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# Developing the curriculum chapter 5

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### Developing the curriculum chapter 5

1. 1. CHAPTER 5:MODELS FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENTDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
2. 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Analyze each model for curriculum development inthis chapter and decide which models, if any, meetthe necessary criteria for such a model.• Choose one model and carry out one or more of itscomponents in your school.• Distinguish between deductive and inductivemodels for curriculum development.• Distinguish between linear and nonlinear modelsfor curriculum development.• Distinguish between prescriptive and descriptivemodels for curriculum development.
3. 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-3SELECTING MODELS• Models, which are essentially patterns serving asguidelines to action, can be found for almost everyform of educational activity.• Unfortunately, the term model as used in theeducation profession often lacks precision. A modelmay:○ propose a solution to a piece of a problem○ attempt to solve to a specific problem○ create or replicate a pattern on a grander scale.
4. 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-4VARIATION IN MODELS• Individual models are often refined or revised due tothe current trends that are impacting the educationalclimate.• Therefore, practitioners have a responsibility tounderstand the essential components of curriculummodels.
5. 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-5MODELS FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT• By examining models for curriculum development,we can analyze the phases their originatorsconceived as essential to the process.• Using a model in such an activity as curriculumdevelopment can result in greater efficiency andproductivity
6. 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-6MODELS FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT• The three models described in this chapter aremostly linear; that is, they propose a certain orderor sequence of progression through the varioussteps.• The term “linear” is used for models whose stepsproceed in a more or less sequential, straight linefrom beginning to end.
7. 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-7MODELS FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT• The three models discussed in this book are eitherdeductive or inductive:○ A deductive model proceeds from the general(examining the needs of society, for example) tothe specific (specifying instructional objectives,for example).○ An inductive model starts with the developmentof curriculum materials and leads togeneralization.
8. 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-8MODELS FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT• The three models presented in this chapter areprescriptive rather than descriptive:○ they suggest what ought to be done (and what isdone by many curriculum developers).• Curriculum workers should exercise judgment as tothe entry points and interrelationships ofcomponents of the models.
9. 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-9• The three models addressed in this chapter are:1. The Tyler Model2. The Taba Model3. The Oliva ModelMODELS FOR CURRICULUMDEVELOPMENT
10. 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-10THE TYLER MODEL• The Tyler Model is:○ one of the best known models for curriculumdevelopment.○ known for the special attention it gives to theplanning phases.○ deductive for it proceeds from the general(examining the needs of society, for example) tothe specific (specifying instructional objectives).
11. 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-11THE TYLER MODEL• Tyler recommends that curriculum plannersidentify general objectives by gathering data fromthree sources:○ the learners○ contemporary life outside the school○ subject matter.• After identifying numerous general objectives, theplanners refine them by filtering them throughtwo screens:○ the philosophical screen○ the psychological screen
12. 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-12THE TYLER MODEL• In the Tyler Model, the general objectives thatsuccessfully pass through the two screens becomewhat are now popularly known as instructionalobjectives.
13. 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-13THE TABA MODEL• Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should bedesigned by the teachers rather than handed downby higher authority.• Further, she felt that teachers should begin theprocess by creating specific teaching-learning unitsfor their students in their schools rather than byengaging initially in creating a general curriculumdesign.
14. 14. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-14THE TABA MODEL• Taba advocated an inductive approach tocurriculum development.• In the inductive approach, curriculum workersstart with the specifics and build up to a generaldesign as opposed to the more traditionaldeductive approach of starting with the generaldesign and working down to the specifics.
15. 15. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-15THE OLIVA MODEL• The Oliva Model is a deductive model that offers afaculty a process for the complete development ofa school’s curriculum.• Oliva recognized the needs of students in particularcommunities are not always the same as thegeneral needs of students throughout our society.
16. 16. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-16THE OLIVA MODELIn the Oliva Model a faculty can fashion a plan:• for the curriculum of an area and design ways inwhich it will be carried out through instruction• to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programsthat cut across areas of specialization such ascareer education, guidance, and class activities.• for a faculty to focus on the curricular componentsof the model to make programmatic decisions.• to allow a faculty to concentrate on theinstructional components.
17. 17. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-17CONSIDERATIONSCurriculum Planners might agree that the modelshould show the following:• major components of the process, including stagesof planning, implementation, and evaluation• customary but not inflexible “beginning” and“ending” points• the relationship between curriculum and instruction• distinctions between curriculum and instructionalgoals and objectives• reciprocal relationships among components
18. 18. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-18CONSIDERATIONS• Continued:○ a cyclical pattern○ feedback lines○ the possibility of entry at any point in the cycle○ an internal consistency and logic○ enough simplicity to be intelligible and feasible○ components in the form of a diagram or chart
19. 19. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved5-19A FINAL THOUGHT:• Those who take leadership in curriculumdevelopment should become familiar with variousmodels and try them out. In doing so, they canselect or develop a model that is mostunderstandable and feasible for them and for thepersons with whom they are working.