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2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases
 

2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases

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    2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases 2013 Green Industry Training: Tree Insects and Diseases Presentation Transcript

    • Landscape Pests & Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment Leslie Lyles, M.S. Horticultural ConsultantI.S.A. Certified Arborist (#WE-1220A)
    • Have you ever noticed… There are more insect and disease problems in the urban forest than in natural forests.
    • Urban Forest VS Natural Forests Increase stress pre-disposes trees to vigor related diseases. Since the forest is the normal ecological niche for trees, it would be expected, in most cases, that more stress would be found in shade trees than in forest trees.
    • Don’t Stress Me Out!When a plant is stressed, it is much more susceptible to attack by insect and disease organisms. Typically,95% or greater of the problems seen in the landscapecan be traced back to a cultural (abiotic) cause.
    • Stresses affecting plant health: Compacted soil Reflective heat Sparse or excessive water supply Insufficient nutrients Chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers) Soil Problems (salinity, pH, Boron) Air Pollution Accidents, vandalism, neglect Infestation by pests and disease organisms
    • Urban Forest VS Natural Forests Increase stress pre-disposes trees to vigor related diseases. Since the forest is the normal ecological niche for trees, it would be expected, in most cases, that more stress would be found in shade trees than in forest trees. A major responsibility of the diagnostician is to provide necessary information regarding care to maintain vigor and to prevent or alleviate as many adverse stress factors as possible.
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes:Biotic Causes:
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron)
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze – Scorch
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze – Scorch – Air Pollution
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress – Flooding or Drought – Soil problems (Salinity, Boron) – Freeze – Scorch – Air Pollution – Reflective Heat
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children – Improper handling and planting
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children – Improper handling and planting – Poor plant selection and placement
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressure – Soil compaction and construction damage – Lawn mower and string trimmer damage – Children – Improper handling and planting – Poor plant selection and placement – Poor cultural practices
    • What can cause Problems?Abiotic Causes: Environmental stress People pressureBiotic Causes: Micro-organisms Macro-organisms
    • What can cause Problems?Biotic Causes: Micro-organisms – Fungi – Bacteria – virus
    • What can cause Problems?Biotic Causes: Micro-organisms – Fungi – Bacteria – virus Macro-organisms – Insects – Animals – parasitic plants
    • In general: Non-infectious disorders (abiotic causes) typically affect the entire plant and more than just one plant.
    • In general: Non-infectious disorders (abiotic causes) typically affect the entire plant and more than just one plant. Infectious disorders (biotic causes) typically affect only a portion of a plant, and not necessarily every plant of the same species.
    • Plant DiseasesThe Disease Process
    • What is disease? Abnormal physiology resulting from the continuous interaction between a host and a primary causal agent resulting in characteristic symptoms.
    • Disease Triangle Environment Pathogen Ab s bu Diseas e severity es un nd en da a bl nc ra e vo Fa Duration V irulence Resistance Disease escape Host PlantThere must be three factors present for disease development:susceptible host, pathogen, and a suitable environment. Ifany of these factors are absent, there is no disease.
    • Susceptible Host Susceptible HostCausal Agent Causal Agent Environment Environment Slight Disease Severe Disease
    • Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts, Cytospora, Dutch elm disease
    • Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts, Cytospora, Dutch elm disease Bacteria- Fireblight, some bacterial wilts, wetwood
    • Most common pathogens: Fungi - powdery mildew, vascular wilts, Cytospora, Dutch elm disease Bacteria- Fireblight, some bacterial wilts, wetwood Virus - Rose mosaic virus
    • Treatment of disease: Cultural control – Work to prevent the disease and it’s spread – Appropriate watering – Removal of diseased plant tissue – Select resistant varieties – Crop rotation
    • Treatment of disease: Foliar disease – Practice good cultural control – typically, fungicidal sprays are effective
    • Powdery mildewPowdery mildew
    • AnthracnoseAnthracnose
    • Needle blight Needle blight
    • PhomopsisPhomopsis
    • Peach Leaf Curl
    • Rose Mosaic VirusRose Mosaic Virus
    • Treatment of disease: Foliar disease Stem – typically no good chemical control – preventative sprays for some i.e., Fireblight – Practice good cultural control; proper pruning (proper cut, timing, disinfect tools)
    • Cytospora canker
    • Spruce with Cytospora
    • Fireblight
    • Nectria canker
    • Bacterial Blight
    • CrowngallCrowngall
    • Bacterial wetwoodBacterial wetwood
    • Treatment of disease: Foliar Stem Root – keep trees vigorous – avoid wounding roots and heavy pruning – Practice good cultural control (manage irrigation, prevent soil compaction or root damage, avoid infected plants)
    • PhytophthoraPhytophthora
    • ithium blight
    • Treatment of disease: Foliar Stem Root Vascular – increase vigor with fertilization and water – systemic chemicals in very early stages – cultural control (control insect vectors, eradicate infected host plants)
    • Verticillium WiltVerticillium Wilt
    • Dutch Elm DiseaseDutch Elm Disease
    • Insects
    • Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating.
    • Ladybug larvae
    • Ladybug adult & larvaeAdult Larvae Ladybird beetle
    • Praying MantisLacewing Ladybird Beetle
    • Beneficial?
    • Earwig Garden spider Parasitic wasp Assassin bugBeneficial? Yes
    • Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays, pruning).
    • Spittle Bug
    • Aphids
    • Wooly Apple Aphid
    • Aphid on Pine
    • Scale
    • Scale Insects
    • Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (example: Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)?
    • Bronze Birch Borer
    • Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before treating. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (example: Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)? If a few plants have an infestation that needs treating, don’t broadcast spray the entire yard.
    • Spidermite Damage
    • Spidermite infestation on Spruce
    • Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before you treat. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (ex. Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)? If a few plants have an infestation that needs treating, don’t broadcast spray the entire yard. Know the pest (where is it feeding) and the mode of action of the chemical (contact or systemic).
    • Root weevil
    • Root Weevils
    • Pine Pitch Moth
    • Flatheaded Borer
    • Treatment of insect problems: Not all insects cause problems! Know what the insect is and the plant’s/client’s level of tolerance before you treat. Consider cultural control and least toxic methods first (hosing plant, soap solutions, oil sprays). Is the cost of cure worth the expense (ex. Protecting birch from the Bronze Birch Borer)? If a few plants have an infestation that needs treating, don’t broadcast spray the entire yard. Know the pest and the mode of action of the chemical (contact or systemic). If repeat spraying is necessary, don’t always use the same chemical.
    • Making the Diagnosis
    • Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal
    • Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal Knowledge of plants, soil, climate, cultural practices, pests…
    • Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal Knowledge of plants, soil, climate, cultural practices, pests… Recent history of plants, site, cultural practices, climate
    • Accurate diagnosis of plant problems depends on: Observation of subtle differences from the normal Knowledge of plants, soil, climate, cultural practices, pests… Recent history of plants, site, cultural practices, climate Analytical approach to problem solving
    • Plant identification is critical as it can helplead one to proper diagnosis; some diseasesare host specific.(Example: Fireblight is only found in plants ofthe family Rosaceae)
    • Knowledge of how a tree is put together andfunctions is essential before one can determineif some part of a trees system is abnormal ordiseased.
    • Normal or diseased?
    • Normal: Varigated Boxelder
    • Normal?
    • Yes, Corkscrew Willow
    • Normal?
    • No, Fasciation
    • Normal?
    • No… 2,4-D damage
    • Disease Diagnosis: look for signs and symptoms that can help with the diagnosis Sign - evidence of the pathogen itself – mycelium – fruiting body – Pycnidia – Oozing
    • Signs
    • Disease Diagnosis: look for signs and symptoms that can help with the diagnosis Sign Symptom - Plants response to the pathogen (general appearance of the plant)
    • Symptoms
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit)
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...)
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected?
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species?
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear?
    • Lightening Damage
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms?
    • Borer & SapsuckerBorer exit holes Sapsucker damage
    • Insect Damage Patterns Root weevil Leafcutter beeInsect Damage Patterns
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms? Are there any signs of insects or disease?
    • SignSymptom
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms? Are there any signs of insects or disease? Any major changes in the vicinity of the plant in the last few years? (excavation, grading ...)
    • Diagnosis: Where to start? What part of plant is affected? (leaves, stem, roots, fruit) What are the symptoms? (wilts, spots, chlorosis, curling...) How many plants are affected? Are they all the same type of plant, or many species? When did the symptoms first appear? Is there a pattern to the symptoms? Are there any signs of insects or disease? Any major changes in the vicinity of the plant in the last few years? (excavation, grading ...) What were the cultural practices in the previous seasons?
    • Conclusions: Be observant Ask questions Don’t jump to conclusions (many pests and diseases are secondary to a more serious cultural problem) If you are unable to diagnose the problem, do some research, talk to others, or refer it to someone who can