Lesson 2 the importance of folktales.ppt.ag


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For use with "What's Your Story?", a curriculum unit written by A. Groves for the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program.

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Lesson 2 the importance of folktales.ppt.ag

  1. 1. The Importance of Folktales<br /> In your notebook, write a response to the following questions.<br />1.How do we know about the history of people who do not use a written language?<br />2. What sort of stories are told in your own family? How do they reflect the things your family values and protects?<br />
  2. 2. Oral Tradition<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.webafriqa.net/culture/precolonial<br /> In cultures where there is little to no written tradition, people transmit their stories, history, lessons, hopes and fears by speaking or singing. Africa had this tradition because they had no written language. <br />
  3. 3. Types of African Folktales<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://santhioubouna.free.fr/leuk_le_lievre.jpg<br />1. Stories from Africa<br />
  4. 4. African Folktales<br />Come from an oral tradition<br />Provide explanations for natural phenomenon (example: thunder, storms, physical features)<br />Elders are important and often asked for advice<br />Contain humor<br />Repetition: Stories repeat key words to increase significance<br />Use small animals that are often tricksters that outsmart more powerful animals<br />
  5. 5. Anansi the Spider<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.oregonshadowtheatre.com/anansi.con.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.oregonshadowtheatre.com<br />
  6. 6. Types of African Folktales<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://img2.shoptoit.ca/images<br />2. African stories changed in the Caribbean<br />
  7. 7. Caribbean Tales<br />When Africans were transported to the Caribbean during the years of the slave trade, they carried their stories with them.<br />The stories were changed when the people incorporated new animals, plants, and geographical features found in the Caribbean. (Example: sugar cane, island themes, pineapple.)<br />
  8. 8. Types of African Folktales<br />Fotosearch.com<br />3. Folktales that originated on plantations in the Southern States<br />
  9. 9. African American Folktales<br />Many of the same trickster animals that came from African folktales (Example: rabbit became Brer Rabbit)<br />Passed on history, culture, memories, hopes and fears through storytelling on the plantations<br />Slaves were forbidden to speak in native languages or to read or write<br />African words and English words were combined in stories<br />Stories began to contain hidden messages about escape, hiding places and help along the way<br />
  10. 10. Brer Rabbit<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://brerrabbitbooks.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Brer_Rabbit_and_Tar-Baby.jpg<br />
  11. 11. Wrap-Up<br />Choose and complete one of the following:<br />Create a Venn Diagram showing the similarities and differences between African and African-American folktales.<br />Write a paragraph explaining the importance of folktales in African and African American culture.<br />
  12. 12. Using the Venn Diagram<br />List the similarities in the space where the two circles intersect, and list the differences between the two types of folktales in the outside of the appropriate circle. Use complete sentences or phrases. You must include three to five items in each of section of the Venn diagram.<br />African American<br />Folktales<br />African Folktales<br />
  13. 13. Teacher Notes<br />Leuk Le Lievre<br />This is a series of stories about a rabbit and his adventures. <br />Some story titles are: The youngest animall, Leuk and Sègue-le-léopard, Leuk discovers the bush, Leuk reviews mame-randatou, the fairy , The counsels of Diargogne-l’araignée, The stay to Doumbélane , Leukdiscovers the forest, The crimes of Bouki-l’hyène, Leuk discovers the sea , The trick of Lièvreteau, Leuk discovers the sea (continuation) , The punishment of Bouki , Leuk discovers the Man, The end of the stay to Doumbélane, The servants of the Man, Leuk and the small ones will forge, The captivity of Leuk, The conversion of Leuk, Mamrandatou, the fairy, SerigneN’Diamala-la-girafe, Leuk the Eléphant and the Whale, The wisdom of SerigneN’Diamala, The encounter of the Eléphant and Whale, Become Leuk herbivore, Leuk with Uncle Gaïndé-le-lion, he trip of Leuk<br />
  14. 14. Teacher Notes<br />Anansi the Spider<br />The Story of Anansi<br />Anansi (ah-NAHN-see), the spider, is a popular figure in the folklore of parts of West Africa (the stories later came with slaves to the Caribbean islands.) Like Brer Rabbit in America, Anansi is a 'trickster' figure - clever, cunning, sometimes mischievous - who uses his wits to make up for what he lacks in size and strength.<br />The following story tells how Anansi became the 'owner' of all stories.<br /> <br />All Stories are Anansi's<br />In the beginning, all tales and stories belonged to Nyame, the Sky God. But KwakuAnansi, the spider, yearned to be the owner of all the stories known in the world, and he went to Nyame and offered to buy them.<br />The Sky God said: "I am willing to sell the stories, but the price is high. Many people have come to me offering to buy, but the price was too high for them. Rich and powerful families have not been able to pay. Do you think you can do it?"<br />Anansi replied to the Sky God: "I can do it. What is the price?"<br />"My price is three things," the Sky God said. "I must first have Mmoboro, the hornets. I must then have Onini, the great python. I must then have Osebo, the leopard. For these thing I will sell you the right to tell all the stories."<br />Anansi said: "I will bring them."<br />He went home and made his plans. He first cut a gourd from a vine and made a small hole in it. He took a large bowl and filled it with water. He went to the tree where the hornets lived. He poured some of the water over himself, so that he was dripping. He threw some water over the hornets, so that they too were dripping. Then he put the bowl on his head, as thought to protect himself from a storm, and called out to the hornets: "Are you foolish people? Why do you stay in the rain that is falling?"<br />The hornets answered: "Where shall we go?"<br />"Go here, in this dry gourd," Anansi told them.<br />The hornets thanked him and flew into the gourd through the small hole. When the last of them had entered, Anansi plugged the hole with a ball of grass, saying: "Oh, yes, but you are really foolish people!"<br />He took his gourd full of hornets to Nyame, the Sky God. The Sky God accepted them. He said: "There are two more things."<br />Anansi returned to the forest and cut a long bamboo pole and some strong vines. Then he walked toward the house of Onini, the python, talking to himself. He seemed to be talking about an argument with his wife. He said: "My wife is wrong. I say he is longer and stronger. My wife says he is shorter and weaker. I give him more respect. She gives him less respect. Is she right or am I right? I am right, he is longer. I am right, he is stronger.”<br />
  15. 15. Teacher Notes<br />Anansi Story Continued:<br />When Onini, the python, heard Anansi talking to himself, he said: "Why are you arguing this way with yourself?"<br />The spider replied: "Ah, I have had a dispute with my wife. She says you are shorter and weaker than this bamboo pole. I say you are longer and stronger."<br />Onini said: "It's useless and silly to argue when you can find out the truth. Bring the pole and we will measure."<br />So Anansi laid the pole on the ground, and the python came and stretched himself out beside it.<br />"You seem a little short," Anansi said.<br />The python stretched further.<br />"A little more," Anansi said.<br />"I can stretch no more," Onini said.<br />"When you stretch at one end, you get shorter at the other end," Anansi said. "Let me tie you at the front so you don't slip."<br />He tied Onini's head to the pole. Then he went to the other end and tied the tail to the pole. He wrapped the vine all around Onini, until the python couldn't move.<br />"Onini," Anansi said, "it turns out that my wife was right and I was wrong. You are shorter than the pole and weaker. My opinion wasn't as good as my wife's. But you were even more foolish than I, and you are now my prisoner."<br />Anansi carried the python to Nyame, the Sky God, who said: "There is one thing more."<br />Osebo, the leopard, was next. Anansi went into the forest and dug a deep pit where the leopard liked to walk. He covered it with small branches and leaves and put dust on it, so that it was impossible to tell where the pit was. Anansi went away and hid. When Osebo came prowling in the black of night, he stepped into the trap Anansi had prepared and fell to the bottom. Anansi heard the sound of the leopard falling and he said: "Ah, Osebo, you are half-foolish!"<br />When morning came, Anansi went to the pit and saw the leopard there.<br />"Osebo," he asked, "what are you doing in this hole?"<br />"I have fallen into a trap," Osebo said. "Help me out."<br />"I would gladly help you," Anansi said. "But I'm sure that if I bring you out, I will have no thanks for it. You will get hungry, and later on you will be wanting to eat me and my children."<br />"I promise it won't happen!" Osebo said.<br />
  16. 16. Teacher Notes<br />Anansi Story Continued:<br />"I promise it won't happen!" Osebo said.<br />"Very well. Since you promise it, I will take you out," Anansi said.<br />He bent a tall green tree toward the ground, so that it's top was over the pit, and he tied it that way. Then he tied a rope to the top of the tree and dropped the other end of it into the pit.<br />"Tie this to your tail," he said.<br />Osebo tied the rope to his tail.<br />"Is it well tied?" Anansi asked.<br />"Yes, it is well tied," the leopard said.<br />"In that case," Anansi said, "you are not merely half-foolish, you are all-foolish."<br />And he took his knife and cut the other rope, the one that held the tree bowed to the ground. The tree straightened up with a snap, pulling Osebo out of the hole. He hung in the air head downward, twisting and turning. As he twisted and turned, he got so dizzy that Anansi had no trouble tying the leopard's feet with vines.<br />Anansi took the dizzy leopard, all tied up, to Nyame, the Sky God, saying: "Here is the third thing. Now I have paid the price."<br />Nyame said to him: "KwakuAnansi, great warriors and chiefs have tried, but they have been unable to do it. You have done it. Therefore, I will give you the stories. From this day onward, all stories belong to you. Whenever a man tells a story, he must acknowledge that it is Anansi's tale."<br />And that is why, in parts of Africa, the people love to tell, and love to hear, the stories they call "spider stories." And now, you have heard one too.<br />http://anansi-web.com/anansi.html <br />
  17. 17. Teacher Notes<br />La CucarchitaMartina – A Story<br />Anita was playing in the sand on the beach in Cuba. It was a hot day, but a breeze was coming in from the sea. The palm trees were swaying as the waves hit the shore. Suddenly, Anita's mama laughed and said, "You look like La Cucarachita Martina!" Anita was hurt, "Why are you calling me a cockroach?" Mama giggled, "It's because you have sand all over your face, and it looks like powder. Let me tell you the story about La Cucarchita Martina..." <br />Once upon a time, there was a cucarachita named Martina. One day she was sweeping the floor of her house and she found a coin. She started to think about what she would do with the coin. She said to herself: “If I spend it on candy, I’ll eat it, and then it will be all gone, and I’ll have nothing.” <br />So she decided she would spend the money on face powder to make herself look beautiful. She really wanted to find someone so she could get married.<br />After Martina bought the face powder, she went home, and got dressed in her best outfit. Then she sat on her porch and waited for someone to come by.<br />Her first visitor was Mr. Goat.  “How beautiful you are, Cucarachita Martina! Will you marry me?" he asked. “Maybe," she answered, "but you must tell me what sound you make at night.”<br />“Well I say bah, bah, bah!” Mr. Goat answered. “Oh no, you frighten me!” said Cucarachita Martina, "Please go away."<br />A short time later, Mr. Cat passed by her house. “How beautiful you are, Cucarachita Martina! Will you marry me?” he asked. “Yes,” she said, “but you must tell me what sound you make at night.”<br />“I will meow and hiss all night." Mr. Cat answered. “Oh no, you will keep me awake all night!” said Cucarachita Martina. "Please go away."<br />Soon Mr. Dog went by Cucarachita Martina’s door and said: “How beautiful you are, Cucarachita Martina! Will you marry me?” She answered, “Yes, but you must tell me what sound you make at night.”<br />“Well, I say bow-wow, bow-wow” Mr. Dog answered. “Oh no, you frighten me!” said Cucarachita Martina. "Please go away."<br />Later, the Little Mouse Perez passed by and said: “How beautiful you are, Cucarachita Martina! Will you marry me?” Once again, Martina said “Yes, but you must tell me what sound you make at night.”<br />“Oh, I say squeak, squeak” Mr. Mouse answered in a soft voice. “Oh, how wonderful!” said Cucarachita Martina, “I will marry you.” <br />One day Cucarachita Martina was going shopping, so she asked her husband, Mr. Mouse to watch the food cooking on the stove. She warned him not to look inside the pot because he might fall in.<br />But Mr. Mouse could not resist the delicious smell of what was cooking and decided to try some of the stew. His curiosity got the best of him, and he climbed up on the pot. Just as he was ready to taste the stew, he fell into the pot and died!<br />When Cucarachita Martina returned home she could not find Little Mouse Perez. She called, but no one answered. She became very frightened and worried. Then she remembered the pot that she had asked him to watch and thought that he might have fallen in. And so she looked in the pot and found poor Mr. Mouse Perez dead. After crying with sorrow for the Little Mouse Perez, she went outside to the door of her house and sat in a chair and began to sing:<br />Poor Little Mouse Perez<br />he fell into the pot<br />for a taste of food<br />that he never got.<br /> <br />http://www.coedu.usf.edu/culture/Story/Story_Cuba_girl.htm<br />
  18. 18. Teacher Notes<br />Brer Rabbit<br />Brer Rabbit is a trickster rabbit. It is said that this character comes from Leuk-Le-Livre, a West African folktale.<br /> One fine morning, Brer Fox decided to plant him a patch of goober peas. He set to with a will and before you know it, he had raked and hoed out a beautiful patch of ground and he put in a fine planting of peas. It didn't take too long before those goober vines grew tall and long and the peas ripened up good and smart. <br />Now Brer Rabbit, he'd watched Brer Fox planting the goobers and he told his children and Miz Rabbit where they could find the patch. Soon as those peas were ripe, the little Rabbits and Brer Rabbit would sneak on in and grab up them goobers by the handfuls. It got so bad that when Brer Fox came to the goober patch, he could hardly find a pea to call his own. <br />Well, Brer Fox, he was plenty mad that he'd worked so hard on those peas only to have them eaten by someone else. He suspected that Brer Rabbit was to blame for this, but the rascally rabbit had covered his tracks so well that Brer Fox couldn't catch him. So Brer Fox came up with a plan. He found a smooth spot in his fence where a cunning rabbit could sneak in, and he set a trap for Brer Rabbit at that spot. He tied a rope to a nearby hickory sapling and bent it nearly double. Then he took the other end of the rope and made a loop knot that he fastened with a trigger right around the hole in the fence. If anybody came through the crack to steal his peas, the knot would tighten around their body, the sapling would spring upright, and they would be left hanging from the tree for everyone to see. <br />The next morning, Brer Rabbit came a-slipping through the hole in the fence. At once, the trigger sprung, the knot tightened on his forelegs, and the hickory tree snapped upright, quick as you please. Brer Rabbit found himself swung aloft betwixt the heaven and the earth, swinging from the hickory sapling. He couldn't go up and he couldn't go down. He just went back and forth. <br />Brer Rabbit was in a fix, no mistake. He was trying to come up with some glib explanation for Brer Fox when he heard someone a-rumbling and a-bumbling down the road. It was Brer Bear, looking for a bee-tree so he could get him some honey. As soon as Brer Rabbit saw Brer Bear, he came up with a plan to get himself free. <br />"Howdy, Brer Bear," he called cheerfully. Brer Bear squinted around here and there, wondering where the voice had come from. Then he looked up and saw Brer Rabbit swinging from the sapling. <br />
  19. 19. Teacher Notes<br />Brer Rabbit Continued:<br />"Howdy Brer Rabbit," he rumbled. "How are you this morning?" <br />"Middling, Brer Bear," Rabbit replied. "Just middling." <br />Brer Bear was wondering why Brer Rabbit was up in the tree, so he asked him about it. Brer Rabbit grinned and said that he was earning a dollar-a-minute from Brer Fox. <br />"A dollar-a-minute!" Brer Bear exclaimed. "What for?" <br />"I'm keeping the crows away from his goober patch," Brer Rabbit explained, and went on to say that Brer Fox was paying a dollar-a-minute to whomever would act as a scarecrow for him. <br />Well, Brer Bear liked the sound of that. He had a big family to feed, and he could use the money. When Brer Rabbit asked him if he would like to have the job, Brer Bear agreed. Brer Rabbit showed him how to bend the sapling down and remove the knot from his forepaws. When Brer Rabbit was free, Brer Bear climbed into the knot and soon he was hanging aloft betwixt heaven and earth, swing to and from the sapling and growling at the birds to keep them away from the goober patch. <br />Brer Rabbit laughed and laughed at the sight of Brer Bear up in the sapling. He scampered down the road to Brer Fox's place and told him that his trap was sprung and the goober thief was hanging from the hickory tree. Brer Fox grabbed his walking stick and ran down the road after Brer Rabbit. When he saw Brer Bear hanging there, Brer Fox called him a goober thief. Brer Fox ranted and raved and threatened to hit Brer Bear with his walking stick. He yelled so loud that Brer Bear didn't have time to explain nothing! <br />Brer Rabbit knew that Brer Bear would be plenty mad at him when he found out he had been tricked, and so he ran down the road and hid in the mud beside the pond, so that only his eyeballs stuck out, making him look like a big old bullfrog. By and by, a very grumpy Brer Bear came lumbering down the road. <br />"Howdy, Brer Bullfrog," Brer Bear said when he saw Brer Rabbit's eyes sticking out of the mud. "You seen Brer Rabbit anywhere?" <br />"Brer Rabbit jest ran on down the road," he told the grumpy Brer Bear in a deep croaking voice that sounded just like the voice of a frog. Brer Bear thanked him and trotted down the road, growling fiercely. <br />When Brer Bear was out of sight, Brer Rabbit jumped out of the mud. He washed himself off in the pond and then scampered home, chuckling to himself at how he'd escaped from Brer Fox and Brer Bear, and already thinking up a new way to get into Brer Fox's goober patch to get him some peas to eat. <br />
  20. 20. Teacher Notes<br />Additional African Folktales:<br />The Cow-Tail Switch, Retold by Harold Courlander and George Herzog<br />Time, Source Unknown<br />The Bachelors and the Python, A Central African Tale, http://darsie.ucdavis.edu/tales/python.html<br />The King and Kuffie, A Tale of Yoruba Origin Told by African Americans in the South, From Terrapin’s Pot of Sense by Harold Courlander. Published by Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1957. Copyright by Harold Courlander. 1957<br />