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Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Technologies | Nir Eyal, NirAndFar.com
 

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Technologies | Nir Eyal, NirAndFar.com

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Nir Eyal, Behavior Engineer, NirAndFar.com ...

Nir Eyal, Behavior Engineer, NirAndFar.com

In an age of ever-increasing distractions, quickly creating customer habits is a key characteristic of successful products. How do companies create products people use every day? What are the secrets of building services customers love? How can designers create products compelling enough to "hook" users?

Attendees will learn:
- The common design patterns of habit-forming products.
- An in-depth look at the psychology behind what drives user behavior and how to build products to cater to core human needs.
- Practical steps for leading a habit design process to ensure your product is used regularly.

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  • - Who wants people to use their product more? To come back every day? To be addicted to using it?
  • - How many of us have any idea how to do it? - How many of us feel this way when we hear a suggestion from our boss about how we should increase engagement?
  • - We typically hear it as compared to another company - And there is always a similar type of company that tends to come out of the blue. Those who were ridiculed at first as a toy, then they got massive - Like who?Can anyone name some? FB, Twitter, Zynga, Instagram, Groupon What made them unique?
  • I decided to look for design patterns in businesses that can fundamentally change our associations.
  • Stopped and asked myself an often asked customer dev question. Were these companies selling vitamins or painkillers?
  • Great for lean methodologies And much, much better than old way of building things in a vacuum Can certainly build great businesses of of these type of products Especially when: - Technological disruption occurs to bring down price Products that alleviate pain, easy to sell - painkillers
  • Products that make us feel better about ourselves, but we don’t really need - vitamins
  • Who thinks vitamins? Why? Who thinks painkillers? Why?
  • Create the need, and sell the remedy...and I’m going to show you how.. They become pain killers because they create a mental association we can’t get rid of
  • Email example Creating pain is manifested as people develop habit. The habit is a manifestation of the consumer pain being formed. Don't always alleviate pain, some times need to create the pain, the itch! Is this moral? Is this not evil?
  • How you respond to that itch... is a habit. Something done with nearly no cognition
  • Second, you need hooks. Hooks are a user experience design pattern used in high-engagement products. We build desire Desire engines - the desire engine is four steps that when done again and again, create habits. But what is a habit? Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsc iously. But ha bits must be triggered. For the purposes of a business, the goal is to get the user to self-trigger a desire for the product. Therefore, the desire engine, when used in succession, creates internal trigger which causes a person to act automatically, creating a habit.
  • A hook has four steps
  • ACRONYM
  • the brain looks for a solution to alleviate pain, and then if the solution is a consistent enough remedy, it stops thinking about the solution, it just does it. Habit-forming products provide a solution to an internally triggered problem.
  • So what do we build upon? What’s at the center of the pearl? The grain of sand that irritates the oyster.
  • The reason you sat where you did after break is because of a trigger. The context of your environment cued a conditioned response. “ When in classroom, sit down.” It started from you being taught from an external trigger - an authority figure.
  • Where are the triggers on this page?
  • It’s important to note that the bottom three triggers are not long term, they’re for acquisition. Whereas owned media, the triggers the user allows us to send beyond the first time, is a retention mechanism and is much more important for long term engagement
  • Evidence to suggest that those who feel negative emotion more, turn to products, like email, to give them a lift.
  • ...What’s common here?
  • How does Instagram communicate with it’s external triggers, what the product is for? and what the internal triggers are? - words, says so - example images of other users - popular images page All incept the trigger “When you see an Instagram moment, capture and share it.”
  • Photo enthusiasts, feel this need. When they see a moment, they want to capture it. Before instagram, their crappy phone camera made it look terrible, but now instagram could satisfy that itch by making their pic look decent.
  • It’s very difficult to place new triggers at exactly the right point in time. Like sanding down a pearl. Better to replace bad habits with better ones.
  • Fundamental to a habit is when doing is easier than thinking, and here’s how to engineer that So, when doing is easier than thinking, we do what we did last time. And we form a “nearly involuntary behavior”, also known as? A HABIT! So we can create a new habit when the cognitive load of making a decision is decided by the shortcut of being creatures of habit. By removing the thinking and choosing, and just doing it, we increase our ability to do the action. And over time the behavior becomes easier and easier. So... - The more regularly we do something - the less work we have to think about it - the easier it becomes - so the more we do it. And the cycle continues. This is how routines trick our mind into forming new habits and changing long term behavior.
  • behavior is how we respond to stuff happening around us. It’s what we do. Every minute of every day. It’s the ACT of action, or inaction. Our behavior dictates what we buy, what we eat, do, and even what we think. These behaviors are particularly important to us because they add up. A series of behaviors, done PREDICTABLY, or so often that they are INVOLUNTARY is called what?
  • So now you have some food for thought. Next is motivation Motivation = degree which the subject wants the behavior to happen. Motivation, also has six factors. These are the 6 reasons we do everything we do, and they fall into 3 categories: Sensation, Anticipation, and Social Cohesion (EXPLAIN SEEK and AVOID) Motivation is where we generally see the realm of messaging, and one common form of messaging is brand advertising. Let’s look at some examples because brand advertising always does a really good job of nailing one of these in a pretty obvious way. See if you can figure out what’s really being sold in these ads...Sensation, Anticipation, or Social cohesion
  • Action = Vote for Obama What’s it for? = For hope for the future This one is pretty obvious, HOPE but look at the subtleties like the president’s gaze. Where is he looking? The future of course! He looks legendary, iconic, even before we elected him He’s selling us hope - hope of a better future and a better president. Most importantly, anyone know where this poster was hung? In campaign headquarters, where it was meant to motivate campaign workers through the hope of victory in the election.
  • Probably the most used and reused motivator in advertising is?? ... SEX. It uses the motivator of sensation, through pleasure. And the most popular way to visually convey pleasure, is sex, example in these provocative ads for hamburgers for BK, Arby’s, and Carl’s Jr. It looks ridiculous, right. What do hamburgers have to do with sex? Nothing except that sex sells burgers, particularly to young men. There is no doubt that this works. It works because it associates the primal human motivator of pleasure, with the product. Try another one...
  • How about here? What’s being sold? Belonging to the team. Social acceptance. This is a big reason so much advertising money goes into sports. People want to be part of the team.
  • behavior is how we respond to stuff happening around us. It’s what we do. Every minute of every day. It’s the ACT of action, or inaction. Our behavior dictates what we buy, what we eat, do, and even what we think. These behaviors are particularly important to us because they add up. A series of behaviors, done PREDICTABLY, or so often that they are INVOLUNTARY is called what?
  • The next thing we need to be present in order to see a behavior, is a degree of ability. Ability relates to how much resistance there is to doing the behavior. In other words, how easy or difficult the behavior is, how much is in your way. A high degree of ability, to the right, means something is easy, there is not much resistance to an action. If it is closer to the axis, then ability is low, meaning there is a lot of resistance in the way of the behavior. To increase or decrease ability, that is to say, make something easier or harder, we can use the 6 factors of ability. These 6 things are the basic categories which we can manipulate to persuade a behavior. These 6 things, are all factors that make something difficult to do. Requiring the user to use more money, time, physical efforts, etc., to complete the behavior, makes the person less likely to do the behavior. Alternatively, minimizing these factors, making something cheaper, easier to physically do or mentally understand, increases ability and makes the behavior more likely. Something to know here. Each person has different needs and their ability varies by context. When you’re designing behavior, the person’s SCARCEST resource at that moment is the only one that matters. So you need to think about what makes the behavior hard for that particular person at that moment. Is the behavior too difficult physically? too hard to understand? or not part of their routine? Is it not socially acceptable to that person? You need to understand where they have the most friction to doing the behavior Now it’s time for a little activity. I’d like you to turn to the person next to you and for one minute each, discuss a behavior you are trying to change, in yourself or the people you serve in your work, that can be influenced by changing Ability? How can you make the behavior you want easier by reducing one of these six things? One minute each! Go!! (Get a few examples from audience)
  • We can stimulate behavior by stimulating the reward system of the brain
  • We can’t stimulate the nucleus accumbans with probes but can with .. Things that feel good. Generally good for our survival.
  • The brain’s reward system is stimulated by the promise of reward. Not the reward itself. nucleus accumbens lights up right before receiving reward. What is going on here? It turns out the stress of desire is about anticipation.
  • Later another researcher came along and discovered an interesting way to supercharge that stress of desire. He observed a technique that made lab animals crazy with desire. Want to know what it was? Do you? Really? Long pause Who’s curious?
  • Right now, the anticipation of answer the mystery has your senses peeked. You probably feel a bit uncomfortable. You wish I would just tell you the answer, right? Well that is the answer, it’s mystery.
  • We crave predictabilityBF Skinner’s work with pigeons illustrates...(explain)Makes out dopamine system go nuts, creating intense cravings for understanding to bring order where there is none Think of our primitive brains which stopped evolving 200K years ago. Everything we don’t control we seek to understand
  • All variable rewards are about the search, The dopamine system is all about searching and never finding. Anticipation, wanting Caveman story? Combining together can make more powerful
  • League of legends - reduce poor behavior and increase helpful conduct Both sites implemented a social rewards mechanism.
  • Invented right here in SF by Charles Fey 90% of people attending Gamblers Anonymous meetings in Las Vegas played only machines. $1 billion per day is wagered on them, $35 billion in revenue Mostly about The Hunt - opportunity to win resources, money
  • Tribe - acceptance, influence Hunt - information Self - mastery - need it to be done + sensory humor,
  • Things we do for personal satisfaction, even when no one is looking. These often take the forms of games we play. Mastery - Goal oriented - need to dominate, need to complete something (like a checklist) - points, targets Wanting to catch the runner in front of you and variability if you can Consistency - moral obligations or need to prove that we are what we think we are. This is also the need for accomplishing goals, need for self-actualization - levels, challenges
  • Things we do on our own, for the pleasure World of Warcraft, created by Blizzard games is a great example. The levels and achievements have a degree of variability of whether you’ll be able to master them. If this seems far fetched, maybe you don’t feel it applied to you. How about...
  • Good old email. Your compulsion to check your inbox, to perhaps escape boredom, also utilized your need to complete to control and to master. “ Let me get just complete that one last task. Can I do it? how quickly? What is the task exactly?”
  • Products with infinite variability create longer-term habits Habit design is not set it and forget
  • Any.do Loads the next external trigger by connecting to calendar.
  • Yelp, AirBnB, TaskRabbit
  • more likely to play lottery when allowed to choose their own numbers. Even though they are no more likely to win. Doing the work increased commitment. “ Subjects are either given tickets at random or allowed to choose their own. They can then trade their tickets for others with a higher chance of paying out. Subjects who had chosen their own ticket were more reluctant to part with it. Although these lotteries were random, subjects behaved as though their choice of ticket affected the outcome. [11][14] [11][14]
  • Palo Alto residents shown a picture of a gigantic sign that would read “drive carefully” in front of house, Nearly cover up the front of house. Asked if they’d agree to post it on lawn. Group 2 was ASKED if they could display a 3 INCH sign 2 weeks before. It was so small that almost all had said yes.
  • And this is why small bits of investment actually create preference. Shaping what we like and who we are.
  • Mnemonic
  • Desire engines - the desire engine is four steps that when done again and again, create habits. But what is a habit? Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously. But habits must be triggered. For the purposes of a business, the goal is to get the user to self-trigger a desire for the product. Therefore, the desire engine, when used in succession, creates internal trigger which causes a person to act automatically, creating a habit.

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Technologies | Nir Eyal, NirAndFar.com Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Technologies | Nir Eyal, NirAndFar.com Presentation Transcript

  • Hooked Nir Eyal Nir Eyal NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal “When my boss tells me to increase engagement, I’m like...” QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Source: runningastartup.tumblr.com
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal “Why can’t we do it like _______?”
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal PatternsPatterns Photo Credit: shaire productions
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Vitamins or painkillers?
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Selling painkillers - Obvious need - stop pain - Quantifiable market - Monetizable
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Selling vitamins - Emotional need, not efficacy - “Makes me feel good knowing...” - Unknown market
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Vitamins or painkillers?
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Habit is when not doing causes pain. causes pain. causes pain.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Habit-forming technology Vitamin Painkiller Pleasure seeking Pain alleviation
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Creating pain? (more of an itch) (more of an itch)
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal hab· it /ˈhabit/ Noun, Def: A behavior that occurs nearly or completely without conscious thought.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal My goal If your business model requires habits ... ... a pattern intended to help you form better product hypotheses ... ... to increase odds of success.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal the hook /THə hook/͟ ͝ Noun, Def: An experience designed to connect a solution to the user’s problem with enough frequency to form a habit.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Hooks Low engagement High engagement
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The Hook
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Remember: ATARI A - A hook has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Triggers
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The first step to “connect a solution to the user’s problem”
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Habits aren’t created, they are built upon
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Triggers External Internal Alarms Calls-to-action Emails Stores Authority Emotions Routines Situations Places People What to do next is in the trigger What to do next is in the user’s head
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Dissatisfied Indecisive Lost Tense Fatigued Inferior Fear of loss Bored Lonesome Confused Powerless Discouraged Emotions are frequent internal triggers
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal People with depression check email more. Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012,Associating Depressive Symptoms in College Students with Internet Usage Using Real Internet Data
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal When I feel... ... I use Lonely Hungry Unsure Anxious Lost Mentally fatigued Facebook Yelp, GrubHub Google Email GPS ESPN, Glam Internal triggers in tech
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Know your customer’s internal trigger.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal “Every time the user (internal trigger) they use (product).”
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Instagram triggers
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Instagram triggers External Internal - FB and Twitter - App notifications - App icon - Fear of losing the moment - Bored, lonesome, fear of missing out
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Triggers are the first step of the hook. • The designer informs what to do next through external triggers. • The user informs what to do next through internal triggers. • Emotions provide frequent internal triggers.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Actions
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal when doing < thinking = action
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal trigger (SUCCESS!) trigger (FAIL!) ability motivation Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University B = m.a.t. Fogg Behavior Model
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal mo· ti· va· tion /mōtə vāSHən/ Noun, Def: “The energy for action” - Edward Deci
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal motivation Motivators of behavior Seek: Pleasure Hope Acceptance Avoid: Pain Fear Rejection Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal a· bil· i· ty /əˈbilitē/ Noun, Def: The capacity to do.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyalability How increase capacity to do something? Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyalability Factors of ability • Time • Money • Physical effort • Brain cycles • Social deviance • Non-routine Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Simple online actions in anticipation of reward • Log-In (Facebook, Wordpress) • Search (Google, Expedia, Yelp) • Open (Twitter, SMS, email) • Scroll (Pinterest, Instagram) • Play (YouTube, online games)
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Twitter homepage 2009
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal2010 Twitter homepage
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal2013 Twitter homepage
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Evolution of Twitter 2009 2010 2013
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Action is the second step of the hook. • The action is the simplest behavior the user can do before getting rewarded. • To increase behavior: • Ensure a clear trigger is present. • Increase ability by making it easier. • Align with the right motivator.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Variable rewards
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The brain and rewards Source: Olds and Milner, 1945
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Reward system stimulators
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Were Olds and Milner stimulating pleasure? (not exactly) (not exactly)
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The stress of desire • Dopamine system activated by anticipation of reward • And dampened when reward achieved Source: Knutson et al 2001
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Supercharge the “stress of desire”... But how? But how? But how? But how?
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Exactly!
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The unknown is fascinating • Our brains are prediction machines. • We seek to understand cause and effect. • Variability messes with our heads. • Causes us to increase focus and engagement. • ...and oh yes, it’s habit forming.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The endless search • B.F. Skinner showed intermittent rewards increase response rate. • Dopamine drives the search. • Variability spikes dopamine.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Variable rewards thethe HuntHunt thethe TribeTribe thethe SelfSelf
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Search for social rewards social rewards thethe TribeTribe - Cooperation - Competition - Recognition - Acceptance - Sex - Empathetic joy Source: Adapted from Malone and Lepper, 1987
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the tribe
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the tribe
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Search for resources thethe HuntHunt - Food - Money - Information
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the hunt: search for resources
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the hunt: search for information
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Dare you not to scroll
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Search for sensation thethe SelfSelf - Mastery - Consistency - Competency - Completion
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the self:competency and mastery
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the self:competency and mastery
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Some words of warning!
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Must still solve pain • Variable rewards are not a free pass. • You still need to give the user what they came for. • (see internal trigger and motivation)
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal No engagement without autonomy • People resist being controlled. • Autonomy is a pre-requisite. • If lost, you fail. Source: See Deci and Ryan on Self-Determination Theory
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Finite rewards decay • As rewards become predictable, they become less interesting Finite Variability Infinite Variability - Single-player games - Consumption of media - Multi-player games - Creation of content - Communities Source: See “hedonic treadmill”
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Variable reward is the third step of the hook. • Reward types: • Tribe • Hunt • Self • Maintain feeling of autonomy, find infinite variability and alleviate user pain
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Investments
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Investment • Where user does a bit of “work.” • “Pays” with something of value: time, money, social capital, effort, emotional commitment, personal data ...
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal • Done in anticipation of future rewards • Makes next pass through hook more likely by: • Loading the next trigger • Storing value • Creating preference Investment increase likelihood of next pass
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Loading the next trigger
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Pinterest T A VRI Email notification Log-in Communication (Tribe) Collecting (Hunt) Pin, Re-Pin, Like, Comment Collecting, lonesome, seeking connection ...
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value ContentContent
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value Data
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value FollowersFollowers
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value Reputation
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Creating preference preference
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Ease of use
  • Source: Langer, 1975 • People who pick lottery numbers assign greater odds. Labor increases value
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Labor is love • Value own work almost as much as an expert’s. • Even if others don’t. Source: Ariely, Mochon and Norton, 2012
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal As we invest ... we seek to be consistent with past behaviors... with past behaviors...
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Little investments, big results big results Group 1: 17% accepted Group 2: 76% accepted Source: Freedman & Fraser, 1966
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal ...investments shape our tastes, preferences and identities.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Investment is the fourth step of the hook. • Small amounts of work to increase the likelihood of the user returning by: • Loading the next trigger • Storing value • Creating preference
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal the hook /THə hook/͟ ͝ Noun, Def: An experience designed to connect a solution to the user’s problem with enough frequency to form a habit.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Remember: ATARI A - A hook has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Hooks create associations - External triggers - Low preference - Low engagement - Internal triggers - High preference - High engagement
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Hook model canvas Trigger Action Variable RewardInvestment 3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward? 1. Internal trigger - What does the user really want? 2. External trigger - What gets the user to the product? 4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more? 5. What is the ‘bit of work’ done to increase the likelihood of returning?
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal What are you going to do with this?
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Cultivate meaning • The world is full of problems to fix. • Help others find meaning. • Engage them in something important. • Build the change you want to see in the world.
  • NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Please raise your phones • I love feedback. • Please go here: www.OpinionTo.us • Help make this presentation better and ... get slides. • Thank you!