Developing the curriculum chapter 8

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  • 1. CHAPTER 8:CURRICULUM GOALS,OBJECTIVES, AND PRODUCTSDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  • 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Distinguish between goals and objectives.• Distinguish between aims and education and curriculumgoals and objectives.• Distinguish between curriculum goals and objectives andinstructional goals and objectives.• Specify and write curriculum goals.• Specify and write curriculum objectives.• Construct a curriculum guide.• Construct a resource unit.• Identify sources of curriculum materials
  • 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-3HIERARCHY OF OUTCOMES• In Chapter 6 the terms “aims of education,”“curriculum goals,” “curriculum objectives,”“instructional goals,” and “instructional objectives”were introduced.
  • 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-4PROBLEMS EXIST• Several problems can be found if we research theliterature on aims, goals, and objectives. Four examples ofproblems are:○ Aims of education are often equated with goals, and in alexical sense, of course, they are the same.○ The terms “educational goals” and “educationalobjectives” are used in the profession with varyingmeanings.○ Goals are equated with objectives, and the terms areused synonymously.○ Some curriculum specialists do not distinguishcurriculum goals and objectives from instructional goalsand objectives, or they use these two sets of termssynonymously.
  • 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-5PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)• In conclusion, the language of curriculum issomewhat imprecise and can lead to confusion.Curriculum specialists, unfortunately, do not agreeamong themselves on terminology.
  • 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-6DEFINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES• Curriculum Goals:○ A curriculum goal is a purpose or end stated ingeneral terms without criteria of achievement.○ Aims of education can become curriculum goalswhen applied to a particular school or system.○ The distinction drawn between aims of educationand curriculum goals is one of generality (orlooking at it from the other end of the telescope,specificity).
  • 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-7DEFINING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES• Curriculum Objectives:○ A curriculum objective is a purpose or end statedin specific, measurable terms. From curriculumgoals, we derive curriculum objectives.
  • 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-8LOCUS OF CURRICULUM GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES• Curriculum goals and objectives are regularlywritten at the state, school-district, andindividual school level with the expectation thatthey will be followed within the jurisdiction of therespective level.• Curriculum goals and objectives developed atany level often cut across disciplines.
  • 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-9STATE CURRICULUM GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES• States today, through their boards or departmentsof education, exert increasing leadership bypromulgating statements of curriculum goals.• Reflecting changes in society; the global economy;the changing nature of the student clientele;competition public schools face from home, private,and charter schools; states shape policy topromote specific goals.
  • 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-10• Some states have drafted statements of curriculumgoals that cut across disciplines as well as withindisciplines. Others have concentrated on goalswithin subject fields. Still other states acceptnational goals essentially as written and may ormay not add to those goals.EXAMPLES OF STATE CURRICULUMGOALS
  • 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved8-11• State school systems, school districts, andindividual schools engage in the task of specifyingcurriculum goals and objectives. Curriculum goalsand objectives are derived from the developers’philosophy and educational aims.• In the creation of curriculum materials, both theprocess and product are important. Examples ofcurriculum materials can be acquired from anumber of sources.FINAL THOUGHTS