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THE RISE OF EUROPE!!!
THE ROMAN WORLD TAKES SHAPE                              WHAT ADVANTAGES                              IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPH...
HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY THE GREEKS AND THEIR RELIGION //
A TRIBES CALLED LATINS ARE THEFIRST TO SETTLE THE PENINSULA //SETTLE ALONG THETIBER RIVER // MANY VILLAGESCOMBINE TO EVENT...
LARGE GROUP OF PEOPLE NORTH OF ROME//RULED MOST OF NORTH & CENTRAL ITALY //ETRUSCANS TOOK OVER ROME // AND BROUGHTMANY NEW...
ROMANS CREATE “RES PUBLICA”  BELONGS TO THE PEOPLEFORM OF GOVT WHERE PEOPLE CHOOSE SOME OF THE POLITICIANS ANDPUBLIC SERV...
PLEBIANS  BUSINESS CLASS, FARMERS, AND ARTISANS // HAD LITTLEPOWER OTHER THAN CITIZENSHIP // THEN GAINED THE RIGHT TOELEC...
CITIZEN SOLDIER ARMY // BROKEN INTO UNITS // LEGION = 5,000 SOLDIERSBEGAN TO CONQUER OTHER LANDSAND SPREAD INFLUENCE.. WER...
PUNIC WARS1ST PUNIC WAR  ROMEATTACKS AND WINS SICILY, CORSICA, & SARDINIA2ND PUNIC WAR  HANNIBAL AND HISELEPHANTS SURPRI...
Technology• Roman Roads, Concrete“All roads lead to Rome”   City planning
WHAT WILL THE CONNECTEDNESS OF THE EARLY CONQUEREDLANDS DO TO THE CULTURES?
Language• Latin (the language of  Rome) evolves into the  Romance Languages  – French, Italian, Spanish,    and Portuguese...
PROOF OF MASSIVE WEALTH ACCUMULATION FOR ROMAN CITIZENS //CAPTURED PEOPLES FROM CONQUERED LANDS BECOME SLAVES ON LARGEPLAN...
THE END OF THE REPUBLIC & THE BEGINNING OF THE END OF THE EMPIRE
MANY CIVIL WARS SET THE STAGE FOR JULIUS CAESAR’S TAKE OVER //NEXT, A POWER FIGHT BETWEEN THE SENATE AND POPULARLEADERS (L...
CAESAR KILLED BY SENATORS AND ASSOCIATES // HIS GRAND NEPHEW,OCTAVIAN DEFEATS MARC ANTONY (& CLEOPATRA) TO TAKE OVERSENATE...
AUGUSTUS RULE HIGHLIGHTSCENSUS ORDERED  FAIR TAXATIONSTABILITY COMES TO THE FAR OFF LANDS  GIVES THEM A LOT OF SELF RULE...
Pax Romana: 27 BCE – 180 CE
The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE
FOCUS QUESTIONS ON ROMAN CULTURE:SOCIETAL/CULTURAL QUESTIONSWHAT IS THE LAW OF CULTURE?WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACCU...
VIRGIL ~ AENEIDSTORY OF AENEAS, A CHARACTERIN HOMER’S ILIAD ABOUT THEWAR IN TROY // CONNECTS THESTORIES TO THE FOUNDING OF...
LIVY // TITUS LIVIUS // (ALIVE DURING CAESAR AND AUGUSTUS)PATRIOTIC STORY TELLER THROUGH POEMS ABOUT THE EARLYREPUBLIC AND...
ROMAN MOSAICS        GREAT EXAMPLE OF ROMAN CULTURAL        DIFFUSION //        ANCIENT MOSAICS FOUND        THROUGHOUT EU...
Art/Architecture
Art/Architecture   Its architecture was                                Hellenistic (meaning                               ...
The Greek Acropolis   The Roman Forum
The Roman Colosseum
The Colosseum Interior
Circus Maximus
Technology• Roman Roads, Concrete“All roads lead to Rome”                           City planning
Technology: Aqueducts
Roman Aqueducts
SCIENTIFIC IMPROVEMENTS MAINLY CAME FROM GREECE (WITHIN THEEMPIRE) // PTOLEMY AND THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE //GALEN AND T...
FROM THE 12 TABLES TO THIS!!!RULE OF LAW IS ADHERED TO THROUGHOUT THE REPUBLIC ANDEMPIRE ERAS OF THE ROMAN HISTORY // GREA...
DIOCLETIAN ~BACKGROUND: PAX ROMANA ENDS WITH MARCUS AURELIUS  EMPEROR UNCERTAINTY         MANY ASSASSINATIONS AND OVERT...
CONSTANTINE ~ 312 GENERAL TAKES THE THRONE, AFTER HIS FATHERIS KILLED WHILE BATTLING IN BRITAIN // CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT OV...
HUNS AND ATILA // GERMANIC VISIGOTHS & OSTROGOTHS
FALL OF ROME
Rome id review
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Rome id review
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Rome id review
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Transcript of "Rome id review"

  1. 1. THE RISE OF EUROPE!!!
  2. 2. THE ROMAN WORLD TAKES SHAPE WHAT ADVANTAGES IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY EXIST FOR THE ITALIAN PENINSULA? HOW IS THIS DIFFERENT THAN GREECE?
  3. 3. HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY THE GREEKS AND THEIR RELIGION //
  4. 4. A TRIBES CALLED LATINS ARE THEFIRST TO SETTLE THE PENINSULA //SETTLE ALONG THETIBER RIVER // MANY VILLAGESCOMBINE TO EVENTUALLY FORM THECITY OF ROME TO BETTER PROTECTTHEMSELVES // YET, THERE IS A MYTHICALBEGINNING TO ROME ROMULUS VS. REMUS
  5. 5. LARGE GROUP OF PEOPLE NORTH OF ROME//RULED MOST OF NORTH & CENTRAL ITALY //ETRUSCANS TOOK OVER ROME // AND BROUGHTMANY NEW CULTURAL CHANGES //1. WRITING AND AN ALPHABET2. ARCH3. IRRIGATION OF THE MARSH LANDS SURROUNDING THE RIVERS4. GAINED NEW GODS IN THEIR RELIGIONDROVE THE ETRUSCANS OUT IN 509 BCE
  6. 6. ROMANS CREATE “RES PUBLICA”  BELONGS TO THE PEOPLEFORM OF GOVT WHERE PEOPLE CHOOSE SOME OF THE POLITICIANS ANDPUBLIC SERVANTS // IDEA WAS TO LIMIT THE POWER OF INDIVIDUALS ANDMAKE GOVT RESPONSIVE TO THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE //ELECTED A SENATE TO CREATE LAWS (MOSTLY RICH FROM THE PATRICIAN CLASS)SENATORS SELECTED 2 CONSULS  RAN THE GOVT & THE ARMIES .. LIMITEDTO ONE TERM // HAD TO APPROVE EACH OTHER’S DECISIONS // CHECKS OF POWERDURING WAR, THE SENATE COULD CHOOSE A DICTATOR // 6 MONTHS AT A TIMECINCINNATUS EXAMPLE  15 DAYS AS DICTATOR
  7. 7. PLEBIANS  BUSINESS CLASS, FARMERS, AND ARTISANS // HAD LITTLEPOWER OTHER THAN CITIZENSHIP // THEN GAINED THE RIGHT TOELECT TRIBUNES WHO HAD THE RIGHT TO VETO LAWS DEEMED UNFAIROR UNFIT // AS THEIR INFLUENCE SPREADS, THE SENATE BEGINS TO ELECTPLEBIANS TO THE CONSUL JOBS AND THEN BEGIN TO TAKE SENATE SEATS // MAJOR EVENT!!! 12 TABLETS  POSTED POLITICAL RIGHTS AND SOCIALRIGHTS OF THE PLEBIANS 450 BCE LAWS OF THE 12 TABLESLAWS WRITTEN DOWN!!! (HAMMURABI’S CODE)NORMAL CITIZENS NOT COMPLETELY SHUT OUT OF GOVT AND NOT COMPLETELYDOMINATED BY THE LEADERS OF THE GOVTINFLUENCED MODERN REPUBLICAN DEMOCRACIES
  8. 8. CITIZEN SOLDIER ARMY // BROKEN INTO UNITS // LEGION = 5,000 SOLDIERSBEGAN TO CONQUER OTHER LANDSAND SPREAD INFLUENCE.. WEREALLOWED TO KEEP CUSTOMS ANDLOCAL GOVTS // BUT HAD TOSUBMIT TO TAXES AND SUPPORTINGTHE ROMAN ARMY // SOMEAREAS WERE COMPLETELY TAKENAND CITIZENS OF THE AREAS WEREGIVEN FULL CITIZENSHIP //PROBLEM? EMPIRE BUILDING,HOW DO YOU RULE IT?
  9. 9. PUNIC WARS1ST PUNIC WAR  ROMEATTACKS AND WINS SICILY, CORSICA, & SARDINIA2ND PUNIC WAR  HANNIBAL AND HISELEPHANTS SURPRISED ROMAN BY COMINGFROM THE NORTH // BEAT UP THE ROMAN AREAFOR 15 YEARS // NEVER COULD TAKE ROME// ROME SENDS ARMY TO CARTHAGE // HANNIBALGOES HOME TO PROTECT IT // DEFEATED3RD PUNIC WAR  ROME WINS ANDDESTROYS CARTHAGE.. HOW? ROME IS NOW AN IMPERIALIST EMPIRE.. TURNS AND TAKES OVER THE FORMER AREAS OF THE GREECE EMPIRE
  10. 10. Technology• Roman Roads, Concrete“All roads lead to Rome” City planning
  11. 11. WHAT WILL THE CONNECTEDNESS OF THE EARLY CONQUEREDLANDS DO TO THE CULTURES?
  12. 12. Language• Latin (the language of Rome) evolves into the Romance Languages – French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese – Latin is still the official language of the Roman Catholic Church
  13. 13. PROOF OF MASSIVE WEALTH ACCUMULATION FOR ROMAN CITIZENS //CAPTURED PEOPLES FROM CONQUERED LANDS BECOME SLAVES ON LARGEPLANTATIONS // DRIVES FARMERS OUT OF BUSINESS
  14. 14. THE END OF THE REPUBLIC & THE BEGINNING OF THE END OF THE EMPIRE
  15. 15. MANY CIVIL WARS SET THE STAGE FOR JULIUS CAESAR’S TAKE OVER //NEXT, A POWER FIGHT BETWEEN THE SENATE AND POPULARLEADERS (LIKE GENERALS) // SLAVE AND CONQUERED LANDS BEGINTO REVOLT SEEING AN OPPORTUNITY TO BREAK AWAY //BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY, THE ARMIES SHIFT THEIR ALLEGIANCE FROMTHE STATE/GOVT TO THEIR COMMANDERS (CAESAR INCLUDED).CAESAR AND POMPEY WERE THE TWO MOST POWERFUL AND POPULAR//ALSO, CAESAR INVADED AND CONQUERED GAUL (FRANCE & BELGIUM) //58 BCE // SENATE GETS POMPEY TO GO AGAINST CAESAR //CAESAR MARCHES HIS ARMY INTO ROME // HAD SENATEDECLARE HIM DICTATOR //***HAD A CALENDAR CREATED USED FOR 1,600 YEARS // ANDSTARTED A PUBLIC WORKS SYSTEM FOR THE POOR TO GET JOBSDID NOT DISBAND ALL OF THE REPUBLIC STRUCTURES
  16. 16. CAESAR KILLED BY SENATORS AND ASSOCIATES // HIS GRAND NEPHEW,OCTAVIAN DEFEATS MARC ANTONY (& CLEOPATRA) TO TAKE OVERSENATE GIVES HIM THE TITLE AUGUSTUS //
  17. 17. AUGUSTUS RULE HIGHLIGHTSCENSUS ORDERED  FAIR TAXATIONSTABILITY COMES TO THE FAR OFF LANDS  GIVES THEM A LOT OF SELF RULE POWERCIVIL SERVICE TO HELP POLICE AND ORGANIZE REGIONSMAIL SERVICECOINS TO STANDARDIZE TRADEMORE JOBS FOR THE POORHOWEVER, THE REPUBLIC IS GONE AS AUGUSTUS RULES!
  18. 18. Pax Romana: 27 BCE – 180 CE
  19. 19. The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE
  20. 20. FOCUS QUESTIONS ON ROMAN CULTURE:SOCIETAL/CULTURAL QUESTIONSWHAT IS THE LAW OF CULTURE?WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACCULTURATION AND DIFFUSION?HOW DOES CULTURE “TRAVEL”?IS ROMAN CULTURE UNIQUE?CAN A DOMINANT POLITICAL EMPIRE OVERRUN AND CHANGE SUBJECTEDCULTURES?
  21. 21. VIRGIL ~ AENEIDSTORY OF AENEAS, A CHARACTERIN HOMER’S ILIAD ABOUT THEWAR IN TROY // CONNECTS THESTORIES TO THE FOUNDING OF ROMEAS AENEAS CONQUERS THE LATINS //STORY IS SPRINKLED WITH GREEK GODS//AND LINKS THE EARLY EMPERORS AS DESCENDANTS OF THE GREEK HEROESAND GODS //
  22. 22. LIVY // TITUS LIVIUS // (ALIVE DURING CAESAR AND AUGUSTUS)PATRIOTIC STORY TELLER THROUGH POEMS ABOUT THE EARLYREPUBLIC AND ITS HEROES // USING GREEK POETIC STYLES //Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City) // HISTORIAN TO THEEMPERORS ESPECIALLY YOUNG CLAUDIUS (THE FAT WEAK ONE) //LIVY IS IMPORTANT AS HE TRIED TO WRITE A COMPLETE CHRONICLE OFROMAN HISTORY BUILDING OFF VIRGIL’S STORIES OF AENEAS //TACITUS // GAIUS CORNELIUS TACITUS // (BORN DURING NERO’S REIGN)SENATOR AND HISTORIAN // HOW DO YOU THINK HE FELT ABOUTAUGUSTUS AND HIS COMPLETE DESTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC? //FOCUSES ON THE EMPIRE HISTORY FROM AUGUSTUS ON // HIGHLY CRITICAL //WE GET COMPLETE HISTORY OF AUGUSTUS AND HIS DESCENDANT EMPERORSTO NERO // ALSO, WRITES ON THE HANDLING OF JESUS BY PONTIUS PILATEAND THE PERSECUTION OF EARLY CHRISTIANS ESPECIALLY AFTER NERO’S FIRE //MUCH OF HIS WORK CONTAINS CYNICISM, WIT, AND HIGHLY CRITICALANALYSIS //
  23. 23. ROMAN MOSAICS GREAT EXAMPLE OF ROMAN CULTURAL DIFFUSION // ANCIENT MOSAICS FOUND THROUGHOUT EUROPE
  24. 24. Art/Architecture
  25. 25. Art/Architecture Its architecture was Hellenistic (meaning “Greek inspired”) The ColiseumThe Pantheon – first domeRoman Arch
  26. 26. The Greek Acropolis The Roman Forum
  27. 27. The Roman Colosseum
  28. 28. The Colosseum Interior
  29. 29. Circus Maximus
  30. 30. Technology• Roman Roads, Concrete“All roads lead to Rome” City planning
  31. 31. Technology: Aqueducts
  32. 32. Roman Aqueducts
  33. 33. SCIENTIFIC IMPROVEMENTS MAINLY CAME FROM GREECE (WITHIN THEEMPIRE) // PTOLEMY AND THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE //GALEN AND THE EXPERIMENTATION FOR MEDICAL IMPROVEMENTS //ROMANS COMPILED VOLUMES OF INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGESPREAD ADVANCING CIVILIZATION //PLINY THE ELDER!!! WROTE ENCYCLOPEDIAS ON JUST ABOUT EVERYTHING
  34. 34. FROM THE 12 TABLES TO THIS!!!RULE OF LAW IS ADHERED TO THROUGHOUT THE REPUBLIC ANDEMPIRE ERAS OF THE ROMAN HISTORY // GREAT INFLUENCE THROUGHOUTHISTORY //CIVIL LAW APPLIED TO CITIZENS OF THE EMPIRE // AS EMPIRE GREW,CHANGES NEEDED TO HAPPEN FOR THE CONQUERED PEOPLE //LAW OF NATIONS WAS CREATED TO APPLY TO THE EMPIRE // CIVIL LAW WASEVENTUALLY EXTENDED AS ROMAN CITIZENSHIP WAS GRANTED TO THEENTIRE EMPIRE //ROMAN INFLUENCES ON THE AMERICAN SYSTEM:1. INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY2. JUDICIAL REVIEW AND INTERPRETATION OF LAWS3. REPUBLICAN DEMOCRACY4. CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS
  35. 35. DIOCLETIAN ~BACKGROUND: PAX ROMANA ENDS WITH MARCUS AURELIUS  EMPEROR UNCERTAINTY  MANY ASSASSINATIONS AND OVERTHROWS  CITIZENS OVER TAXED TO PAY FOR ARMIES AND THE HUGE GOVT  OVERUSED FARMLAND UNDER PRODUCESDIOCLETIAN’S IDEA  SPLIT THE EMPIREDIOCLETIAN TO RULE THE EASTMAXIMIAN TO RULE THE WESTFREEZE PRICES, SON FOLLOW LAW
  36. 36. CONSTANTINE ~ 312 GENERAL TAKES THE THRONE, AFTER HIS FATHERIS KILLED WHILE BATTLING IN BRITAIN // CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT OVERSUCCESSION // CONSTANTINE’S ARMY WINS (AFTER A DREAM???) //GRANTS TOLERATION TO CHRISTIANS (EDICT OF MILAN) // CONVERTS TOCHRISTIANITY// DEFEATS EASTERN EMPEROR TO REUNITE EMPIRE)MOVES CAPITAL OF EMPIRE TO BYZANTIUM // CONSTANTINOPLE //WESTERN EMPIRE IS DECAYING // EASTERN EMPIRE BECOMES KNOWNAS THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
  37. 37. HUNS AND ATILA // GERMANIC VISIGOTHS & OSTROGOTHS
  38. 38. FALL OF ROME
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