Gardening in small places • Angela O‟Callaghan, Ph.D. • Area Specialist • Social Horticulture                  2/25/2013  ...
What do you want   2/25/2013                   2
DefinitionsPhotosynthesis   Plant takes water  Takes place     Requires                 and carbon dioxide only in light  ...
 Light:          Amount          Duration          Direction Nutrient levels Water (precipitation or irrigation) Day t...
Patio gardener‟s tool kit           2/25/2013        5
Before starting, answer the following  • Easy access to water?  • How many hours of sunlight does the area    receive?  • ...
Getting started      Often easiest to start annuals from       seed.      Can be planted in a tray or in peat       pell...
2/25/2013            9
Starting seeds            indoors             Can be more or             less of a             production2/25/2013        ...
• Do not use field soil• Use potting mix (peat moss, perlite, vermiculite,  nutrients)• Seed per package directions• Maint...
• Root system will  develop before top  growth.• Roots must be  clean and healthy                  2/25/2013              ...
.• Transplant seedlings after true leaves have  formed• NEVER pull or handle the transplant by the  stem (throat)• Exercis...
Plants that have large seeds tend to beless successful as transplants– Beans– Corn       2/25/2013                        ...
• We have small yards or patios• We want a lot out of a small space• We must resist the temptation to crowd so  much toget...
•   Hardy, even frost tolerant•   Seeds germinate at lower temperature•   Root systems shallower•   Plants smaller•   May ...
•   Roots•   Tubers•   Stems•   Leaves• Up to, not including, flowers              2/25/2013           18
• Must have 8 hours or more bright direct light• Generally grow best between 70 and 80  (with exceptions)• Most seeds will...
Warm season vegetables   • Flowers   • Fruits   • Seeds       2/25/2013         20
• Most herbs are grown either for leaves  (basil, oregano, mint) or flowers (dill)• Many can grow as companion plants• Som...
• Garden can be   – in the ground, well amended soil   – In a raised bed   – In a pot   – In a barrel• It’s up to the gard...
•Unglazed clay (terra cotta)        •Glazed clay        •Plastic        •Wood        •Biodegradable material        •Large...
Express the gardener‟s taste Sophisticated Rustic Urban Antique Eclectic        2/25/2013                            ...
Not for all crops
Can be made of                              brick, block, wood,                              plastic, etc.Can be built to ...
Dry faster than sitting            Smaller dry faster than              larger            Clay faster than plastic        ...
• Insulation• Conserves water• Moderates heat                    2/25/2013                                32
Mulching•   Even a plant in a pot can be mulched•   Conserves water•   Keeps temperature more level•   Your choice of mate...
• Vegetables are often grown as annuals,  although they may technically be something  else                        2/25/201...
• We treat most of the vegetables we grow as  annuals, whether they are or not• Many of our common vegetables are not     ...
• Annuals will flower and produce seeds once  before dying• Biennials will flower and produce seeds once,  and only if the...
Flowering broccoliFlowering carrots                    2/25/2013                37
2/25/2013   38
Gardeners generally need to  increase fertilitySoluble fertilizers are  commonly used  – May be organic or    conventional...
 If you want to grow       If you want what is organically, then          usually most conventional               conven...
How do you water these things?                        Irrigation, hose,                           watering can            ...
2/25/2013   42
•   Ongoing fresh crop of plants•   Some plants are only used fresh•   For instance, leafy greens•   For an ongoing supply...
2/25/2013   45
•   Bolted•   No flowering•   No fruiting•   Tip burn•   Blossom end rot•   Fruit cracked                2/25/2013   46
• Premature flower stalk  production• Plant stress• Excess heat• Excess cold• Incorrect day length                 2/25/20...
•   Nitrogen fertilizer applied just at flowering•   Insufficient phosphorus•   High winds•   High temperatures•   Incorre...
• When leaf was first developing, shortage of  calcium reached growth point.• Result of irregular or insufficient watering...
• Similar to tip burn• Water deficiency as fruit first developed                        2/25/2013             50
• Temperature too high, water  taken up too fast, cracks skin                   2/25/2013       51
Summary•   Right plant in the right place•   Plant when conditions are right•   Plant in well amended soil or good mix•   ...
Composting in small places
Sawdust 100-500:1          Very high carbon!       Paper 150-200:1       Bark 100-130:1       Wheat straw 80:1C      Oat s...
TYPES OF COMPOSTING  •   Pile                   hot  •   Tumblers               hot  •   Bins                   hot  •   T...
Which is best for you?1. How much space do you have?2. How much biodegradable material do you   have?3. How much compost w...
Hot or cold?               2/25/2013   57
Starting compost1--Place a layer of coarse material several inches  thick for drainage on the ground2--Place a layer of hi...
Turn the pile – or not?• Pile can be turned regularly  using a garden fork or a special  auger - Or• Pile can be construct...
Compost worms• Red wigglers (Eisinia      • Foodstuff ground in  foetida)                     gizzard• Hungrier and tolera...
Worm bins61     2/25/2013        61
feedstock            worms            wormsworms
different methods        Electric heat & regular        agitation        NOT exactly compostinghttp://www.naturemill.com/v...
TrenchSlowerAnaerobic microbes do   work  Bury starter material   near new garden  Add small amount of   fertilizer  ...
Bokashi (anaerobic)
Problems to confront• Dry air  – Always keep lightly moistened• Hot  – Place in a shady space if possible  – Always have a...
 Bugs happen. They benefit compost &  help to expedite process by breaking  down starting material No pesticides! Can ki...
 Compost  should smell like fresh soil  Foul smells may be due to      Anaerobic conditions – stir to add oxygen      ...
Not Composting???Possible causes:• Turned too often, heat doesn‟t generate• Not turned often enough, process is very slow•...
Compost tea• A brew of compost in  water• ~ one part compost to  five parts water                               2/25/2013 ...
Compost tea (CONT.)Properties will vary with:1. Starting materials2. Length of brewing time3. Level of aeration and stirri...
SummaryCompost• Is a terrific source of plant nutrients• Is a source of many beneficial  microorganisms• May control plant...
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places
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Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2011: Growing and Composting in Small Places

  1. 1. Gardening in small places • Angela O‟Callaghan, Ph.D. • Area Specialist • Social Horticulture 2/25/2013 1 AA/EO
  2. 2. What do you want 2/25/2013 2
  3. 3. DefinitionsPhotosynthesis Plant takes water Takes place Requires and carbon dioxide only in light energy and creates sugar.Respiration Plants breaks down Takes place in Gives off sugar into carbon light and in energy dioxide and water darkTranspiration Plants carry water Pull from the Keeps plants from soil through leaves delivers upright leaves. Nutrients water and are dissolved in nutrients water
  4. 4.  Light: Amount Duration Direction Nutrient levels Water (precipitation or irrigation) Day temperature Night temperature Protection from Pests: insects weeds disease 2/25/2013 4
  5. 5. Patio gardener‟s tool kit 2/25/2013 5
  6. 6. Before starting, answer the following • Easy access to water? • How many hours of sunlight does the area receive? • From what direction is the light? • What is the level of time, strength & interest? 2/25/2013 6
  7. 7. Getting started  Often easiest to start annuals from seed.  Can be planted in a tray or in peat pellets (dry out too quickly?) .
  8. 8. 2/25/2013 9
  9. 9. Starting seeds indoors Can be more or less of a production2/25/2013 10
  10. 10. • Do not use field soil• Use potting mix (peat moss, perlite, vermiculite, nutrients)• Seed per package directions• Maintain moisture• Temperature – Key  Too high, spindly plants that dry out quickly  Too cool, promote disease• 2/25/2013 11
  11. 11. • Root system will develop before top growth.• Roots must be clean and healthy 2/25/2013 12
  12. 12. .• Transplant seedlings after true leaves have formed• NEVER pull or handle the transplant by the stem (throat)• Exercise care not to destroy roots
  13. 13. Plants that have large seeds tend to beless successful as transplants– Beans– Corn 2/25/2013 14
  14. 14. • We have small yards or patios• We want a lot out of a small space• We must resist the temptation to crowd so much together that we make the plants unhappy and ourselves crazed.
  15. 15. • Hardy, even frost tolerant• Seeds germinate at lower temperature• Root systems shallower• Plants smaller• May be susceptible to bolting if - too cool or too warm for too long 2/25/2013 17
  16. 16. • Roots• Tubers• Stems• Leaves• Up to, not including, flowers 2/25/2013 18
  17. 17. • Must have 8 hours or more bright direct light• Generally grow best between 70 and 80 (with exceptions)• Most seeds will not germinate at temperatures < 50• Produce may suffer chilling injury at temperatures < 50 2/25/2013 19
  18. 18. Warm season vegetables • Flowers • Fruits • Seeds 2/25/2013 20
  19. 19. • Most herbs are grown either for leaves (basil, oregano, mint) or flowers (dill)• Many can grow as companion plants• Some (e.g. mint) should be kept in pots to control spread• May be used as houseplants 2/25/2013 21
  20. 20. • Garden can be – in the ground, well amended soil – In a raised bed – In a pot – In a barrel• It’s up to the gardener• AS LONG AS THERE IS SUFFICIENT DRAINAGE and FERTILITY 2/25/2013 22
  21. 21. •Unglazed clay (terra cotta) •Glazed clay •Plastic •Wood •Biodegradable material •Large •Small •Sitting •Hanging2/25/2013 23
  22. 22. Express the gardener‟s taste Sophisticated Rustic Urban Antique Eclectic 2/25/2013 24
  23. 23. Not for all crops
  24. 24. Can be made of brick, block, wood, plastic, etc.Can be built to size, height and mobility needs of gardener 2/25/2013 29
  25. 25. Dry faster than sitting Smaller dry faster than larger Clay faster than plastic or glazed2/25/2013 31
  26. 26. • Insulation• Conserves water• Moderates heat 2/25/2013 32
  27. 27. Mulching• Even a plant in a pot can be mulched• Conserves water• Keeps temperature more level• Your choice of materials
  28. 28. • Vegetables are often grown as annuals, although they may technically be something else 2/25/2013 34
  29. 29. • We treat most of the vegetables we grow as annuals, whether they are or not• Many of our common vegetables are not 2/25/2013 35
  30. 30. • Annuals will flower and produce seeds once before dying• Biennials will flower and produce seeds once, and only if they have experienced a chilling period with short days• The desired part of many biennial vegetables is produced only in the first year• Perennials can produce for several years 36 2/25/2013
  31. 31. Flowering broccoliFlowering carrots 2/25/2013 37
  32. 32. 2/25/2013 38
  33. 33. Gardeners generally need to increase fertilitySoluble fertilizers are commonly used – May be organic or conventional – Very convenient – Concentrated levels of nutrients – In addition to NPK, micronutrients may be present – Potted plants – often best to fertilize with ¼ strength with each watering. 2/25/2013 39
  34. 34.  If you want to grow  If you want what is organically, then usually most conventional convenient, then fertilizers are a no-no organic methods might be too much of a bother 2/25/2013 40
  35. 35. How do you water these things? Irrigation, hose, watering can 2/25/2013 41
  36. 36. 2/25/2013 42
  37. 37. • Ongoing fresh crop of plants• Some plants are only used fresh• For instance, leafy greens• For an ongoing supply, – time from planting to mature plant – amount that is planted at any one time – How long plant(s) will stay usable 2/25/2013 44
  38. 38. 2/25/2013 45
  39. 39. • Bolted• No flowering• No fruiting• Tip burn• Blossom end rot• Fruit cracked 2/25/2013 46
  40. 40. • Premature flower stalk production• Plant stress• Excess heat• Excess cold• Incorrect day length 2/25/2013 47
  41. 41. • Nitrogen fertilizer applied just at flowering• Insufficient phosphorus• High winds• High temperatures• Incorrect day length• Flowering stalks pruned off (problem with woody plants) 2/25/2013 48
  42. 42. • When leaf was first developing, shortage of calcium reached growth point.• Result of irregular or insufficient watering 2/25/2013 49
  43. 43. • Similar to tip burn• Water deficiency as fruit first developed 2/25/2013 50
  44. 44. • Temperature too high, water taken up too fast, cracks skin 2/25/2013 51
  45. 45. Summary• Right plant in the right place• Plant when conditions are right• Plant in well amended soil or good mix• Containers should be big enough• Containers 2/25/2013 52
  46. 46. Composting in small places
  47. 47. Sawdust 100-500:1 Very high carbon! Paper 150-200:1 Bark 100-130:1 Wheat straw 80:1C Oat straw 74:1 Corn stalks 60:1 Leaves 40-80:1 Carbon Fruit wastes 35:1 Horse manure 25:1 Nitrogen Vegetable wastes 12-20:1 Grass clippings 12-25:1 ratios Apple pomace 21:1N Cow manure 20:1 Coffee grounds 20:1 Alfalfa hay 13:154 Poultry manure, fresh 10:1 Very high nitrogen! 2/25/2013 54
  48. 48. TYPES OF COMPOSTING • Pile hot • Tumblers hot • Bins hot • Trench cold • Worms cold 55 2/25/2013
  49. 49. Which is best for you?1. How much space do you have?2. How much biodegradable material do you have?3. How much compost will you need?4. How much labor can you reasonably perform? 2/25/2013 56
  50. 50. Hot or cold? 2/25/2013 57
  51. 51. Starting compost1--Place a layer of coarse material several inches thick for drainage on the ground2--Place a layer of high nitrogen material ~3”3--Place a layer of high carbon material ~6”4--Place a layer of garden soil (&/or fertilizer or “compost booster”) ~1”5--Water thoroughly. Repeat numbers 2 through 5 2/25/2013
  52. 52. Turn the pile – or not?• Pile can be turned regularly using a garden fork or a special auger - Or• Pile can be constructed, mixed once and left to degrade slowly - Or• Pile can be constructed in layers (lasagna) and left to degrade very slowly 2/25/2013 59 2/25/2013 59
  53. 53. Compost worms• Red wigglers (Eisinia • Foodstuff ground in foetida) gizzard• Hungrier and tolerate • Microorganisms in worms higher temperatures than themselves and in „nightcrawlers‟ degrading materials also• Very fast degrading of involved materials • Little heat generated• Worms eat raw materials • compost = worm castings• May eat their own weight daily
  54. 54. Worm bins61 2/25/2013 61
  55. 55. feedstock worms wormsworms
  56. 56. different methods Electric heat & regular agitation NOT exactly compostinghttp://www.naturemill.com/video_histChan.html 2/25/2013 63 2/25/2013 63
  57. 57. TrenchSlowerAnaerobic microbes do work Bury starter material near new garden Add small amount of fertilizer C/N ration not critical Will smell bad if opened before complete 2/25/2013 65 2/25/2013 65
  58. 58. Bokashi (anaerobic)
  59. 59. Problems to confront• Dry air – Always keep lightly moistened• Hot – Place in a shady space if possible – Always have a cover• Insects• Odors 2/25/2013 67 2/25/2013 67
  60. 60.  Bugs happen. They benefit compost & help to expedite process by breaking down starting material No pesticides! Can kill bugs and worms Decrease amount of flies and other insects in compost by freezing starting material before putting it in the composter If roaches are a big problem, put DE on top of pile68 68 2/25/2013
  61. 61.  Compost should smell like fresh soil  Foul smells may be due to  Anaerobic conditions – stir to add oxygen  Too much green or large green clumps – add some browns and stir well  Always make the top layer of the compost brown69 2/25/2013 69
  62. 62. Not Composting???Possible causes:• Turned too often, heat doesn‟t generate• Not turned often enough, process is very slow• Too much carbon, no food for microbes• Pile too small, microbes can‟t get established 2/25/2013 70 2/25/2013 70
  63. 63. Compost tea• A brew of compost in water• ~ one part compost to five parts water 2/25/2013 71 2/25/2013 71
  64. 64. Compost tea (CONT.)Properties will vary with:1. Starting materials2. Length of brewing time3. Level of aeration and stirring • Insufficient air will cause it to go anaerobic and smell foul 2/25/2013 72 2/25/2013 72
  65. 65. SummaryCompost• Is a terrific source of plant nutrients• Is a source of many beneficial microorganisms• May control plant disease, both as compost and tea• Lowers the amount of organic garbage going to the landfill. 73
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