Cool-season vegetables – prefer daytime temperatures 15-18°C (60-65°F) ◦ Spinach, cabbage, broccoli, radish, beet, asparagus, garlic, brussels sprouts (frost tolerant) ◦ Lettuce, celery, artichoke, endive, mustard, carrot (damaged by temps near freezing) Warm-season vegetables – must be planted after danger of frost has passed ◦ Sweet corn, pepper, snap beans, squash, pumpkin, lima beans, cucumber, tomato, cantaloupe
Frost free period ◦ Calculated from date of last spring frost to date of first fall frost Days to maturity ◦ Seed to harvest ◦ Differs by cultivar Frost-tolerance
Cultivar = cultivated variety Examples: ◦ „Early Girl‟ tomatoes ◦ „Sugar Ann‟ snap peas ◦ „Buttercrunch‟ lettuce ◦ „Royal burgundy‟ bush beans Cultivars are varieties within a crop selected for a particular characteristic.
EARLY SPRING LATE SPRING/EARLY Late SUMMER summerHARDY SEMI-HARDY TENDER VERY TENDER HARDYAsparagus Beet Celery Cantaloupe BeetsBroccoli Carrot Cucumber Eggplant CabbageBrussels Cauliflower Dry bean Lima bean Kalesprouts Endive Snap bean Pepper LettuceCabbage Lettuce New Zealand Pumpkin OnionKale Parsley spinach Tomato RadishOnions Parsnip Sweet corn Watermelon RutabagaPeas Potato Zucchini Winter SpinachRadish Salsify squash TurnipRhubarb Swiss chardSpinachTurnip
Sunlight – avoid trees Good soil – sandy loam is best Source of water Avoid steep slopes Protection from strong wind
South, east, west exposure Afternoon shade will protect sensitive fruits in a western exposure. Eastern exposure – sunlight less intense (6 hours minimum)
Must be accessible Hose dragging can pull up or damage plants. May need more than one water source.
Ideal is 50% permeable. Should be as long as possible. Windbreaks meeting at right angles give maximum protection against shifting winds.
Three-season gardening Relaying: overlapping planting of one crop Planting several varieties of the same crop
Early Spring (March 15): cool season veggies Summer – late May / early June: warm season veggies Fall – August: cool season veggies (again)
Allows dense plantings. Avoids competition for nutrients and light. Simple schemes: ◦ Onions, lettuce, carrots ◦ Radishes, lettuce, pepp ers ◦ Brussels sprouts, parsley, spinac h, onions
Three Sisters Method: Relies on complementary characteristics: ◦ Corn is a heavy feeder but provides a trellis for ◦ Beans, which fix N for corn and ◦ Squash, which shades the ground
Plant polycultures. Interplant herbs and flowers. Provide refuge for beneficial insects. Use least toxic methods to control pests. Know your weeds. Cleome serrulata
Plant: Repels: Basil Flies/mosquitoes Marigold Many insects Garlic Many pests Mint Cabbage moths Onion Ants Radish Many insects Rosemary Bean beetles Tansy BeetlesSource: Horticulture Principles and Practices, 4th ed., G. Acquaah, Pearson Education, NJ
A example of a 4-foot by 8-foot raised bed design
From seed indoors: ◦ Sterile “soil” – fine ◦ Plant 2-3x the width of the seed. ◦ Label! ◦ Use mist to water ◦ Cover until they begin to germinate. ◦ Artificial vs. natural Seedlings in egg carton light ◦ Heat: 60-75 deg F