellow) Caroline Rosana BLACKBERRIES (Thornless) Triple Crown Chester Loganberry
    22. 22. BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries – 5.0 pH – Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northern catalogs
    23. 23. BLUEBERRIES• Blueberries – 5.0 pH – Elliot, Norsky, Patriot, check northern catalogs
    24. 24. • Table Grapes – “Grapes in Your Backyard” – Suffolk Red, Einset, seedless Concord, Glenora, Candice, Neptune, and many more
    25. 25. STRAWBERRIES• HYBRIDS – Tristar – Tribute – Everest – Apache• ALPINE – Fragissimo (white) – Baron – Capron – Mara des Bois
    26. 26. Currants and Gooseberries Red Lake White Imperial Minaj Smyriou Ben Lomond Nuts Pecans (native northern) Walnuts (Black) Almond (Hall’s Hardy)
    27. 27. How Fruit Trees and Berries Are Propagated• Rhizomes (raspberries)• Stolons or runners (strawberries)• Seeds (colonial times)• Grafting (Clones of fruit trees with desired characteristics)• Scions, Buds and Rootstocks
    28. 28. Natural Graft
    29. 29. Rootstocks
    30. 30. Ready to Graft
    31. 31. First cut showing cambial ring
    32. 32. Second cut on rootstock and scion
    33. 33. Whip and tongue graft
    34. 34. Secure graft with grafting rubber
    35. 35. Graft Secured
    36. 36. Wrap with grafting tape; wax top
    37. 37. Planting in Nursery Rows
    38. 38. Sprout on graft
    39. 39. Bare Root Apple Whip
    40. 40. More Choices• Bare root vs. potted trees• Do you need pollenizers?• Spring or Fall planting• Tree size
    41. 41. My Preferences • Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Grow Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties • on Dwarfing Rootstocks
    42. 42. Size control using rootstocks
    43. 43. Standard Semi-dwarf Dwarf Tree sizes
    44. 44. Standard Tree Semi Dwarf
    45. 45. Dwarf apple orchard
    46. 46. Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
    47. 47. Easy access to harvest
    48. 48. Getting Started
    49. 49. Take a Soil Sample!
    50. 50. Enhancing Soils• Agricultural sulfur (Tiger 90) to lower pH• Green cover crop: winter (annual) rye, winter wheat• Mulch and Manure
    51. 51. Soil prep
    52. 52. M&MMulch and Manure (composted horse)
    53. 53. Mineral Deficiencies• Calcium deficiency--Bitter Pit • Iron deficiency—Chlorosis • Zinc deficiency
    54. 54. Bitter pit—Ca deficiency
    55. 55. Zinc Deficiency
    56. 56. Chlorosis (Fe deficiency)
    57. 57. Chlorosis onCucumber
    58. 58. Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral
    59. 59. Causes of mineral deficiencies• Soil deficient of particular mineral• OVERWATERING!!!!
    60. 60. Treatment for mineral deficiencies • Stop Overwatering! • Analyze soil adjust pH • Apply Agricultural Sulphur • Mulch, Mulch, Mulch
    61. 61. My Preference • Plant Bare Root Trees in the Spring• Late Blooming, Early Ripening Varieties • on Dwarfing Rootstocks.
    62. 62. Planting
    63. 63. Planting
    64. 64. Training Young Trees
    65. 65. ApicalDominanceNote the nearhorizontal limb angles
    66. 66. Bare Root Tree note the branch angles
    67. 67. Training Horizontal Limbs--Before
    68. 68. Training horizontal limbs--after
    69. 69. Forked growthNote the pale leaves
    70. 70. Spring: Begin Spray Program
    71. 71. READ and FOLLOW PRODUCT LABEL INSTRUCTIONS
    72. 72. Use protective gear!
    73. 73. Read and follow label instructions!
    74. 74. Know the Pest and Pesticide• Identify the pest you want to control (kill).• Read the label on the pesticide product.• Make sure the pest and the fruit you need to spray are both listed on the label.
    75. 75. “ALTERNATIVE PEST CONTROLS”
    76. 76. Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scale• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust• Insecticide—codling moth larvae
    77. 77. Dormant buds on apple
    78. 78. Delayed dormant buds on pear and cherry
    79. 79. ¼ inch green tippear and cherry Dormant oil spray Aphids
    80. 80. Aphid
    81. 81. Ladybug (ladybird beetle)
    82. 82. Aphids with Lacewing
    83. 83. Ladybug larvae
    84. 84. Beneficial Insects• Lady Bugs• Lacewings• Mantis
    85. 85. Half-inch Green Tipfungicide spray for powdery mildew
    86. 86. Powdery mildew
    87. 87. First Pink—Apple NO PESTICIDES!!!
    88. 88. Full Bloom
    89. 89. Full Bloom--Peach
    90. 90. Apple blossoms
    91. 91. Nectarine blossoms
    92. 92. Orchard blossoms
    93. 93. Pollenizers (other fruit variety), Pollinators (bees)
    94. 94. Bumble bee
    95. 95. Fruit Set on Peach—thinning time
    96. 96. Peach after thinning
    97. 97. Fruit Cluster—close up
    98. 98. Apple after thinning
    99. 99. Well-thinned Cortland apples
    100. 100. Codling Moth—first evening at 62 degrees
    101. 101. Codling moths damage apples, pears, and …
    102. 102. Codling moth frass
    103. 103. One rotten apple will spoil the barrel
    104. 104. Know your enemyLife Cycle Codling Moth3 hatches per year
    105. 105. UC Davis Codling Moth Factsheet
    106. 106. Monitoring: Codling moth pheromone trap
    107. 107. Catch moths on 3 consecutive days--Biofix
    108. 108. Degree Day Table or Calculator
    109. 109. Determine when to spray• Monitor traps determine biofix• Google “codling moth degree days”• Use chart max/min temperatures• Add up hours• At 200-250 hours from biofix• SPRAY
    110. 110. Coming
    111. 111. Going
    112. 112. ‘No Spray’ Option Bagging Fruit
    113. 113. Thinning time is Bagging time
    114. 114. Bagging option• Thin fruit• Spray• Bag
    115. 115. Bagged FujiPhoto courtesy of Ed Franks, hobby orchardist, Illinois, NAFEX
    116. 116. Fruit Tree Spray Program• Dormant Oil—aphids, mites, scales – Winter (optional) – ¼” green tip• Fungicide—scale, p. mildew, rust – Half inch green to pink• Insecticide—codling moth larvae – Pheromone traps at full bloom – Determine biofix – Count degree days – Spray insecticide – Repeat for 3 hatches per year
    117. 117. Fall
    118. 118. Good Cultural Practices In Autumn • Pick up fruit as it falls • Do not leave fruit on trees over winter • Paint trunks or use tree wraps • Clear leaves and mulch away from tree trunks • Water as needed during winter months; check moisture on holidays.
    119. 119. Earwig eggs in apple mummy
    120. 120. Earwigs
    121. 121. Protect Tree TrunksSunscald on Peach
    122. 122. Install Tree Guards orPaint Trunks50/50 whitelatex paint and water
    123. 123. Clear area around trunk
    124. 124. Enjoy and Learn• Weekly tours• Buy the book and use it!• Google: The answer to all questions is there• University of Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension 784-4848A Master Gardener is waiting for your call!michael@michaelsapples.com Newsletter
    125. 125. bumblebee
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