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2013 Advanced Master Gardener Training Program: Become a Plant Problem Sleuth
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2013 Advanced Master Gardener Training Program: Become a Plant Problem Sleuth

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  • Maple, elm, ash, chestnut, and poplar
  • Interveinal necrosis due to herbicide toxicity or to severe manganese deficiency.
  • Pin oak and silver maple are particularly susceptible.
  • Viruses cannot be controlled with pesticides – cannot survive outside of their host, so control is by prevention of their spread.
  • Salt burn on strawberry – client used fresh horse manure on his plants
  • Leaves do not abscise – look for ooze on affected tissues (usually only leaves). Susceptible trees include rose family –especially crabapple, pear, and serviceberry. Avoid over-fertilization. Usually treated with copper sprays to prevent spread (not an eradicant). Also use Streptomycin.
  • Leaves do not abscise – look for ooze on affected tissues (usually only leaves). Susceptible trees include rose family –especially crabapple, pear, and serviceberry. Avoid over-fertilization. Usually treated with copper sprays to prevent spread (not an eradicant). Also use Streptomycin.
  • Left-cytospora canker; right-sunscald
  • Transcript

    • 1. BECOME A PLANTPROBLEM SLEUTHMaster Gardener Advanced Training ProgramMay 30, 2013Heidi Kratsch, University of Nevada CooperativeExtension
    • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVESRecognize common plantproblems seen in northernNevada.Learn to use our digital stereomicroscope
    • 3. C.L.U.E.S.
    • 4. COLLECT INFORMATION Identify species/cultivar How long have you noticed symptoms? Sun/wind exposure? Recent disturbances? Soil texture (if known)? Watering schedule? Chemicals used?
    • 5. IDENTIFY THE AFFECTEDPLANT(S)
    • 6. RECOGNIZE WHAT’SNORMALAcer negundo ‘Flamingo’Variegated juniper
    • 7. LOOK FOR PATTERNS Sudden or gradual appearance of symptoms? Many plant species affected or only one? Symptoms on one side or area of the plant… orall over the plant?
    • 8. WILTING (COLLAPSE OFTISSUES)Causes: Under-watering Over-watering Root loss High soil salinity Insects feeding on theconducting tissuesCaused by boring insectCaused by water stress
    • 9. LEAF NECROSIS (DEATH)Causes: Lack of water Too much sun Frozen soil Drying winds Herbicide toxicity Look for patternsWinter burn on Creeping Oregon Grape
    • 10. LOOK FOR PATTERNS OFLEAF NECROSIS Note the pattern ofnecrosis on the entireplant.Interveinal necrosisLeaf blotch Marginal necrosis
    • 11. LEAF CHLOROSIS(YELLOWING) Nutrient deficiency Disease or insects Mechanical damageInterveinal chlorosiscaused by lack of iron.Often a problem inalkaline soils.General chlorosiscaused by nitrogendeficiency
    • 12. LEAF CHLOROSISRose mosaic virusStippling caused byleafhopper Variegated cultivar of spotted laurelPotassium deficiency
    • 13. WHAT IS THIS?
    • 14. BIOTIC VS. ABIOTICPROBLEMSBiotic (caused byliving things) Physical evidence Spreads progressivelythroughout a plant Limited to plants of aparticular species orfamilyAbiotic (caused byenvironmentalstress) No physical evidence May or may notdevelop progressivelythroughout a plant May affect many or allplants in a landscape Affects only the partof the landscapeaffected by the stress
    • 15. EVIDENCE OF INSECTDAMAGE:Chewed leaves Caterpillars, beetles,sawflies, leaf minersBleached, yellowed, orstippled leavesLeafhoppers, aphids,thrips, mitesDistortion of plant part Thrips, aphidsDieback of twigs/branches Borers, scalesPresence of excrement ordewAphids, whiteflies, thrips
    • 16. WHAT DO YOU SEE?
    • 17. BIOTIC OR ABIOTIC?
    • 18. HOW IS THIS DIFFERENT?Dothistroma Needle BlightAustrian, ponderosa and mugo pines aresusceptible under the right conditions
    • 19. BIOTIC OR ABIOTIC?Phosphorus deficiencyCaused by planting when soils are too cold
    • 20. BIOTIC OR ABIOTIC?Marsonnina leaf spot
    • 21. GUMMING (SAP FLOW) Common stress symptom onPrunus and Pinus sp. Caused by waterdeficit or mechanical injury. If accompanied by foaming orfoul odor, may be biotic(bacterial or fungal).
    • 22. BIOTIC OR ABIOTIC?
    • 23. BIOTIC OR ABIOTIC? Bacterial – occurs onplants in the Rosefamily Twigs curl to form a“shepherd’s crook” Conditions:Temperaturesbetween 65 F and 86F and relativehumidity above 65%
    • 24. FIREBLIGHT?
    • 25. BIOTIC OR ABIOTIC?Cytospora canker
    • 26. WHICH IS BIOTIC?
    • 27. FUNGAL DISEASESEXHIBIT PHYSICALEVIDENCEPycnidia ofcytospora
    • 28. USE REFERENCES www.extension.org www.google.com (look for sites with .edu or .gov) Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs, UC-Davis Abiotic Disorders of Landscape Plants, UC-Davis Weeds of the West, U of Wyoming Weeds of California and Other Western States,Volumes 1 &2, UC-Davis Garden Insects, Cranshaw Pest ID cards
    • 29. MOST PROBLEMS STARTOUT AS WEATHER ORCULTURAL ISSUES.Eliminate the mostobvious causes first: Improper watering(cultural) Winter damage Alkaline and/or salty soil Southern or westernexposure Heavy, clay soils – poordrainage Herbicide damage Insects and diseaseare often asecondary problem.
    • 30. STATE YOUR TENTATIVEDIAGNOSIS Rarely can say with absolute certainty. Often a choice among a few options. Offer the most reasonable and commondiagnosis. Provide a safe solution – and an alternatestrategy if that doesn’t resolve the problem. Let them know they can call again if theirproblem is not resolved.
    • 31. C.L.U.E.S.
    • 32. INTRODUCTION TO THESTEREO MICROSCOPE
    • 33. WHAT IS LIGHTMICROSCOPY? Light passes through or falls on a sample. Lenses focus that light (and the image of thesample that the light carries). The sample seems to be brought nearer our eyesfor our careful examination.
    • 34. WHAT IS A STEREOMICROSCOPE? Uses two optical pathways (two eyepieces) Provides slightly different viewing angles to theleft and right eyes Produces a 3-dimensional image We have a 4-D microscope! You can focus and show your clients in real time. And you can take a picture and save to a file or print.
    • 35. THE PARTS OF THEMICROSCOPEStageFocus knobZoom magnification adjustment (8x – 35x)Eyepieces(oculars10x)On/off switch on backCarrying handleLight source(below)Light sourcesIndicator light/button for computer connectionGreen = connectedOrange = not connectedIlumination direction/brightness controlsIntegrated 3.0 megapixel CMOS camera
    • 36. ADJUST THE OCULARS TO FIT THESPACING OF YOUR EYES When the oculars aretoo far apart, you willsee the sample as twoimages.Bring the ocularstogether until you seeonly one image.
    • 37. MAGNIFICATION Magnification is making a sample appearlarger.
    • 38. USE THE WHITE KNOB TOMAGNIFY.
    • 39. RESOLUTION Resolution is the minimum distance separatingtwo points which still allows them to be seen astwo distinct points. The better the resolution, the better we seedetails of the image. Poor resolution results in a single blurry blob or“pixelation” when viewing on a computer screen.
    • 40. MAGNIFYING ABLURRY IMAGEPRODUCES ALARGERBLURRYIMAGE!Magnification ismuch lessimportant tomicroscopythan resolution.
    • 41. RESOLUTIONAdjust resolution byfocusing with this knob.X Do not focus with this knob!
    • 42. ILLUMINATION OF OBJECTFROM ABOVE+ –Use +/- controlsto increase ordecreasebrightness
    • 43. ILLUMINATION OF OBJECT FROMBELOWIlluminationfrom belowallows forviewing thinnerobjects thatallow light topenetrate.
    • 44. USE TOP-LIGHTING FOR OPAQUEOBJECTS$5 bill magnified to show the striations of Lincoln’s beard
    • 45. DIM LIGHT BRINGS OUT MOREDETAILPollen covering the stigma and style of a flower
    • 46. TOP-LIGHT ON A LEAF SHOWS SURFACEDETAILHairs on a Rosemary leaf
    • 47. LIGHT FROM BELOW SHOWSINTERNAL STRUCTURE INTRANSPARENT OBJECTSStem of Sphagnum moss
    • 48. FULL LIGHT FROM ABOVE ANDBELOWDracaena plant dead leaf (8x)
    • 49. DIM LIGHT FROM ABOVE ANDBELOWDracaena plant dead leaf (8x)
    • 50. DIM LIGHT FROM ABOVEONLYDracaena plant dead leaf (8x)
    • 51. LIGHT FROM BELOW ONLYDracaena plant dead leaf (8x)
    • 52. CARE OF THE MICROSCOPE Focus using the black focus knob. Do not use the zoom knob (smaller, upper knob)to focus. Use a petri dish under most samples. Do not use dissecting tools directly on microscopestage. Turn light off as soon as you are done. Cover when not in use to prevent dust and dirtbuild up.