Landscape Pests & Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment           Leslie Lyles, M.S.        Horticultural ConsultantI.S.A. Cer...
Have you ever noticed…  There are more insect and disease  problems in the urban forest than          in natural forests.
Urban Forest VS Natural Forests   Increase stress pre-disposes trees to vigor related    diseases. Since the forest is th...
Don’t Stress Me Out!When a plant is stressed, it is much more susceptible to attack by insect and disease organisms. Typic...
Stresses affecting plant health:   Compacted soil   Reflective heat   Sparse or excessive water supply   Insufficient ...
Urban Forest VS Natural Forests   Increase stress pre-disposes trees to vigor related    diseases. Since the forest is th...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:Biotic Causes:
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress    – Flooding or Drought
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress    – Flooding or Drought    – Soil problems (Salinity, Bor...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress    – Flooding or Drought    – Soil problems (Salinity, Bor...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress    – Flooding or Drought    – Soil problems (Salinity, Bor...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress    – Flooding or Drought    – Soil problems (Salinity, Bor...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:   Environmental stress    – Flooding or Drought    – Soil problems (Salinity, Bor...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure  – Soil compaction and construction damage
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure  – Soil compaction and construction damage ...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure  – Soil compaction and construction damage ...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure  – Soil compaction and construction damage ...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure  – Soil compaction and construction damage ...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure  – Soil compaction and construction damage ...
What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressureBiotic Causes: Micro-organisms Macro-organ...
What can cause Problems?Biotic Causes: Micro-organisms  –   Fungi  –   Bacteria  –   virus
What can cause Problems?Biotic Causes: Micro-organisms    –   Fungi    –   Bacteria    –   virus   Macro-organisms    – ...
In general:  Non-infectious disorders (abiotic causes)  typically affect the entire plant and more  than just one plant.
In general:  Non-infectious disorders (abiotic causes)  typically affect the entire plant and more  than just one plant.  ...
Plant DiseasesThe Disease Process
What is disease?   Abnormal physiology resulting from the    continuous interaction between a host and    a primary causa...
Disease Triangle            Environment                                               Pathogen                            ...
Susceptible Host          Susceptible HostCausal Agent                          Causal Agent   Environment                ...
Most common pathogens:   Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts,    Cytospora, Dutch elm disease
Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts,  Cytospora, Dutch elm disease Bacteria- Fireblight, some ...
Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts,  Cytospora, Dutch elm disease Bacteria- Fireblight, some ...
Treatment of disease:   Cultural control – Work to prevent the    disease and it’s spread    –   Appropriate watering    ...
Treatment of disease:   Foliar disease    – Practice good cultural control    – typically, fungicidal sprays are effective
Powdery mildewPowdery mildew
AnthracnoseAnthracnose
Needle blight                Needle blight
PhomopsisPhomopsis
Peach Leaf Curl
Rose Mosaic VirusRose Mosaic Virus
Treatment of disease: Foliar disease Stem    –    typically no good chemical control    –    preventative sprays for som...
Cytospora canker
Spruce with Cytospora
Fireblight
Nectria canker
Bacterial Blight
CrowngallCrowngall
Bacterial   wetwoodBacterial wetwood
Treatment of disease: Foliar Stem Root    – keep trees vigorous    – avoid wounding roots and heavy pruning    – Practi...
PhytophthoraPhytophthora
ithium blight
Treatment of disease: Foliar Stem Root Vascular    – increase vigor with fertilization and water    – systemic chemica...
Verticillium WiltVerticillium Wilt
Dutch Elm DiseaseDutch Elm Disease
Insects
Treatment of insect problems:   Not all insects cause problems! Know what the    insect is and the plant’s/client’s level...
Ladybug larvae
Ladybug adult & larvaeAdult                            Larvae               Ladybird beetle
Praying MantisLacewing           Ladybird Beetle
Beneficial?
Earwig                          Garden spider         Parasitic wasp                               Assassin bugBeneficial?...
Treatment of insect problems:   Not all insects cause problems! Know what the    insect is and the plant’s/client’s level...
Spittle Bug
Aphids
Wooly Apple Aphid
Aphid on Pine
Scale
Scale Insects
Treatment of insect problems:   Not all insects cause problems! Know what the    insect is and the plant’s/client’s level...
Bronze Birch Borer
Treatment of insect problems:   Not all insects cause problems! Know what the    insect is and the plant’s/client’s level...
Spidermite Damage
Spidermite infestation on Spruce
Treatment of insect problems:   Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is    and the plant’s/client’s level...
Root weevil
Root Weevils
Pine Pitch Moth
Flatheaded Borer
Treatment of insect problems:   Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is    and the plant’s/client’s level...
Making the Diagnosis
Accurate diagnosis of plant          problems depends on:   Observation of subtle differences from the normal
Accurate diagnosis of plant          problems depends on:   Observation of subtle differences from the normal   Knowledg...
Accurate diagnosis of plant           problems depends on:   Observation of subtle differences from the normal   Knowled...
Accurate diagnosis of plant           problems depends on:   Observation of subtle differences from the normal   Knowled...
Plant identification is critical as it can helplead one to proper diagnosis; some diseasesare host specific.(Example: Fire...
Knowledge of how a tree is put together andfunctions is essential before one can determineif some part of a trees system i...
Normal or diseased?
Normal: Varigated Boxelder
Normal?
Yes, Corkscrew Willow
Normal?
No, Fasciation
Normal?
No… 2,4-D damage
Disease Diagnosis: look for signs and    symptoms that can help with the diagnosis   Sign - evidence of the pathogen itse...
Signs
Disease Diagnosis: look for signs and    symptoms that can help with the diagnosis Sign Symptom - Plants response to the...
Symptoms
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Lightening Damage
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Borer & SapsuckerBorer exit holes                                       Sapsucker damage
Insect Damage Patterns                                                  Root weevil Leafcutter beeInsect Damage Patterns
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
SignSymptom
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Diagnosis: Where to start?   What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)   What are the symptoms? (wilt...
Conclusions: Be observant Ask questions Don’t jump to conclusions (many pests and  diseases are secondary to a more ser...
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
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Transcript of "2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases"

  1. 1. Landscape Pests & Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment Leslie Lyles, M.S. Horticultural ConsultantI.S.A. Certified Arborist (#WE-1220A)
  2. 2. Have you ever noticed… There are more insect and disease problems in the urban forest than in natural forests.
  3. 3. Urban Forest VS Natural Forests Increase stress pre-disposes trees to vigor related diseases. Since the forest is the normal ecological niche for trees, it would be expected, in most cases, that more stress would be found in shade trees than in forest trees.
  4. 4. Don’t Stress Me Out!When a plant is stressed, it is much more susceptible to attack by insect and disease organisms. Typically,95% or greater of the problems seen in the landscapecan be traced back to a cultural (abiotic) cause.
  5. 5. Stresses affecting plant health: Compacted soil Reflective heat Sparse or excessive water supply Insufficient nutrients Chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers) Soil Problems (salinity, pH, Boron) Air Pollution Accidents, vandalism, neglect Infestation by pests and disease organisms
  6. 6. Urban Forest VS Natural Forests Increase stress pre-disposes trees to vigor related diseases. Since the forest is the normal ecological niche for trees, it would be expected, in most cases, that more stress would be found in shade trees than in forest trees. A major responsibility of the diagnostician is to provide necessary information regarding care to maintain vigor and to prevent or alleviate as many adverse stress factors as possible.
  7. 7. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:Biotic Causes:
  8. 8. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress
  9. 9. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought
  10. 10. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron)
  11. 11. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze
  12. 12. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze – Scorch
  13. 13. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze – Scorch – Air Pollution
  14. 14. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze – Scorch – Air Pollution – Reflective Heat
  15. 15. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure
  16. 16. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage
  17. 17. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage
  18. 18. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children
  19. 19. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children – Improper handling and planting
  20. 20. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children – Improper handling and planting – Poor plant selection and placement
  21. 21. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children – Improper handling and planting – Poor plant selection and placement – Poor cultural practices
  22. 22. What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressureBiotic Causes: Micro-organisms Macro-organisms
  23. 23. What can cause Problems?Biotic Causes: Micro-organisms – Fungi – Bacteria – virus
  24. 24. What can cause Problems?Biotic Causes: Micro-organisms – Fungi – Bacteria – virus Macro-organisms – Insects – Animals – parasitic plants
  25. 25. In general: Non-infectious disorders (abiotic causes) typically affect the entire plant and more than just one plant.
  26. 26. In general: Non-infectious disorders (abiotic causes) typically affect the entire plant and more than just one plant. Infectious disorders (biotic causes) typically affect only a portion of a plant, and not necessarily every plant of the same species.
  27. 27. Plant DiseasesThe Disease Process
  28. 28. What is disease? Abnormal physiology resulting from the continuous interaction between a host and a primary causal agent resulting in characteristic symptoms.
  29. 29. Disease Triangle Environment Pathogen Ab s bu Diseas e severity es un nd en da a bl nc ra e vo Fa Duration V irulence Resistance Disease escape Host PlantThere must be three factors present for disease development:susceptible host, pathogen, and a suitable environment. Ifany of these factors are absent, there is no disease.
  30. 30. Susceptible Host Susceptible HostCausal Agent Causal Agent Environment Environment Slight Disease Severe Disease
  31. 31. Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts, Cytospora, Dutch elm disease
  32. 32. Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts, Cytospora, Dutch elm disease Bacteria- Fireblight, some bacterial wilts, wetwood
  33. 33. Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts, Cytospora, Dutch elm disease Bacteria- Fireblight, some bacterial wilts, wetwood Virus - Rose mosaic virus
  34. 34. Treatment of disease: Cultural control – Work to prevent the disease and it’s spread – Appropriate watering – Removal of diseased plant tissue – Select resistant varieties – Crop rotation
  35. 35. Treatment of disease: Foliar disease – Practice good cultural control – typically, fungicidal sprays are effective
  36. 36. Powdery mildewPowdery mildew
  37. 37. AnthracnoseAnthracnose
  38. 38. Needle blight Needle blight
  39. 39. PhomopsisPhomopsis
  40. 40. Peach Leaf Curl
  41. 41. Rose Mosaic VirusRose Mosaic Virus
  42. 42. Treatment of disease: Foliar disease Stem – typically no good chemical control – preventative sprays for some i.e., Fireblight – Practice good cultural control; proper pruning (proper cut, timing, disinfect tools)
  43. 43. Cytospora canker
  44. 44. Spruce with Cytospora
  45. 45. Fireblight
  46. 46. Nectria canker
  47. 47. Bacterial Blight
  48. 48. CrowngallCrowngall
  49. 49. Bacterial wetwoodBacterial wetwood
  50. 50. Treatment of disease: Foliar Stem Root – keep trees vigorous – avoid wounding roots and heavy pruning – Practice good cultural control (manage irrigation, prevent soil compaction or root damage, avoid infected plants)
  51. 51. PhytophthoraPhytophthora
  52. 52. ithium blight
  53. 53. Treatment of disease: Foliar Stem Root Vascular – increase vigor with fertilization and water – systemic chemicals in very early stages – cultural control (control insect vectors, eradicate infected host plants)
  54. 54. Verticillium WiltVerticillium Wilt
  55. 55. Dutch Elm DiseaseDutch Elm Disease
  56. 56. Insects
  57. 57. Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating.
  58. 58. Ladybug larvae
  59. 59. Ladybug adult & larvaeAdult Larvae Ladybird beetle
  60. 60. Praying MantisLacewing Ladybird Beetle
  61. 61. Beneficial?
  62. 62. Earwig Garden spider Parasitic wasp Assassin bugBeneficial? Yes
  63. 63. Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays, pruning).
  64. 64. Spittle Bug
  65. 65. Aphids
  66. 66. Wooly Apple Aphid
  67. 67. Aphid on Pine
  68. 68. Scale
  69. 69. Scale Insects
  70. 70. Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (example: Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)?
  71. 71. Bronze Birch Borer
  72. 72. Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (example: Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)? If a few plants have an infestation that needs treating, don’t broadcast spray the entire yard.
  73. 73. Spidermite Damage
  74. 74. Spidermite infestation on Spruce
  75. 75. Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before you treat. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (ex. Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)? If a few plants have an infestation that needs treating, don’t broadcast spray the entire yard. Know the pest (where is it feeding) and the mode of action of the chemical (contact or systemic).
  76. 76. Root weevil
  77. 77. Root Weevils
  78. 78. Pine Pitch Moth
  79. 79. Flatheaded Borer
  80. 80. Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before you treat. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (ex. Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)? If a few plants have an infestation that needs treating, don’t broadcast spray the entire yard. Know the pest and the mode of action of the chemical (contact or systemic). If repeat spraying is necessary, don’t always use the same chemical.
  81. 81. Making the Diagnosis
  82. 82. Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal
  83. 83. Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal Knowledge of plants, soil, climate, cultural practices, pests…
  84. 84. Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal Knowledge of plants, soil, climate, cultural practices, pests… Recent history of plants, site, cultural practices, climate
  85. 85. Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal Knowledge of plants, soil, climate, cultural practices, pests… Recent history of plants, site, cultural practices, climate Analytical approach to problem solving
  86. 86. Plant identification is critical as it can helplead one to proper diagnosis; some diseasesare host specific.(Example: Fireblight is only found in plants ofthe family Rosaceae)
  87. 87. Knowledge of how a tree is put together andfunctions is essential before one can determineif some part of a trees system is abnormal ordiseased.
  88. 88. Normal or diseased?
  89. 89. Normal: Varigated Boxelder
  90. 90. Normal?
  91. 91. Yes, Corkscrew Willow
  92. 92. Normal?
  93. 93. No, Fasciation
  94. 94. Normal?
  95. 95. No… 2,4-D damage
  96. 96. Disease Diagnosis: look for signs and symptoms that can help with the diagnosis Sign - evidence of the pathogen itself – mycelium – fruiting body – Pycnidia – Oozing
  97. 97. Signs
  98. 98. Disease Diagnosis: look for signs and symptoms that can help with the diagnosis Sign Symptom - Plants response to the pathogen (general appearance of the plant)
  99. 99. Symptoms
  100. 100. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)
  101. 101. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...)
  102. 102. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected?
  103. 103. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species?
  104. 104. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear?
  105. 105. Lightening Damage
  106. 106. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms?
  107. 107. Borer & SapsuckerBorer exit holes Sapsucker damage
  108. 108. Insect Damage Patterns Root weevil Leafcutter beeInsect Damage Patterns
  109. 109. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms? Are there any signs of insects or disease?
  110. 110. SignSymptom
  111. 111. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms? Are there any signs of insects or disease? Any major changes in the vicinity of the plant in the last few years? (excavation, grading ...)
  112. 112. Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms? Are there any signs of insects or disease? Any major changes in the vicinity of the plant in the last few years? (excavation, grading ...) What were the cultural practices in the previous seasons?
  113. 113. Conclusions: Be observant Ask questions Don’t jump to conclusions (many pests and diseases are secondary to a more serious cultural problem) If you are unable to diagnose the problem, do some research, talk to others, or refer it to someone who can

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