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Developing the curriculum chapter 10 Developing the curriculum chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 10:INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS ANDOBJECTIVESDeveloping the CurriculumEighth EditionPeter F. OlivaWilliam R. Gordon II
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-2AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO:• Identify the three major domains of learning.• List the major categories of learnings from onetaxonomy of each of the three domains• Explain the relationships between curriculum goals andobjectives and instructional goals and objectives.• Distinguish between instructional goals and instructionalobjectives.• Be able to identify and write instructional goals in eachof the three domains.• Be able to identify and write instructional objectives ineach of the three domains.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-3A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE HIERARCHY OFOUTCOMES DISCUSSED IN CHAPTER 8• At the top of the hierarchy are aims of educationfrom which the school’s curriculum goals andobjectives are derived. In turn, the curriculum goalsand objectives serve as sources of the instructionalgoals and objectives. Aims are stated by prominentindividuals and groups for national, and sometimeseven international, consideration. Curriculum goalsand objectives are formulated by individual schooland school system curriculum groups. Instructionalgoals and objectives are specified by the classroomteacher, who is sometimes assisted by other teachersand local curriculum groups.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-4INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES DEFINED• The thesis of this chapter is that, regardless of theteacher’s model or style of teaching, curriculumgoals and objectives are more likely to beaccomplished and students more likely todemonstrate mastery of learning if instructionalgoals and objectives are specified before startinginstruction.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-5INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES DEFINED• Instructional goals and objectives are directlyrelated to the previously specified curriculum goalsand objectives. Instructional goals provide directionfor specifying instructional objectives.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-6INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL DEFINED• An instructional goal is a statement of performanceexpected of each student in a class, phrased ingeneral terms without criteria of achievement.• An example of an instructional goal is: The studentwill show an understanding of the “stock market.”It indicates the performance expected of thelearner, but the performance is not stated in such afashion that its attainment can be readilymeasured.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-7INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVE DEFINED• An instructional objective is a statement ofperformance to be demonstrated by each studentin the class, derived from an instructional goal andphrased in measurable and observable terms.• The following statement is an example of aninstructional objective: “The student will convertthe following fractions to percentages with 100percent accuracy: 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 3/4.”
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-8THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVESWhether to use behavioral objectives or not is adebate that has raged among educators for years.Supporters of behavioral objectives argue that thisapproach to instruction:○ forces the teacher to be precise about what is tobe accomplished○ enables the teacher to communicate to pupilswhat they must achieve○ simplifies evaluation○ makes accountability possible○ makes sequencing easier
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-9• is a waste of time• is dehumanizing• restricts creativity• leads to trivial competenciesTHE OPPONENTS OF BEHAVIORALOBJECTIVES HOLD THAT WRITINGBEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES:
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-10• The writing of instructional goals and behavioralobjectives forces teachers to identify theoutcomes they seek. The practice of identifyingand writing both, instructional goals andobjectives, has considerable merit.INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS ANDBEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-11GUIDELINES FOR PREPARINGINSTRUCTIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVESInstructional goals and objectives should:○ relate to the already specified curriculum goalsand objectives○ be specified for three domains of learning—thecognitive, affective, and psychomotor—whenever applicable○ be identified at both low and high levels oflearning with greater emphasis on the higher○ follow a few simple rules of writing
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-12SPECIFICATION OF BEHAVIORALOBJECTIVES• Three current emphases in instruction serve as aguide for teachers in the specifying behavioralobjectives. The areas are:1. The development of critical thinking skills.2. The integration of the curriculum throughthematic interdisciplinary units.3. Recognition of intelligence as multiple, rather thanglobal.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-13RELATIONSHIP TO CURRICULUM GOALSAND OBJECTIVES• Instructional goals and objectives should bederived from curriculum goals and objectives thatshould be familiar to the teacher.• The distinctions between curriculum andinstructional goals and objectives matter only tothe extent that neither of the two sets isoverlooked.• Whatever the degree of congruence, there is adirect and natural progression from curriculum goalto instructional objective.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-14DOMAINS OF LEARNING• The instructional goals and objectives should bespecified for three domains of learning:1. The cognitive2. The affective3. The psychomotor
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-15DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEARNING• Examples of the different types of learning are:○ knowledge of the system of election primaries(cognative)○ enjoyment in reading (affective)○ skill in laying bricks (psychomotor)• Normally, the domains overlap; each possesseselements of the other and teachers should identifyand write instructional goals and objectives in allthree domains, making allowances for the nature ofthe subject matter.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-16CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS• The use of a cognitive classification system enablesteachers to distinguish between higher and lowerorder objectives. Noted classification systems are:○ The BloomTaxonomy○ The Anderson-Krathwohl Taxonomy○ The Marzano-Kendall Taxonomy○ Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge (DOK).
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-17CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS• Affective learning has typically held a lesser position.Affective objectives are both difficult to identify andextremely difficult—often impossible—to measure,and these difficulties constitute another reason whyteachers tend to shy away from the affective domain.If affective learnings should be taught and valuesshould be among those learnings, then identifyingcommon values is an essential task for the curriculumplanner.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-18CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS• Classification systems of the psychomotor domaindo exist, but they seem not to be as widely knownas those of the other two domains.• Classification systems in the three domains serveas guidelines that can lead to more effectiveinstruction.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-19RULES FOR WRITING• The instructional objective must include behaviorexpected of the learner as a result of exposure toinstruction.• To help with the writing of instructional objectives,the teacher may wish to develop lists of behaviorally-oriented verbs such as:○ identify○ analyze○ design
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-20RULES FOR WRITING• Additionally, the following must be consideredwhen writing instructional objectives:○ Teachers must specify conditions under whichthe behavior is demonstrated.○ Teachers must include criterion of mastery ifapplicable.• Teachers must add a stability component.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-21VALIDATING AND DETERMINING PRIORITY OFINSTRUCTIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES• Teachers should validate instructional goals andobjectives and determine which are appropriateand which are the more important.• Instructional goals and objectives are content-specific and are not normally submitted forvalidation with any regularity.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-22VALIDATING AND DETERMINING PRIORITY OFINSTRUCTIONAL GOALS AND OBJECTIVES• Instructors validate instructional goals andobjectives and place them in order of priority byreferring to text materials written by experts andby seeking the judgments of knowledgeablecolleagues, supervisors, and consultants from bothwithin and outside the school system. A teachershould have a foundation both in the subjectmatter being taught and in the methods forteaching that subject matter.
  • Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.© 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved10-23A FINAL THOUGHT:• Instructional goals and objectives are directlyrelated to the previously specified curriculum goalsand objectives. Instructional goals provide directionfor specifying instructional objectives.