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Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
Developing the curriculum chapter 4
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Developing the curriculum chapter 4

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  • 1. CHAPTER 4:CURRICULUM PLANNING:The Human DimensionDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  • 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Describe the roles of (a) the principal, (b) thecurriculum leader, (c) the teachers, (d) thestudents, and (e) the parents and other citizens incurriculum development.• Describe the knowledge and skills needed by thecurriculum leader.
  • 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-3THE SCHOOL AS A UNIQUE BLEND• Each school is characterized by its own uniqueblend of persons, each with differentskills, knowledge, experience, and personality. Thecontributions to curriculum improvement that maybe made by students, parents, and others from thecommunity enhance the work of the professionals.• Curriculum development is a “people” process, ahuman endeavor. It is a process in which thehuman players accept and carry out mutuallyreinforcing roles. The “people” factor far outweighsthe physical setting.
  • 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-4THE CAST OF PLAYERS• Curriculum participants play roles in the curriculumdevelopment process. Examples of roles are:○ Administrators○ Students○ Laypeople○ Teachers
  • 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-5THE CAST OF PLAYERS:ADMINISTRATORS• Professional associations for administratorsrecognize the importance of instructionalleadership. With continuing emphasis on theindividual school as the locus of change, on publicdemand for improvement in students’achievement, on state and federal mandates, andon the assessment of teacher performance, thereare signs that the principals’ priorities have shiftedsomewhat and their presence is felt on allcurriculum groups and subgroups of the school.
  • 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-6THE CAST OF PLAYERS: STUDENTS• The student, the recipient of the curriculum, isoften in the best position to provide feedbackabout the product—the curriculum.• Students, depending upon their maturity, canparticipate both directly and indirectly in the taskof improving the curriculum.• Even in those schools in which student input is notactively sought the learners speak loudly by theirachievements in class and on tests.
  • 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-7THE CAST OF PLAYERS: LAYPEOPLE• The literature on professional education is filledwith discussions of the necessity for involving thecommunity in the educational process.• Today, parents and other citizens serve onnumerous advisory committees. Schools frequentlycall on parents and others to serve as resourcepersons and volunteer aides. Across the country,especially in urban areas, local businesses haveentered into partnerships with the schools,supplementing and enriching the schools’ curriculaby providing expertise, materials, and funds.
  • 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-8THE CAST OF PLAYERS: TEACHERS• This group of persons working together carries theheaviest burden in seeking to improve thecurriculum.• Teachers participate at all stages in curriculumdevelopment. They initiate proposals and carry themout in their classrooms. They reviewproposals, gather data, conduct research, makecontact with parents and other laypeople, write andcreate curriculum materials, evaluate resources, tryout new ideas, obtain feedback from learners, andevaluate programs.
  • 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-9• Neither technical expertise nor knowledge aboutcurriculum theory can substitute for a curriculumleader’s knowledge of and aptitude for groupprocess. Skills in the following 4 areas areessential to the role of curriculum leader:1. The Change Process2. Interpersonal Relations3. Leadership skills4. Communication SkillsTHE CURRICULUM LEADER ANDGROUP PROCESS
  • 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-10LEADERSHIP SKILLS• Leadership style is a potent factor in theproductivity of groups.• Examples of research on leadership suggests thatthe leader in curriculum development should:○ seek to develop a democratic approach○ seek to develop a relationship-oriented style○ keep the group on task and avoid excessiveprocessing○ avoid a laissez-faire approach
  • 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-11COMMUNICATION SKILLS• The leader must demonstrate proficiency in twoways:1. He or she must possess a high degreeof communication skill.2. He or she must also be able to helpgroup members to increase theirproficiency in communicating.
  • 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-12COMMUNICATION SKILLS• Strong communication skills are a necessity for acurriculum leader to be successful in influencing agroup.• There are three categories of common problemsthat occur when communicating:1. oral communication or those that oraland written communication share2. written communication3. nonverbal behavior or the absencethereof.
  • 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved4-13A FINAL THOUGHT:• Curriculum development is the planned effort of aduly organized group (or groups) that seeks tomake intelligent decisions in order to effect changein the curriculum. Both leaders and followers needto develop skills in group process. Among thecompetencies necessary for the curriculum leaderare skills in producing change, in decisionmaking, in interpersonal relationships, in leadinggroups, and in communicating. Humaninstitutions, like human beings, must change ifthey are to continue growing and developing.Institutions, however, tend to preserve the statusquo.

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