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Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
Developing the curriculum chapter 9
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Developing the curriculum chapter 9

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  • 1. CHAPTER 9:ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTINGTHE CURRICULUMDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  • 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Describe and state strengths and weaknesses of various plansand proposals for organizing and implementing the curriculum.• Relate each organizational arrangement discussed in thischapter to (a) the psychological and sociological circumstancesof the public school and (b) the achievement of one or moreaims of education or curriculum goals at each of the threeschool levels: elementary, middle, and senior high.• Specify several curriculum goals for the elementary, middle,or senior high school level, and then choose or design anddefend a curriculum organization plan that you believe willmost satisfactorily result in accomplishment of these goals.
  • 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-3ASSESSING CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION• The question is often posed to curriculum workers:“How shall we go about organizing thecurriculum?”
  • 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-4ASSESSING CURRICULUMORGANIZATION• The literature often appears to make one of twoassumptions:1. Curriculum planners regularly have theopportunity to initiate a curriculum in a brand newschool for which no curriculum frameworks yetexist.2. Curriculum developers automatically have thefreedom to discard that which now exists andreplace it with frameworks of their own choosing.
  • 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-5ASSESSING CURRICULUMORGANIZATION• Both assumptions are likely to be erroneousbecause:○ The development of a curriculum for a brand new schooldoes provide the opportunity for curriculum planning fromthe ground floor, so to speak. But even that planning mustbe carried out within certain boundaries, including localtraditions, state and district mandates, and the curricula ofother schools of the district with which they mustarticulate.○ Curriculum planners cannot expect simply to substitute asthey wish new frameworks of curriculum organization forold. Again, we face certain parameters: student needs,teacher preferences, administrators’ values, communitysentiment, physical restrictions, and financial resources.
  • 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-6SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES, PROGRAMS,AND PRACTICES• Systems and structures—how schools organize anddeliver the curriculum— are arranged by statesand school districts as means to address the needsof the diverse general population.• From a broad perspective, the American schoolsystem is large and varies from state to state. Itreflects our values and our culture and continues tochange as our country evolves. Once constantremains, twelve years of schooling is the norm.
  • 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-7SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES, PROGRAMS,AND PRACTICES• The curriculum developers of the past and presenthave designed many offerings that have hadvarious degrees of impact on the classroom. Someof the curricula are still being implemented whileother programs have been discarded by thepractitioners.• In the 21stcentury we find traditional schools thatembody innovative practices or, put another way,innovative schools that have retained traditionalpractices.
  • 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-8TYPES OF SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES,PROGRAMS, AND PRACTICES• The Elementary School• The Schools for Young Adolescents○ The Junior High School○ The Middle School• The Senior High School• Magnet Schools
  • 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-9• The Elementary School○ Today’s elementary school continues to maintainits emphasis on the basic skills while at the sametime addressing other educational, physical,social, and emotional needs of pupils.○ Some elementary schools are trying innovativedepartures from traditional practices. In the nearfuture the elementary school—if it is to retainpublic support—must continue emphasis on thebasic skills, although it will intensify some of thefundamental overtones of child-centeredness.TYPES OF SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES,PROGRAMS, AND PRACTICES
  • 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-10• The Graded School○ The Quincy Grammar School of Boston, whichopened in 1848, is credited as the first school inthe United States to become completelygraded.○ The concept of the graded school gainedpopularity due to the reason that children mightbe taught more efficiently by being dividedlargely on the basis of chronological age.TYPES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
  • 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-11TYPES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS• The Graded School○ The concept of the graded school, aided by themeasurement movement in education, has firmlyestablished the principle that certain learningsshould be accomplished by pupils, not at certainperiods of growth and development, but by theend of certain grade levels. Syllabi, courses ofstudy, and minimal competencies or standardsand benchmarks have been determined for eachgrade level. State content standards have beenspecified for various fields of instruction.
  • 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-12TYPES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS• Self-Contained, Subject-Oriented Classrooms○ A typical week in a self-contained, subject-oriented elementary school calls for separatesubjects scheduled at specific and regular timesduring the day.○ Today, the self-contained, subject-orientedclassroom is the norm, but that was not alwaysthe case in our nation’s history.
  • 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-13TYPES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS• The Activity Curriculum○ In the late 1920s, through the 1930s, and intothe 1940s, many elementary schools abandonedthe subject-matter curriculum for the activity, orexperience, curriculum.○ The activity (or experience) curriculum was anattempt by educators to break away from therigidity of the graded school and was founded asa result the efforts of two well knowProgressivists: John Dewey and Junius L.Merriam.
  • 14. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-14TYPES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS• The Nongraded Elementary School○ The nongraded elementary school, following plans thatpermit continuous progress, evolved as an alternativeto the graded school in the 1930s and leveled off in1960s.○ When we speak of the nongraded school, we refer toschools that have abandoned grade-level designationsrather than marks.○ In a nongraded school, typical grade levels andstandards for those levels are absent. Children aregrouped for instruction according to their particularneeds and they progress through the program at theirown speed. Effort is made to individualize instruction.
  • 15. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-15TYPES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS• Open Education and Open Space○ Several years ago many school districts adoptedthe concept of open education or open space topermit innovative approaches such as flexiblegrouping, individualized instruction,nongradedness, or, simply, the open school.○ Common sights in the open-area schools werelarge expanses of classroom space, groups of ahundred or more pupils spread out and engaged ina variety of activities at many stations within theareas, and teams of teachers working withindividuals, small groups, and large groups oflearners.
  • 16. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-16THE SCHOOLS FOR YOUNGADOLESCENTS• The Junior High School○ Offering a basic general education and exploratoryexperiences, the junior high school spread rapidlythrough the first half of the twentieth century.○ The junior high school became more and more likeits higher-level companion with completedepartmentalization of courses, senior-highscheduling patterns, and a subject-mattercurriculum.○ The Core Curriculum is widely associated with theJunior High School
  • 17. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-17THE SCHOOLS FOR YOUNGADOLESCENTS• Although varying in structure and focus, corecurricula, as described in this chapter, possess thefollowing characteristics:○ They constitute a portion of the curriculum that is required forall students.○ They integrate, unify, or fuse subject matter, usually Englishand social studies.○ Their content centers on problems that cut across thedisciplines.○ The primary method of learning is problem solving, using allapplicable subject matter.○ They are organized into blocks of time, usually two to threeperiods under a “core” teacher (with possible use of additionalteachers and others as resource persons).○ They provide pupil guidance.
  • 18. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-18THE SCHOOLS FOR YOUNGADOLESCENTS• MIDDLE SCHOOLS○ Although junior high schools still exist in somecommunities most have been transformed into amiddle school that consists of three grades (sixthrough eight) for preadolescents.○ The transformation of the junior high school into amiddle school should not be perceived as areorganization of but one level of the school system.○ Middle schools are designed to meet the physical,social, and emotional growth needs of preadolescentsas well as their educational demands.
  • 19. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-19THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL• The Subject-Matter Curriculum○ The subject-matter curriculum has been the mostprevalent form of curriculum organization at all levels ofAmerican education and remains the most commonpattern of organization throughout most of the world.○ As the name implies, the subject-matter curriculum isan organizational pattern that breaks the school’sprogram into discrete subjects or disciplines.○ Essentialistic in outlook, the subject-matter curriculumseeks to transmit the cultural heritage. The subjects ordisciplines organize knowledge from the adult world insuch a way that it can be transmitted to the immaturelearner.
  • 20. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-20THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL• The Subject-Matter Curriculum○ The subject matter is organized into “courses” thatare designated as either required subjects orelectives. Every subject of the secondary school istypically scheduled for the same amount of time.○ The content of the subject-matter curriculum, unlikethat of the experience curriculum, is planned inadvance by the teacher or, more accurately, by thewriters of the textbooks or curriculum guides that theteacher follows. The needs and interests of learnersplay only a minor part in the curriculum that isorganized around disciplines.
  • 21. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-21THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL• The Broad-Fields Curriculum○ In the early part of the twentieth century a pattern ofcurriculum organization that attempted to unify andintegrate content of related disciplines around broadthemes or principles was the standard.○ For example, history A (ancient), history B (modern),and history C (American), as existed in the secondaryschool curriculum of New York State schools well intothe 1930s, were converted into broad fields anddesignated simply tenth-grade social studies,eleventh-grade social studies, and twelfth-gradesocial studies.
  • 22. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-22THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL• The Broad-Fields Curriculum○ In a true broad-fields approach, teachers selectcertain general themes or principles to bestudied at each year of the sequence of adiscipline such as social studies.
  • 23. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-23THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL• The senior high school is involved in efforts toestablish a quality comprehensive model, to furnisha number of alternatives both within and outsidethe school system, and to reinforce higherrequirements for graduation.
  • 24. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-24MAGNET SCHOOLS• The concept of choice in education is certainlyappealing and aligns with democratic tradition.Some states have implemented strong academic orvocational programs in specialties, that appeal toyoung people, that are not adequately provided, ifat all, in the traditional schools.
  • 25. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-25CONCURRENT PROGRAMS ANDPRACTICES• There are many models of programs that areimplemented affecting the way in which schoolsdeliver the curriculum. Some examples are:○ Technology in Education○ Alternative Schools○ Programs for Exceptional Student Education(ESE)○ Programs for At-Risk Students○ Programs for English Language Learners (ELL)○ Differentiated Instruction○ Team Teaching
  • 26. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-26THE CALL TO REFORM• With state assessments to comply with the NoChild Left Behind Act of 2001 in grades 3–8 and atleast once in high school, plus state exit examsrequired in many states, it has become moredifficult for high school students to earn a diploma—a fact that may satisfy a long-held wish of boththe public and the profession to make the highschool diploma a symbol of a more reasonablestandard of academic achievement.
  • 27. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-27THE CALL TO REFORM• Efforts to create voucher plans, proposals for tuitiontax credits, and competition from private schoolshave contributed to forcing the public schools toreassess their programs.• Although schools are now on a cognitive swing, theyare not likely to abandon the psychomotor domainnor eliminate affective learnings from the curriculum.Two generations of progressive doctrine, with itsconcern for the whole child instead of solely theintellect, cannot be—nor should it be—lightlydiscarded.
  • 28. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-28THE CALL TO REFORM• As a result, no single standardized model ofsecondary education—nor of elementary or middleschools, for that matter—is likely to be acceptableto all the school systems in the United States.
  • 29. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved9-29FINAL THOUGHTS:• As curriculum planners proceed with their task ofdeveloping the curriculum, they must also decideon the organizational structure within whichprograms will be implemented.• If past is prologue, some innovative practices willendure; others will fall by the wayside. What weare likely to see is a multitude of institutions withvarying programs responding to community needsand wishes in addition to state and nationalstandards.

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