2013 Green Industry Training: IPM and Pesticide Safety


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  • After viewing this module, you should be able to:
  • Integrated pest management can be used for control of any landscape pest, including insects, disease, and weeds. The key to an effective integrated pest management program is regular monitoring to detect the pest when it first becomes active. Once the pest has been detected, you start with the least toxic method of control to keep the numbers of pests within tolerable limits. In the natural world, insects, disease, and weeds are not absent – they are simply kept in check by the natural conditions and predators that have evolved along with other plants. Left undisturbed, such a landscape will remain healthy and productive indefinitely. Our built and managed landscapes have no such built-in controls. But it is possible to build them in ourselves given knowledge about potential problems and armed with tools and a system for knowing when and how to use them – this is the essence of IPM.
  • Aphids
  • Brown lacewing larvae preparing to eat aphids
  • http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/GARDEN/FRUIT/citrus.html
  • Physical controls are another good way to prevent problems before they reach threshold conditions. Insects in their caterpillar or adult stage are often easy to see and may be removed by hand if the numbers are low. Barriers like fences and chicken wire can be used to prevent damage by rodents and other small animals. Sticky tree bands are used to create a barrier to insects that may crawl up the trunk to gain access to the plant – they work for carpenter ants, cankerworms, and gypsy moths in their larval stage. Pheromone traps lure insects in with a chemical sex attractant (the pheromone). Some insects are attracted to colors like yellow or blue – sticky cards in those color trap the insects. This can be used to control insect numbers, but is also used as a way of monitoring so you can identify which pests are present and know when the threshold for control has been reached. Rogueing is a term used to describe removal of plants that are diseased or insect-infested to prevent further spread.
  • The first thing that must be understood if biological control is to be used effectively is that it is not necessary to kill every pest. Reducing their numbers to a tolerable level is much more effective because it preserves the food supply for natural enemies and results in minimal risk. Monitoring is used to determine when numbers reach a predetermined threshold. Before that threshold is reached simple physical controls, such as hand-picking, pruning, or traps keep damage to a minimum. When the threshold number is reached, and it becomes economically more feasible to control than to monitor, there are a number of methods that can be considered. Biological controls work in a number of ways:
  • The first thing that must be understood if biological control is to be used effectively is that it is not necessary to kill every pest. Reducing their numbers to a tolerable level is much more effective because it preserves the food supply for natural enemies and results in minimal risk. Monitoring is used to determine when numbers reach a predetermined threshold. Before that threshold is reached simple physical controls, such as hand-picking, pruning, or traps keep damage to a minimum. When the threshold number is reached, and it becomes economically more feasible to control than to monitor, there are a number of methods that can be considered. Biological controls work in a number of ways:
  • Braconids are a family of parasitoid wasps that are very specific in their choice of hosts. A good example is Cotesiacongregatus. Less than 1/8 inch long, black with yellowish legs and clear wings, this tiny wasp attacksthe tomato hornworm.The female wasp uses her ovipositor to lay eggs just under the skin of thehornworm. As the eggs hatch, the larvae feed on the hornworm’s viscera – literally eating the hornworm alive. Larvae chew their way out through the host’s skin when they mature. Once outside, the future wasps pupate, spinning tiny whiteoval cocoons along the external back and sides of the worm. When the adult wasps emerge from the cocoons, the already weakened hornworm will die, thus preventing any further defoliation on tomato plants. Another common beneficial insect is the lady beetle. Everybody recognizes the lady beetle, but because lady beetle pupae do not resemble the adults,many gardeners assume that lady beetle pupae are pests. Consequently, these pupae are squashed or scraped off and destroyed. Each lady beetle larva eats many aphids and other pests, and each lady beetle lays many eggs which would hatch into many more larvae. Each pupa destroyed allows thousands of aphids to survive. Learn to recognize beneficial insects in your garden!
  • Insects pass through several stages in the maturation process. This egg-larva-pupa-adult sequence is common to many insects, but some go through an egg-nymph-adults sequence. Insects in the larva stage are often called worms, caterpillars, or grubs. Damage from insects is almost always due to either chewing or sucking, and this occurs at various stages of their maturation, depending on the species. Similarly, insects are more vulnerable at various stages of their development, and we can use this to time our control of these pests. Insects are usually most vulnerable when they are actively feeding or moving about the plant. Insects are not vulnerable in the pupal stage. Similarly, pests that gets into the flower or fruit as larvae are difficult to access; they must be controlled in the first hatch stage or in the adult before eggs are laid. IPM relies on exact timing and, therefore, minimal use of chemicals to control pests.
  • Chemical controls are faster-acting and more effective than biological and physical controls. But they are more persistent in the environment and special precautions must be taken when they are used to protect your health. Always follow label directions. Chemical pesticides act in three ways: systemically – they are absorbed by the plant and kill pests that feed on the tissue and sap; by contact – they kill pests they come into contact with; and by leaving a residue on the plant’s surface – they kill insects as they eat foliage, stems, and flowers.
  • 2013 Green Industry Training: IPM and Pesticide Safety

    1. 1. Sue Donaldson
    2. 2.  Be able to describe integrated pest management (IPM) to your clients Understand the IPM tools and how to apply them Learn about types of pesticides and gain familiarity with insecticides Gain skills in reading and understanding pesticide labels Use pesticides safely and appropriately to protect yourselves and others
    3. 3.  Any organism that is detrimental to humans destroys crops & structures poses threats to human health and livestock reduces aesthetic and recreational value
    4. 4. Of all insect species in the world, less than 1% are considered to be pests>99% are beneficial or not considered to be pests
    5. 5. Pests include: Insects Mites Plant pathogens Weeds Mollusks Fish Birds Mammals Etc.
    6. 6. “IPM is: a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks." From: U. S. Department of Agriculture
    7. 7.  Pesticides alone may be ineffective Promotes a healthy environment and balanced ecosystems Saves money Maintains a good public image
    8. 8. 1. Determine the cause of the problem2. Keep pests at an acceptable level3. Minimize human exposure4. Use a combination of methods5. Reduce the use of pesticides IPM does not rely on any one tactic more than others
    9. 9.  You need to know something about the pest (identity and biology) You (and your clients) need to be patient - IPM generally takes a bit more time You have to be willing to tolerate some pests at some level
    10. 10.  Is there a pest, a beneficial, or something else?
    11. 11.  Of course not! Glyphosate damage on pumpkin
    12. 12.  Overwatering  Too much sun Underwatering  Too much shade Nutrient & mineral  Wrong plant for deficiencies site Salts  Extremes in Pesticide injury temperature Mechanical injury  Wind  Air pollution
    13. 13. Pest-caused Abiotic-causedWhat do you Signs of a living pest – insects, No organisms consistentlysee? excrement, fungi foundHow does it Signs of damage move Damage symptomsspread? progressively – starts with slight develop suddenly and do damage in one part of the plant, not spread through a plant spreading to cause more serious or to other plants over time damage in days or weeksWhich plants Most insects and plant Plants of several species inare affected? pathogens cause injury only to a planting area may be one or a few closely related affected; damage not species; unrelated nearby plants restricted to specific plant are unaffected species You can have both at the same time!
    14. 14. 1. Monitor to determine cause2. Identify the pest3. Determine thresholds4. Make an action plan5. Evaluate how well it worked The key to an effective integrated pest management program is regular monitoring to detect the pest when it first becomes active.
    15. 15.  Where do you look? Under, on, and in leaves At interior leaves or leaves near the bottom of the plant because problems often start there If you see even one or two holes in the leaves that you don‟t expect, do a closer inspection Do this at different times of day/night
    16. 16.  The color of the plant Any splotches on the leaves Malformations of the leaves Eggs or insect holes
    17. 17. Branch beating monitoring technique
    18. 18. Yellow sticky trap
    19. 19. Codling moth traps
    20. 20. Wasp trap
    21. 21.  Of course not! Many are beneficial Learn to tell pests from beneficials Brown lacewing larvae preparing to eat aphids
    22. 22.  Eat pests that harm plants Pollinate fruit trees and berries Eat plant waste and break it down into fertilizer Serve as food for birds and animals that also eat pests Aerate and improve soil
    23. 23.  Not all stages of a pest look the same Know the host of the pest Use books, extension bulletins, field guides, Web, etc. Have pests examined by specialists ◦ Handle samples carefully
    24. 24. MEALYBUGS on grapes MEALYBUGS on hibiscus
    25. 25. Ants tendingWOOLYAPHIDS
    26. 26. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE, a pest of fruit trees, maples and roses
    27. 27. Flecked foliage and fine webbing caused by spider mites
    28. 28. Tiny thrips puncture plants and suck up the exudate
    29. 29.  How bad is it? Is the amount of damage more than the cost of treatment (for a grower)? How many plants in a garden may be affected? What can your client tolerate? This determines the threshold for action!
    30. 30. Have a written plan, with . . . Expectations for area. Specific goals - what is the current situation and what needs to be changed. Agreed on level of protection needed. Practices that are going to be used. Timetable for getting things done. Variation within and among sites. Logbook to document any observed problem, when it was observed From: Linker, M. 2004. Integrated Pest Management for Landscapes.
    31. 31. From: Penn State University Integrated Pest Management Program
    32. 32.  Select pest-resistant plants Select plants with appropriate hardiness Match plants to particular sites and microclimates Select quality nursery stock Encourage diversity in the garden
    33. 33.  Test soils and amend appropriately Use good planting techniques Match plant and site characteristics Consider similar water needs when designing Planted too deeply irrigation systems
    34. 34.  Use mulch to maintain soil moisture Prune at the right Twine girdling tree time and in the correct manner Water during winter when precip is not adequate Keep much away from tree trunk
    35. 35. Sanitation Remove or incorporate excess plant material - eliminates food & shelter for pests Throw out infested plants Don‟t compost them!
    36. 36.  Hand-pick larger pests  Slugs, snails, caterpillars, tomato hornworms, squash bugs, etc. Barriers and traps Beer traps for slugs Pheromone traps Yellow sticky cards and tree bands Mesh covers Washing Removing infested plants
    37. 37. PhysicalAlter physical environment humidity temperature air movement water light T. Murray Refresh birdbath water weekly to manage for mosquitoes
    38. 38.  Use of devices, machines, and other physical methods to reduce pest populations or to alter the environment
    39. 39.  Disrupt soil conditions for weeds and insects ◦ Hoes ◦ Plows ◦ Disks Control growth or destroy plants ◦ Mowers
    40. 40.  Prevent pests from entering or traveling  Nets, screens, air curtains  Caulking, steel wool  Metal tree collars  Sticky materials  Sharp objects
    41. 41.  Captures pests in a holding device ◦ Restrains the pest ◦ Kills the pest
    42. 42.  First line of defense when pest numbers increase beyond a set threshold Goal is to manage, not eliminate
    43. 43. How biological control agents work: Agents may produce chemicals that injure or kill the pest Some agents grow on or in the pest and kill it Other agents eat the pest or suck out its body fluids Others compete with pests for food or eliminate their food supply
    44. 44.  Predators = eat the pests Parasites = lay eggs in or on the host; larvae feed on the host Pathogens = microscopic organisms that cause diseases in pests
    45. 45. Tomato hornworm parasitized by aBraconid (parasitoid) wasp - thewhite cocoons house the larvae Lady beetle larva attacking andthat will emerge as adult wasps. eating aphids on a leaf (predator)
    46. 46.  Conserve beneficial organisms ◦ Minimize disturbances to the area ◦ Recognize beneficial insects & arthropods ◦ Maintain their food sources ◦ Use targeted insecticides when possible Encourage existing beneficials ◦ Plant flowers as a nectar & pollen source Augment - add beneficials
    47. 47.  Time controls to target insects when most vulnerable For many, this is at first hatch or in the adult stage before eggs are laid Especially important for insects that get into the flowers or fruits
    48. 48.  lacewings (green and brown) and dustywings (mites) ladybird beetles (lots of different species) on aphids, scales, mites minute pirate bugs big eyed bugs predaceous ground beetles damsel bugs syrphids or flower flies (lots of different species) parasitic wasps (lots of different species) parasitic flies (lots of different species) a very distant last ....preying mantids http://www.manageNVpests.info
    49. 49.  Should be used only when other controls are not effective Select products with the lowest impact on natural enemies and YOU!
    50. 50.  Herbicide Fungicide Insecticide Rodenticide …
    51. 51.  A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended for:  preventing,  destroying,  repelling, or  mitigating any pest. Includes plant regulators, defoliants and desiccants.
    52. 52. Pesticides treat symptoms,need to address the cause!
    53. 53.  Identify the pest and select the appropriate product labeled for that site Avoid developing resistant pest populations Use the correct application rate (dose) and timing
    54. 54.  Mode of action: how they work to control the pest • Systemic pesticides are absorbed through tissues and transported elsewhere where the pest encounters it through feeding • Contact pesticides must come in direct contact with the target pest
    55. 55.  Selectivity: what range of pests they affect • Non-selective – kills all related pests • Selective – kills only certain weeds, insects, plant pathogens
    56. 56.  Persistence: how long they remain active in the environment • Residual pesticides – remain active for weeks, months, years • Non-residual – inactivated immediately or within a few days
    57. 57.  Foliar Soil Soil incorporation or injection Drench Broadcast Spot treatments Furrow Band Dip Chemigation
    58. 58.  Buying the pesticide Storing the pesticide Mixing and applying the pesticide Disposing of unused pesticide and empty containers
    59. 59.  Brand name Formulation (liquid, solid, concentrate etc.) Ingredients Signal word Manufacturer‟s contact info EPA registration number Precautionary statements Directions for use
    60. 60. The brand name “PLANTGUARD 50W” indicatesthe registered trade name is PLANTGUARD, it isformulated as a wettable powder, and it contains50% active ingredient PLANTGUARD 5OW ORNAMENTAL FUNGICIDE UNIRAY CHEMICAL
    61. 61.  Active ingredients (ai): chemicals responsible for pesticidal activity or perform desired function Other ingredients: usually not named, but their percentage of total contents must be shown, have no pesticidal activity SEVIN COMPOSITION Active Ingredients: (% by weight) Carbaryl (1-naphthyl N- methylcarbamate)......................................................20.0% Other Ingredients............................................................80.0% Total:............................................................................100.0%
    62. 62. Identifies chemical components andstructure of the active ingredient
    63. 63.  Short version of the chemical name Examples: carbaryl, imidacloprid, dichlobenil, glyphosate, 2,4-D, permethrin, chlorothalonil Purchase pesticides according to their common names!
    64. 64. RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDEFor retail sale to and use only by certifiedapplicators or persons under their directsupervision and only for those uses covered bythe certified applicator‟s certification.
    65. 65.  Ready-to-use formulations decrease risk of accidents during mixing
    66. 66.  Things you add to help improve coverage, keep product in solution, decrease foaming, adjust pH, resist weathering, etc Some products already contain these (ex. Roundup Pro)
    67. 67.  Clothing and devices worn to protect you from contact with pesticides ◦ Pesticide-resistant gloves ◦ Coveralls ◦ Footwear ◦ Aprons ◦ Respirators ◦ Eyewear ◦ Hats
    68. 68. Scalp 32% Forehead 36% Ear Canal 40% Armpit 64% Forearm 9% Abdomen 18% Palm 12% Back of Hand 21%Genital Area 100% Percent Dose Absorbed Chemical -Ball of Foot 13% parathion Maibach 1974
    69. 69.  Follow directions for PPE ◦ Handlers ◦ Applicators ◦ Early entry workers Minimum requirements are given – can wear more
    70. 70.  Read the label ◦ What clothing is specifically required
    71. 71. Minimum: Long-sleeved shirt Protect Yourself! Long trousers or coveralls Gloves Shoes plus socks Hat
    72. 72. How‟s her PPE?
    73. 73. Signal Word Category Toxicity Oral LD50Danger-Poison I High 0-50 mg/kgPeligroDanger/Peligro I High - Eye or skin damage concerns greater than acute lethal toxicityWarning/Aviso II Moderate 50-500 mg/kg or skin/eyeCaution III Slight >500 mg/kg or skin/eye
    74. 74.  A pesticide may be applied at a lower dose than specified on the label, but not at a higher dose! Pesticides may be combined with other substances unless prohibited by the label
    75. 75. 1. Ready to use2. Concentrate 0% 0% 1 2
    76. 76. 1. Residual2. Permanent3. Non-residual4. Non-persistent 0% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4
    77. 77. 1. Danger2. Warning3. Caution4. Nontoxic 0% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4
    78. 78. 1. As a soil drench2. By spraying on the foliage3. By spraying on the soil4. All of these 0% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4
    79. 79. 1. Yes2. No 0% 0% 1 2
    80. 80. 1. Yes2. No 0% 0% 1 2
    81. 81. 1. Yes2. No 0% 0% 1 2
    82. 82. 1. 1½ ounces per foot of tree height2. ½ ounce per inch of tree diameter3. ½ ounce per inch around the 0% 0% 0% tree trunk 1 2 3
    83. 83. 1. Contact2. Systemic3. Neither 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3
    84. 84. 1. Spring2. Summer3. Fall4. Winter 0% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4
    85. 85.  Manufacturers required to develop and provide upon request for each product Get from your dealer Details a product‟s composition, properties, hazards, first-aid procedures Companies required to keep MSDS for workers in contact with the substance
    86. 86.  Don‟t mix on the same patch of soil time after time Try to mix on an impervious surface Be prepared for spills
    87. 87.  Labeled for the application site Least-toxic product that will do the job ◦ Signal word “Caution” Compatible with plant management strategies ◦ Friendly to beneficials Acceptable to the public, customers ◦ Complex issue
    88. 88. A picture of a deadbug on the labeldoes not mean thatthe product killed it.
    89. 89.  Choose the right pesticide product Read and follow the product label Purchase/mix only what you need Use the product according to label directions Store and dispose of the pesticide properly
    90. 90.  Do an inventory of product name, amount, and formulation Use PPE when handling the products! Call Nevada Dept. of Agriculture for an appointment: Jon Carpenter, 353-3715 DO NOT just drop off the products at the office! There is no cost to the user
    91. 91.  Pests are usually secondary to other problems: ◦ Wrong plant for the site ◦ Poor management practices ◦ Soil salts or other issues ◦ Etc. Don‟t use pesticides until you know there is a pest problem, and have exhausted all the other options
    92. 92.  Chemicals that kill insects Must verify an insect pest is present above the threshold before using them Can be toxic to humans as well as beneficial insects and pollinators mealybug
    93. 93.  Timing is important – if you want to kill a leaf- feeder, need to apply during the stage when insects are eating leaves!
    94. 94.  Botanicals - plant-derived materials such as rotenone, pyrethrum, neem oil, etc. Microbials – safer and more selective Minerals – sulfur, kaolin, etc. Synthetic materials – soaps and oils
    95. 95.  Plant derivatives (botanical insecticides) from flowers of a Chrysanthemum species Causes rapid paralysis and controls many insects Can be used on most vegetables and fruits Break down quickly, so multiple applications may be needed Some toxicity to humans Pyrethroids are synthetic versions (permethrin) with longer residuals
    96. 96.  Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Common soil bacterium Harmful to specific insect groups ◦ Moths, butterflies, mosquitoes & flies Harmless to vertebrates and beneficials Works best on insects that have just hatched from eggs Coat leaf surfaces thoroughly Caterpillars stop eating, insides liquify
    97. 97.  Smother insects No resistance seen Use on fruit trees to control overwintering eggs or pupae Dormant sprays used to control aphids, mites, scales Example: „Organoside‟ is sesame oil + fish oil + lethicin; Volck is petroleum oil
    98. 98.  Neem seed oil: a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) Active ingredient is azadirachtin (insect growth regulator) Kills (suffocates) and repels various insects including aphids, beetles, caterpillars, thrips and whiteflies Contact killer
    99. 99.  Most effective on soft- bodied insects like aphids, mites, and whiteflies Kill only on contact Some dissolve insect cuticle and they dry out Less harmful to beneficials
    100. 100. If it‟s plant-based, it‟s safe, right? Rotenone  Made from extracts of tropical plants  Used to kill unwanted fish in reservoirs  Linked to Parkinson‟s Diseasehttp://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110214115442.htm
    101. 101.  Faster-acting but more toxic to humans Systemic – absorbed by plant and translocated through the phloem Contact – kill pest on contact Leave a residue – kill insects as they feed on foliage, flowers, stems
    102. 102.  Organophosphates – malathion, acephate (can be acutely toxic) Carbamates - carbaryl Pyrethroids - permethrin Nicotinoids - imidacloprid
    103. 103. Insecticide Contact Residual (immediate) (long-term)Microbials (Bt) None NoneOil, soap Moderate NoneBotanicals Moderate Short*Pyrethroids High Long*Carbamates & High Moderate toorganophosphates long*Neonicotinoids Moderate to Long high
    104. 104. Damages Peach aphid Suck plant juices, produce a sticky exudate called honeydew Curling, yellowing and distortion of leaves Feed on all types of plants and trees Vector for plant viruses Moderate levels of aphids generally don‟t cause long-term problems Identify • On stem and underside of leaf
    105. 105. Monitor Turn leaves and look at the underside Look for evidence of natural enemies like ladybugs or mummified skins of parasitized aphids Look for lots of ants climbing trunks or stems Check at least twice weekly when plants are growing fast Once leaves curl, control is more difficult Black cherry aphid
    106. 106.  Life cycle – multiple generations each year Physical controls Use a strong jet of water early in the day Prune out infested parts of plants Band trunk of woody plants with sticky material to keep ants from getting up Use row covers on susceptible vegetables
    107. 107. Cultural Choose virus-resistant varieties if possible Remove existing aphids before planting High levels of nitrogen fertilizer favor aphid reproduction; use small portions of less soluble forms of nitrogen throughout the season
    108. 108. Biological Natural enemies are important Parasitic wasps, ladybugs, green lacewings, syrphid flies
    109. 109. Chemical: Insecticidal soap, narrow-range (supreme/superior) oils Must cover infested foliage thoroughly Only kills aphids hit by the spray No toxic residue, so does not affect natural predators that arrive after the spray Don‟t use when temps are above 90 degrees
    110. 110. Chemical: Malathion Permethrin Acephate – systemic; not registered for food crops These products also kill natural enemies; may develop resistance after repeated applications Carbaryl is not very effective on aphids
    111. 111.  Doesn‟t advocate complete avoidance of pesticides Do your homework and use the most specific method you can Use the safest method for the application Use the method that is Applying tanglefoot least disruptive to natural enemies Avoid the impulse to spray first, ask questions later…
    112. 112.  Sue Donaldson donaldsons@unce.unr.edu 775-336-0242