Developing the curriculum chapter 11

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Developing the curriculum chapter 11

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11:SELECTING AND IMPLEMENTINGSTRATEGIES OF INSTRUCTIONDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  2. 2. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Define style, model, method, and skills of teachingand state how each relates to the selection ofinstructional strategies.• Distinguish between generic and specific teachingskills.• Present a rationale for using a unit plan.• Relate daily lesson planning to long-rangeplanning.
  3. 3. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-3DECIDING ON INSTRUCTIONALSTRATEGIES• In this text, “strategy” broadly encompasses themethods, procedures, and techniques the teacheruses to present the subject matter to the studentsand to bring about desired outcomes.• Among the common instructional strategies are thelecture, small-group discussion, independent study,library research, mediated instruction, repetitive drill,and laboratory work.
  4. 4. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-4DECIDING ON INSTRUCTIONALSTRATEGIES• The teacher must decide how many days he or shewill devote to the topic, whether to use any or all ofthe approaches considered, which approach to usefirst, and how to put the selected approachestogether.
  5. 5. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-5SOURCES OF STRATEGIES• Instructional strategies are derived from a numberof sources including:○ The objectives○ The subject matter○ The pupil○ The community○ The teacher
  6. 6. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-6SOURCES OF STRATEGIES• Objectives as Source• When considering objectives as a source:○ The choice of strategies is limited at the onset bythe specified instructional objectives. Althoughan almost infinite number of techniques forcarrying out instruction may exist, only a finitenumber apply to any particular objective.
  7. 7. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-7SOURCES OF STRATEGIES• Subject Matter as Source• When considering the subject matter as a source:○ The teacher must zero in on the subject matterand determine what principal facts,understandings, attitudes, appreciations, andskills must be mastered by the learners.○ An example of selecting strategies in subjectmatter is if we are teaching a course in servicingcomputers. certain operations must bemastered, such as removing and replacing ahard drive, installing programs and software,and clearing the computer of viruses.
  8. 8. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-8SOURCES OF STRATEGIES• Pupil as a Source• When considering the pupil as a source:○ The teacher should enlist the aid of students inboth long-range and short-range planning forinstruction.○ The teacher cannot assume, for example, that hisor her purposes are identical to the students’purposes in studying a subject; he or she must,therefore, make an effort to discover studentpurposes.○ When initiating a topic, the teacher should helpstudents identify personal reasons they might havefor studying the material.
  9. 9. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-9• Community as Source• When considering the community as a source:○ The desires of parents, the type of community,tradition, and convention all play a part indetermining classroom strategies. An example ishow sexuality education, may alarm parents inmany communities.○ Understanding the dynamics of a community is akey component in planning strategies.SOURCES OF STRATEGIES
  10. 10. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-10SOURCES OF STRATEGIES• Teacher as Source• When considering teachers as a source:○ Instructional strategies must conform to:1.The teacher’s personal style of teaching.2.The model or models of instructing that theteacher follows.○ Teachers should analyze the particular style ofteaching they project and the models they findmost suitable for their particular style and shouldexpand their repertoires by developing morethan a single model of teaching.
  11. 11. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-11STYLES OF TEACHING• A style of teaching is a set of personalcharacteristics and traits that clearly identify theindividual as a unique teacher.• As the human beings we all are, teachersunconsciously adopt certain styles that emulate theway they learn or have been taught.
  12. 12. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-12STYLES OF LEARNING• A teaching style cannot be selected in the sameway an instructional strategy can. Style is notsomething that can be readily switched on andoff. Teachers must be aware that their teachingstyles can at times be at cross-purposes to theirpupils’ style of learning.
  13. 13. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-13MODELS OF TEACHING• A model is a generalized pattern of behavior thatcan be learned and imitated.• Whereas style of teaching is a personalized set ofteacher behaviors, a model of teaching is ageneralized set of behaviors that emphasizes aparticular strategy or set of strategies.
  14. 14. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-14MODELS OF TEACHING• Need for Variety○ Constant exposure to a single model can lead torestlessness and boredom on the part ofstudents.○ A model must be compatible with both theteacher’s style and the students’ styles oflearning.
  15. 15. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-15TEACHING SKILLS• We may define generic teaching skills as thoseinstructional skills or competencies that are generalin nature and can be employed by teachers in anyfield and at any level.• Special teaching skills are defined as specific abilitiesthat must be demonstrated by teachers in aparticular field or level.
  16. 16. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-16TEACHING: ART OR SCIENCE?• The question whether teaching is an art or sciencehas been debated for decades.○ The “Art” of teaching refers to the skills and theabilities of the teacher to affect the instruction.○ The “Science” of teaching refers to generic skills ofthe teacher including the identification of genericteaching skills, the specification of instructionalobjectives, sequencing of content, national andstate standards of achievement, and typicalassessments.
  17. 17. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-17ORGANIZING FOR INSTRUCTION• Both long-range and short-range planning arerequired when planning for instruction.• Two types of short-range planning:○ unit plan○ daily plan
  18. 18. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-18ORGANIZING FOR INSTRUCTION• The Unit Plan:○ The unit plan—also called a “learning unit,”“teaching unit,” or simply, “unit”—is a means oforganizing the instructional components forteaching a particular topic or theme.○ The unit plan ordinarily covers a period fromseveral days to several weeks. A series of unitsmight actually constitute a particular course.
  19. 19. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-19ORGANIZING FOR INSTRUCTION• The Daily Plan:○ The daily plan organizes the instructionalcomponents of the day’s lesson(s).○ Daily plans serve as a source in designing unitplans.○ Ordinarily, instructional planning progressesfrom course to unit to daily plans.
  20. 20. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-20ORGANIZING FOR INSTRUCTION• Planning for instruction involves selecting thefollowing components:○ Goals○ Objectives○ Strategies○ Learning resources○ Evaluation techniques
  21. 21. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-21PRESENTATION OF INSTRUCTION• This book is devoted to curriculum developmentbut there is now a large body of research oneffective presentation of instruction.• Some areas to consider are:○ Personalized instruction○ Differentiated instruction○ Scaffolding○ Cooperative Learning○ Technology
  22. 22. Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved11-22A FINAL THOUGHT:• Instructional strategies, styles of teaching, andteaching skills are all selected, adopted, andimplemented to successfully fulfill instructionalgoals and objectives. The ultimate purpose of allstrategies, styles, models, and skills is the fosteringof student achievement.

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