An Enterprise Architecture
                Development Framework
The Enterprise Reference Maps, Single Page Architecture, ...
© Copyright 2005-2009 by Adrian Grigoriu


     The copyright for any material created by the author is reserved. No part ...
“I enjoyed reading this book. It was as if Grigoriu had laid out all the business and
IT elements that make up an enterpri...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.ABOUT THE BOOK ..........................................................................................
Enables Outsourcing and Mergers & Acquisitions
           Improves Risk Management
      COMMUNICATION, COLLABORATION AND ...
9.THE FUNCTION-FLOW-LAYER-VIEW (FFLV) FRAMEWORK DESIGN .............................................................      ...
BUSINESS AND OPERATING MODEL, VALUE CHAIN ...................................................................................
APPLICATIONS INVENTORY ......................................................................................................
SELECT AN EA TOOL SET TO SUPPORT THE FRAMEWORK ..............................................................................
EA FRAMEWORK FOR SECURITY ARCHITECTURE ......................................................................................
Not using EA tools
            The vast knowledge required and paucity of Enterprise Architects
            Roadblocks rec...
Chapter 2




1. EA provides a competitive edge to the Enterprise

  Due to the growing complexity of technology, the dail...
To repair a car, the mechanic has to know its blueprint and, based on it, its
operation. To design a car or improve it the...
Chapter 2: EA provides a competitive edge to the Enterprise

Review checklist

1. What is the hypothesis of the book? What...
Chapter 3




2. The Problem and Drivers for Change

  The Problem
  Remember how many times you have spoken to a large or...
complex, after many mergers and acquisitions. The complexity makes applications
patching impossible. Adding new point solu...
Chapter 3: The Problem and Drivers for Change

structure is often the result of an organic growth and not the outcome of a...
and in general Customer Relationship, Supply Chain and all the Enterprise Support
functions. Not to mention different stra...
Chapter 3: The Problem and Drivers for Change

4. Rising worldwide business competition manifesting in

   o Rapidly reduc...
What business constantly requires from IT
1. Technology alignment to business and strategy intentions

2. Customer self se...
Chapter 3: The Problem and Drivers for Change

increasingly threatening enemies of the Enterprise: growing competition, ra...
Chapter 11




3. EA Patterns and Single Page Architecture

  EA layers are built on few simple patterns: Nodes, Lines, Ru...
o Application Servers (Java EE, .Net)
     o DB Servers (Relational, XML, Object, Hierarchical… DBMSs)
     o Web Servers ...
Nodes & Lines patterns and Technologies at each EA layer
                                                                 ...
The Single Page Enterprise Architecture (SPEA)
The Single Page Enterprise Architecture is a diagram (see diagrams at end o...
29
                                                                      Direct




                                      ...
Review checklist

1. What are the EA main patterns?

2.   How do they map on each EA layer entities?

3.   What is a metam...
Chapter 12




4. The FFLV Framework and navigation

  The EA reference maps/templates supply a generic structure for an E...
Functions           Flows
            Development D                                            Layers
          Governance...
Chapter 12: The FFLV Framework and navigation

The three dimensions of the FFLV Framework
The   FFLV   Framework    specif...
People or Organization, each and every one of them further described by Views
filtering only the aspects of interest to yo...
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework
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Book extracts: An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework

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The book is intended to be a document summarising why and how to build an Enterprise Architecture. It attempts to answer a few of the common questions related to Enterprise Architecture (EA) and SOA. What are the issues? What is EA? Why should an organization consider EA? How to build the Enterprise Architecture and document it. What are the roadblocks, politics, governance, process and design method? How to measure the value deliverd by EA and its maturity and and how to select an Enterprise Architect?

An innovative EA Framework, the associated metamodel and generic Enterprise Reference Maps (templates) for the business process, applications and infrastructure layers are proposed. The framework looks like a content page showing the chapters of a book or, in this case, the components of the Enterprise Architecture without actually describing them but showing how they fit into the whole.

The book then identifies and summarises Best Practices in the Enterprise Architecture and SOA development, EA patterns, IT Architecture templates, the integration to the mundane solution architecture, delivery checklists…
Available here:
http://www.trafford.com/Bookstore/BookDetail.aspx?BookId=SKU-000152541
http://www.amazon.com/Enterprise-Architecture-Development-Framework-Practices/dp/1412086655

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  1. 1. An Enterprise Architecture Development Framework The Enterprise Reference Maps, Single Page Architecture, Metamodel SOA Design, Business Case and Strategic Planning for your Enterprise 3rd Edition Office Factory/ Warehouse Desktop Router Router Desktop Notebook LAN Services Notebook LAN Services Printer Email Print Server File Email Print Customers File Server Printer Server Server ServerServer /Agents ISDN IP/MPLS Call Service Data Center Phone PBX Center Provider Intranet IVR CTI Server Voice Router Servers 3 C Call Centre workstation Recording Floor Switch Core Router Content Switch Border Mng Email Print Border Manager Mainframe Wallboard Server Server Server Server Shifttrack Server File Server CITRIX Farm Servers AA Remote Access Shop WS xDSL VPN RouterLoadB Firewall Workstation Internet FW RouterLoadB Web Printer Firewall ServerFW Adrian Grigoriu practicing architecture for a very long time
  2. 2. © Copyright 2005-2009 by Adrian Grigoriu The copyright for any material created by the author is reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, except in case of reviews, without the express written permission of the author. 3rd Edition, November 2008 Note for Librarians: A cataloguing record for this book is available from Library and Archives Canada at www.collectionscanada.ca/amicus/index-e.html. ISBN 1-4120-8665-5 Printed in Victoria, BC, Canada 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ii
  3. 3. “I enjoyed reading this book. It was as if Grigoriu had laid out all the business and IT elements that make up an enterprise on a table and then played around until he could fit them all together into a single cube – an ingenious effort at puzzle solving… I would happily recommend this book to anyone who is already an experienced enterprise architect. This book is an excellent “graduate review” that will force you to think through lots of issues and consider how you might address them in your own architecture. I would also recommend this book to someone who was interested in the issues involved in building a business case for an Enterprise Architecture effort – the sections on benefits and costs are excellent and comprehensive – and I’d also recommend this book to someone who wanted to learn more about how to classify stakeholders. The section on strategy and stakeholders is outstanding”. For the previous edition, Paul Harmon, the Executive Editor of Business Process Trends (www.bptrends.com), a recognized BPM analyst and consultant and the author of Business Process Change.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.ABOUT THE BOOK ............................................................................................................................................................ WHY THIS BOOK ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 OUTLINE ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 17 AUDIENCE ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 REVIEW CHECKLIST .................................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.EA PROVIDES A COMPETITIVE EDGE TO THE ENTERPRISE ............................................................................ REVIEW CHECKLIST .................................................................................................................................................................... 29 3.THE PROBLEM AND DRIVERS FOR CHANGE ........................................................................................................ THE PROBLEM ................................................................................................................................................................................ 31 BUSINESS TRENDS...................................................................................................................................................................... 33 BUSINESS NEEDS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 WHAT BUSINESS CONSTANTLY REQUIRES FROM IT ............................................................................................. 35 WHAT THE GOVERNMENT SECTOR EXPECTS FROM IT ......................................................................................... 36 REVIEW CHECKLIST .................................................................................................................................................................... 37 4.ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE, THE SOLUTION ..................................................................................................... EA, THE SOLUTION TO THE ENTERPRISE PROBLEM................................................................................................. 39 WHAT IS ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE (EA) ................................................................................................................. 40 EA definitions Own EA definition REVIEW CHECKLIST .................................................................................................................................................................... 44 5.ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE BENEFITS................................................................................................................. GOVERNANCE BENEFITS (G) .................................................................................................................................................. 45 Enables Business Modelling Improves Decision Making Aligns Technology to Business Processes and Goals Enables Agility, Faster Business Change Enhances Project Planning and Prioritisation Accuracy OPERATIONAL BENEFITS (O) .................................................................................................................................................. 46 Maximises Reuse of Existing Assets Simplifies the Enterprise operation Aligns Organization to Enterprise operation Improves Operating Procedures Enhances Enterprise Processes Enables Activity Based Costing (ABC) Permits Faster New Product introduction Exploits Synergies between similar operations of the Enterprise STRATEGIC BENEFITS (S) ......................................................................................................................................................... 48 Maps Roadmaps to Architecture Facilitates Vendor Products Roadmaps alignment to EA Provides Agility to business change
  5. 5. Enables Outsourcing and Mergers & Acquisitions Improves Risk Management COMMUNICATION, COLLABORATION AND COMPLIANCE BENEFITS (C) ...................................................... 48 Improves Stakeholders’ Understanding and Communication Enhances Working with Suppliers and Partners Makes Regulatory Compliance possible REVIEW CHECKLIST ..................................................................................................................................................................... 49 6.THE BUSINESS CASE AND RETURN ON EA (ROEA) ........................................................................................... HOW DO YOU ‘COST-JUSTIFY’ ARCHITECTURE ........................................................................................................... 51 RETURN ON ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE (ROEA) .................................................................................................... 52 KEY BENEFITS INDICATORS TABLE ..................................................................................................................................... 53 QUANTIFYING THE COSTS AND REVENUE RELATIVE TO THE NON EA CASE ............................................. 56 THE EA DEVELOPMENT REVENUE AND COST CURVES .......................................................................................... 58 EA PAYBACK AND NPV ............................................................................................................................................................. 59 REVIEW CHECKLIST ..................................................................................................................................................................... 61 7.TECHNOLOGIES REFERRED TO, SUPPORTING THE EA ..................................................................................... 63 WEB SERVICES (WS) AND XML ........................................................................................................................................... 63 ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION EAI/ESB ................................................................................................................................. 63 ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) .................................................................................................................... 64 IT INFORMATION LIBRARY (ITIL) ........................................................................................................................................... 64 CONTROL OBJECTIVES FOR INFORMATION (COBIT) AND VAL IT ...................................................................... 65 BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT (BPM) ................................................................................................................. 66 SIX/LEAN SIGMA .......................................................................................................................................................................... 67 CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL (CMM) ........................................................................................................................... 68 BUSINESS PROCESS REPRESENTATION ......................................................................................................................... 68 PORTER'S VALUE CHAINS ........................................................................................................................................................ 70 BALANCED SCORECARD .......................................................................................................................................................... 71 COMPLIANCE (SOX, BASEL II. HIPAA…) ............................................................................................................................. 71 AGILE PROCESSES AND SMART DELIVERIES ................................................................................................................ 71 REVIEW CHECKLIST ..................................................................................................................................................................... 72 8.EA FRAMEWORKS AND CLASSIFICATION ............................................................................................................. EA FRAMEWORKS OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................................................. 73 Zachman's EAP, Spewak's FEA Reference Model DODAF TOGAF Other: NGOSS/eTOM, PERA, E2AF, BPTrends EA Pyramid… AN EA FRAMEWORKS CLASSIFICATION .......................................................................................................................... 82 REVIEW CHECKLIST ..................................................................................................................................................................... 83 4
  6. 6. 9.THE FUNCTION-FLOW-LAYER-VIEW (FFLV) FRAMEWORK DESIGN ............................................................. 85 AN EA FRAMEWORK DEFINITION ....................................................................................................................................... 85 EA FRAMEWORK IN ANALOGY TO THE HUMAN BODY ......................................................................................... 86 EA FRAMEWORK ENTITIES ..................................................................................................................................................... 87 THIS FRAMEWORK DESCRIPTION AND COMPONENTS ........................................................................................ 89 THE EA DESIGN APPROACH, IN SHORT ........................................................................................................................... 90 ENTERPRISE CONTEXT, STAKEHOLDERS' INTERACTIONS/USE CASES ....................................................... 91 THE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS.................................................................................................................................................... 92 THE BUSINESS FLOWS ............................................................................................................................................................. 93 Customer’s View of the Enterprise Owner's View of the Enterprise THE FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE: FLOWS OVER FUNCTIONS......................................................................... 94 THE EA RESOURCE LAYERS: TECHNOLOGY AND PEOPLE .................................................................................... 95 A Function Stack consists of Business, Technology and People A Flow is executed by a sequence of Function Stacks EA LAYER SPECIFIC VIEWS ..................................................................................................................................................... 98 Business Layer Views: processes & orchestration, strategy & objectives Technology Layer Views People Layer Views: organization, culture, communications… ENTERPRISE WIDE VIEWS: INFORMATION, SECURITY, PERFORMANCE, FINANCE… ......................... 101 The Information Architecture The Security View The Location (Where) View The Performance View The Planning and Evolution View The Financial View ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ............................................................................................................................................... 105 Decoupling/Modularisation Encapsulation Layering Hierarchical design Distribution agnostic Standardisation Duplication minimization TECHNOLOGY DESIGN STANDARDS .............................................................................................................................. 106 Design on SOA services with ESB and Web Services Employ Container/Application hosting technology (JAVA, .NET, Portal) Virtualise technology Converge data, voice and video networks Deploy Web interactive access for stakeholders Reuse, Buy or Build REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 107 10.ENTERPRISE REFERENCE MAPS AND ORGANIZATION DESIGN ............................................................... 109 ORGANIZATION DESIGN......................................................................................................................................................... 109 5
  7. 7. BUSINESS AND OPERATING MODEL, VALUE CHAIN ............................................................................................ 110 Business Models Operating Models Value Chains THE ENTERPRISE GODS MAP............................................................................................................................................. 113 THE IT EA TEMPLATE ............................................................................................................................................................. 114 THE BUSINESS (FUNCTIONS) REFERENCE MAP ..................................................................................................... 116 THE BUSINESS FLOWS REFERENCE MAP .................................................................................................................. 117 THE ENTERPRISE GROUP LINE OF BUSINESSES ..................................................................................................... 119 TERMINOLOGY OF BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE ........................................................................................................ 120 THE APPLICATIONS REFERENCE MAP .......................................................................................................................... 120 THE INFORMATION REFERENCE MAP ........................................................................................................................... 120 THE INFRASTRUCTURE REFERENCE MAP ................................................................................................................. 121 MAPPING REFERENCE MODELS TO ORGANIZATION ........................................................................................... 125 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 127 11.EA PATTERNS AND SINGLE PAGE ARCHITECTURE................................................................................ 129 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PATTERNS ................................................................................................................... 129 Business Layer Application Layer Infrastructure Layer THE SINGLE PAGE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE (SPEA).................................................................................... 132 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 135 12.THE FFLV FRAMEWORK AND NAVIGATION ....................................................................................................... THE EA FUNCTION-FLOW-LAYER-VIEW, FFLV FRAMEWORK ........................................................................... 137 THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF THE FFLV FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................ 139 THE FFLV FRAMEWORK TREE .......................................................................................................................................... 139 THE KEY FFLV VIEWS .............................................................................................................................................................. 140 THE FFLV FRAMEWORK METAMODEL ......................................................................................................................... 141 THE FFLV FRAMEWORK NAVIGATION ......................................................................................................................... 144 A CUSTOMER'S REQUEST NAVIGATION SCENARIO .............................................................................................. 145 THE FFLV MAPPING TO OTHER FRAMEWORKS ..................................................................................................... 147 Mapping to Zachman Mapping to the four "standard" EA layers Mapping to DODAF REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 150 13.THE ENTERPRISE WIDE IT ARCHITECTURE ............................................................................................... 151 THE ROLE OF IT ........................................................................................................................................................................... 151 BUSINESS DRIVERS FOR IT.................................................................................................................................................. 152 KEY IT PROJECTS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 153 SOLUTION ARCHITECTURE ALIGNMENT TO EA ....................................................................................................... 155 6
  8. 8. APPLICATIONS INVENTORY ................................................................................................................................................. 159 INTEGRATION ARCHITECTURE ........................................................................................................................................... 161 IT OBSOLESCENCE AND EA ROADMAP ........................................................................................................................ 161 THE EA VERSUS ITIL, BPM, SIX SIGMA, ERP, ITIL… .................................................................................................. 162 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 164 14.SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE - SOA ......................................................................................................... WHAT IS SOA OR WOA FOR THAT MATTER.............................................................................................................. 165 SOA BENEFITS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 167 SOA AND BPM ............................................................................................................................................................................ 169 SOA AND EA ................................................................................................................................................................................. 170 SOA + EA = SOEA....................................................................................................................................................................... 170 SOA, TO DO OR TO BUY .......................................................................................................................................................... 171 SOA DESIGN BEST PRACTICES .......................................................................................................................................... 172 EVOLUTION TO SOA .................................................................................................................................................................. 174 SOA, LESSONS LEARNT ......................................................................................................................................................... 175 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 176 15.STRATEGIC PLANNING AND ENTERPRISE TRANSFORMATION ................................................................ 177 DO ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS: PESTEL, PORTER'S 5 FORCES ........................................................................ 179 PESTEL Porter's Five Forces DO COMPANY ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................................................... 181 DO STAKEHOLDERS' ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................................ 181 OUTLINE ENTERPRISE VISION, GOALS AND TARGETS ......................................................................................... 182 SPECIFY STRATEGIES .............................................................................................................................................................. 182 BALANCE BENEFITS BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS ................................................................................................... 183 CHECK STRATEGIES FOR FEASIBILITY, ACCEPTABILITY, SUITABILITY......................................................... 184 CASCADE STRATEGY PLANNING TO THE EA TREE ................................................................................................ 185 SPECIFY THE STRATEGIC EXECUTION ROADMAP & MAPPING ...................................................................... 185 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 189 16.THE EA DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND BEST PRACTICES .......................................................................... WHAT IS THE VALUE OF BEST PRACTICES ................................................................................................................ 191 DEFINE EA MISSION AND DELIVERIES ........................................................................................................................... 192 CAPTURE STAKEHOLDERS’ REQUIREMENTS, DETERMINE SCOPE .............................................................. 192 BUILD THE BUSINESS CASE FOR ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE .................................................................... 192 GET SUPPORT FROM TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS ..................................................................... 193 BUILD THE EA GOVERNANCE TEAM ............................................................................................................................... 193 NOMINATE THE EA CORE AND VIRTUAL TEAM ....................................................................................................... 193 SPECIFY AN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORK ................................................................................. 194 7
  9. 9. SELECT AN EA TOOL SET TO SUPPORT THE FRAMEWORK ............................................................................. 194 OUTLINE A DESIGN STRATEGY .......................................................................................................................................... 195 Bottom-Up discovery of existing technology and model ERP processes Design SOA in the middle to wrap Applications as Business Services Apply Architecture and Design Principles SPECIFY AN EA EXECUTION STRATEGY ....................................................................................................................... 196 Prioritize to deliver the urgent fixes for the Enterprise Leverage existing applications and infrastructure Work with Suppliers to package applications as SOA services Design, Plan and Implement iteratively Use an Agile Processes (AP) approach Establish SMART Deliveries, CSFs, KPIs Agree Best Practices DESIGN THE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS AND FLOWS ARCHITECTURE ............................................................ 198 DISCOVER AS-IS USING THE BUSINESS REFERENCE MAP AND FRAMEWORK LAYERS ................ 199 CASCADE STRATEGY OBJECTIVES AND INITIATIVES TO EA TREE ................................................................ 199 SKETCH THE TARGET ENTERPRISE STATE ................................................................................................................. 199 ASSESS GAP BETWEEN CURRENT AND TARGET STATES, ESTABLISH ROADMAP ........................... 200 ESTABLISH PROJECT PORTFOLIO AND PROGRAM PLAN ................................................................................. 200 ESTABLISH EA OPERATIONAL GOVERNANCE ........................................................................................................... 200 EXECUTE ENTERPRISE TRANSFORMATION ITERATION AND EVALUATE EA MATURITY ................. 200 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 200 17.AN EA DESIGN EXERCISE ........................................................................................................................................... THE DESIGN PROCESS STEPS............................................................................................................................................ 201 AN EA DEVELOPMENT EXERCISE OR VIRTUAL CASE STUDY .......................................................................... 202 Specify Enterprise Mission & Products, Vision, Strategy and Objectives Document Stakeholders' Interactions and internal requirements Design the Business Functions Map Design stakeholders' scenarios as Flows over Functions Draft the Single Page Architecture Specify the Applications executing processes in Functions Draw the Infrastructure aligned to Applications Map Information entities to Functions Map Organization units to Functions Link all Views in the EA framework Specify Target Objectives and Vision for the Enterprise Design the target EA, employ SOA paradigm Assess gaps and devise the Transformation roadmap and program INSTEAD OF CASE STUDIES ................................................................................................................................................ 214 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 215 18.FRAMEWORK USE CASES FOR M&A, OUTSOURCING. ITIL.......................................................................... 217 EA FRAMEWORK USE FOR INVESTMENT ................................................................................................................... 217 EA FRAMEWORK FOR IT SERVICES MANAGEMENT (ITIL) ARCHITECTURE ............................................. 218 8
  10. 10. EA FRAMEWORK FOR SECURITY ARCHITECTURE ................................................................................................. 219 HOW TO DESIGN YOUR ENTERPRISE AROUND THE CUSTOMER ................................................................. 220 EA FRAMEWORK USE FOR MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ............................................................................. 221 EA FRAMEWORK USE FOR OUTSOURCING................................................................................................................ 222 EA FRAMEWORK USE FOR A START-UP BUSINESS .............................................................................................. 223 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 224 19.THE EA GOVERNANCE, PROGRAM AND THE ARCHITECT ROLE ................................................................ 225 EA GOVERNANCE....................................................................................................................................................................... 225 THE EA PROJECT ORGANIZATION AND FUNDING ................................................................................................. 227 AN EA SITE TAXONOMY ......................................................................................................................................................... 228 THE ROLE OF THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECT .............................................................................................................. 229 Enterprise Architect kinds How does one select an Enterprise Architect The job description for an Enterprise Architect The Tasks and authority of the Enterprise Architect Enterprise Architect as a leader The growth of EA jobs REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 239 20.EA MATURITY, VALUE AND SELL ............................................................................................................................ MEASURE YOUR ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE MATURITY .............................................................................. 241 EA development maturity EA exploitation maturity MEASURE THE VALUE OF EA .............................................................................................................................................. 243 SELL THE EA ................................................................................................................................................................................. 245 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 246 21.EA ROADBLOCKS, CULTURE AND POLITICS....................................................................................................... EA DEVELOPMENT TRIGGERS ............................................................................................................................................ 247 EA ROADBLOCKS ....................................................................................................................................................................... 248 The Enterprise Inertia, silo organization and the Business - IT divide The lack of reference Business Architectures The diversity and non-coordinated approaches to fix the Enterprise evils EA vague definition, is it a blueprint, process, program, strategic planning…? EA scope, no non-IT technology, no people or other stakeholders' views The EA program developed solely by IT Lack of an agreed EA framework Overly simplified EA framework Lack of Business Case at initiation EA deliverables not fit for purpose EA governance and implementation failures Enterprise Architect not invested with authority Politics slowing EA development Independent SOA programs competing for resources ERP development competing with EA 9
  11. 11. Not using EA tools The vast knowledge required and paucity of Enterprise Architects Roadblocks recap and recommendations ENTERPRISE CULTURE AND EA ........................................................................................................................................ 258 EA POLITICS .................................................................................................................................................................................. 261 EA RISKS AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................................... 263 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 264 22.EA STATE, FUTURE OUTLOOK AND THE VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE ....................................................... 265 EA CURRENT STATE ................................................................................................................................................................ 265 THE VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE .................................................................................................................................................. 267 The Virtualization of the Enterprise IT The Virtualization of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) Layers The Enterprise Value Chain modelling and Virtualisation THE FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR EA ........................................................................................................................................ 275 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 276 23.ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE RECAP .................................................................................................................... THE EA FRAMEWORK RECAP ............................................................................................................................................ 277 THE KEY STEPS OF AN EA DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................... 278 THE EA DELIVERIES CHECKLIST ........................................................................................................................................ 280 WHY USE THE FFLV FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................ 282 EA STAKEHOLDERS' BENEFITS REVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 283 THE ENTERPRISE TRANSFORMATION STRATEGIC PROCESS ......................................................................... 284 FINAL SAY...................................................................................................................................................................................... 286 REVIEW CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................................................. 286 24.REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................................... ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................................................................ INDEX ........................................................................................................................................................................................ ABOUT THE AUTHOR ........................................................................................................................................................... 10
  12. 12. Chapter 2 1. EA provides a competitive edge to the Enterprise Due to the growing complexity of technology, the daily increase in the amount of information and the ever fastening pace of change and competition, the very existence of many Enterprises will be challenged in the next few years. Ray Kurzweil states that every ten years the rate of change doubles; in the next hundred years we may experience the same amount of change as in the past 20,000 yearsi. Historically, companies built products, deployed services and structured the organization rapidly in response to market demand and new regulations. This was achieved through point solutions, patching and silo organizations, all at the expense of an increasing complexity of a “spaghetti” like architecture, fostering duplication in functions, data, platforms, processes and projects. The unnecessary complexity slows down business change, the decision making process and fosters longer time to market which ultimately increases the costs of operations. At today’s pace of change, to conquer the soaring complexity, to deliver faster and better and be sustainable the Enterprise has to be: A. Streamlined: simplified to minimize unjustified variety, reduce unnecessary complexity, remove silos and improve focus B. Aligned: technology (IT) and people (organization) resources aligned to business processes and strategy to achieve the firm objectives C. Agile: modular, layered, standardized, technology independent, built out of services, quickly to adapt to change D. Built to last: strategically planned according to business and technology trends and vision E. Documented: a blueprint to document the current and target architecture to enhance comprehension and management of its performance.
  13. 13. To repair a car, the mechanic has to know its blueprint and, based on it, its operation. To design a car or improve it the firm needs to understand where technologies and markets go. The mechanic has to become a planner, a marketing man, a business man. Same with the Enterprise Architect. An EA will integrate in a single effort many fragmented or loose coupled Enterprise developments such as SOA, IT Architecture, Application Integration (EAI), ITIL efforts and many independently performed activities such as Enterprise alignment to Business Strategy and Objectives, Enterprise Simplification, Compliance to Regulation Frameworks, Business Process Improvement, Six/Lean Sigma, Business Performance Management, Mergers and Acquisitions, Integration and outsourcing (such as BPO, SaaS…). What will be the role of the Enterprise Architecture (EA) in the Enterprise evolution in the decade to come? How can an Enterprise operate in a predictable manner, change fast enough to lead or at least swiftly follow the market and offer high quality products at the same time, without the modular structure and blueprint of an Enterprise Architecture? For the next decade, there is little chance for a legacy Enterprise to survive the accelerating change, the ever reducing time to market, increasing customer expectations, the industry consolidation and outsourcing trends without a clean, streamlined, optimized and documented operation. The EA is an asset which, once in place and properly maintained, will return value for many years (RoEA) since the investment in EA can be leveraged over and over again to pay back dividends. EA is the knowledge database of your Enterprise. The EA asset promises you a Competitive Advantage by streamlining your Enterprise, enabling faster product delivery at lower costs, handling the exploding amount of information and providing greater Enterprise agility to cope with change. Conservative quotes from different industries vary between 10-30% reduction in cost and time to market due to EA. The hypothesis and conclusion of the book is that the EA will offer the Enterprise the edge needed in the survival race through blueprinting, streamlining, roadmapping and agility. The US now requires government departments to provide their Enterprise Architecture to justify investments. Your shareholders will demand the EA soon in order to increase the guarantees of their return of investment. 12
  14. 14. Chapter 2: EA provides a competitive edge to the Enterprise Review checklist 1. What is the hypothesis of the book? What do we want to prove? 2. What are key benefits of the EA? 3. What developments does EA integrate in a single effort? 4. Why is the EA indispensable to the Enterprise for the decade to come? 13
  15. 15. Chapter 3 2. The Problem and Drivers for Change The Problem Remember how many times you have spoken to a large organization providing you a service, only to discover that they still have your previous address, where some of their correspondence is still sent, as well as having your current address. This is because for each service there is a platform which retains your personal data. A change in address often has to be operated in many platforms, at the same time, and sometimes manually, which is slow and error prone. In fact, duplicated data is created for each platform. On occasion, as a customer, you need to identify yourself several times to get a service from a company. This is because each service owns its data and requires its own authorization since there is no cross platform authentication and authorization service. The current state of the Enterprise as seen by Zachman: “Enterprises have a large inventory of current systems built out-of-context, not integrated, not supporting the Enterprise, that are consuming enormous amounts of resources for maintenance and are far too costly to replace; as a matter of fact, the inventory of existing systems has come to be referred to as ‘the legacy’”ii. Enterprises met many challenges in arriving at their current structure. Many have been through a rapid customer growth and technology changes which fuelled an organic growth, based often on one-off, point solutions. Shortening timelines for new products, and immediate priorities to minimize CAPEX and OPEX, resulted in a silo culture where, quite often, each part of an organization cares only for its own products, budgets, applications and technology. The Enterprise, as a result, is made of patched legacy with multiple and various solutions for same or similar capabilities. The current state of the Enterprise requires simplification since it has grown
  16. 16. complex, after many mergers and acquisitions. The complexity makes applications patching impossible. Adding new point solutions, re-using little from the existing capabilities, can only make things worse. Can we call this Enterprise manageable, predictably delivering quality to customers and value to shareholders? And the cost of running this Enterprise is growing higher and higher with the level of complexity increased by mergers, point solutions and patching. The divide between business and IT departments is frequently deep since there is no common vocabulary, skills to facilitate communication and shared objectives to align efforts. Business understands processes, rules, markets and products. IT people specialize in IT support, maintenance, helpdesk and software development. Usually, business inflexibility is associated either with the IT or with the organization which is changed ever so often. It does not matter how much emphasis is set on the Customers' needs, if the products themselves and the operational processes deliver at low quality. This, ultimately, hinders the efforts made by the customer facing units. And the faulty products are the result of faulty processes which require business process improvement using Six/Lean Sigma and BPMS etc. Currently, in an Enterprise, there are so many plans, designs and architectures. Everybody has a drawing: the Supply Chain, the Customer Services department or IT. They do not look alike, they have different vocabularies, entities, conventions and levels of detail, they are drawn with various tools as Word, Visio, Power Point… and they sit everywhere and nowhere when you need them. What do we do? We call a meeting with all domain experts to make a decision. And we just pick their minds during a brainstorm. It's like the architecture is floating in the air, above the expert audience where nobody can see it. And we are not even sure that we are talking about the same thing. By the way, where is the Business Architecture blueprint to be used by IT to align Technology Architecture to business processes? Unfortunately, no Enterprise has been built according to a blueprint, at best it was re-engineered. But we solely let IT provide the Enterprise Architecture. To our relief, the ERP application suites are saving the Enterprise by providing both the business processes and application layers of the Enterprise. More often than not, this comes at the price of inflexibility, poor integration, high cost, dependency on one vendor and poor comprehension of the underlying functionality. EA is more than an ERP. Every Enterprise has a structure, an architecture, and it works, more or less. The 16
  17. 17. Chapter 3: The Problem and Drivers for Change structure is often the result of an organic growth and not the outcome of a deliberate process. Without the synoptic view of an EA, the Enterprise is marred by duplication in platforms, projects, roles, data, applications and even products. Quite often, units of the same company compete with each other and do not share good practices, processes, applications and strategies. From a business perspective, the Enterprise problem is the inflexibility, slow change and high costs of IT. From an IT perspective, it is the lack of business process and requirements clarity, inherited obsolete technologies and the tangled IT spaghetti architecture. The Problem: the silo organization, the point solutions duplicating functionality, the unnecessary complexity and the poor understanding of the Enterprise operation, causing a lengthening of the decision making; not able to implement, quickly enough, the change required by business. The problem lies with the today's unresponding and undocumented Enterprise in a world of growing complexity and change. . Business Trends The next decade is characterized by an ever increasing trend in speed of change, complexity, amount of information and customer expectations, reducing product life cycles and industry consolidation. Often, an Enterprise needs to enter a new line of business or to enhance its product portfolio by acquiring or merging with another company rather than taking the time and absorbing the cost to produce the product in house. Mergers and acquisitions happen so often now because, before an Enterprise can acquire the skill and deliver the product, the window of market opportunity is lost. The new company has to be aligned to the Enterprise. But because companies have overlaps in products and functions, and exceedingly different applications to implement similar processes, a merger may simply fail to bring benefits since there is no common blueprint of operation to deliver a single service proposition to customers and cost reduction, from economies of scale, to owners. On the other hand, the opposite result could occur; customers are confused by offers of similar but slightly different products and technologies, employee’s motivation may suffer from internal competition and potential redundancies and the share price may drop until the confidence is restored, that is, when the new products are integrated and the Enterprise is streamlined again. But there are numerous issues with acquisitions, for instance alignment of organizations, IT infrastructure, applications 17
  18. 18. and in general Customer Relationship, Supply Chain and all the Enterprise Support functions. Not to mention different strategies, cultures and values. It is hard to understand how it is done without a common blueprint, provided by the EA. The current best practice is to align the organizations' charts. Outsourcing and managed services are also one of the strongest trends in any industry now. They are essentially about work division. Nowadays we can do very few things well, at the level of quality expected by customers. Companies outsource functions which do not align to the perceived core business activities. Interestingly although companies pretend, more and more, to be customer oriented, they outsource Customer Care functions such as Call Centers. But what functions in the Enterprise should we outsource? Should we outsource operations? It happens, often off-shored. Before making the decision you need to determine in detail the services to be provided to your Enterprise and their present Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Is there a context, a blueprint to help us make our outsourcing decisions? Can the Enterprise be certified against quality frameworks (CMM, Six Sigma)? This may be a trigger for initiating an EA program, besides acquisitions and outsourcing as these maturity and quality frameworks require business process optimization. Six Sigma, Capability Maturity Model (CMM) and recent regulations and auditing procedures as Sarbanes-Oxley, Basel II … demand a structured, well understood, managed business process architecture, data architecture, security and privacy controls, accompanied by proper document and financial management systems, all in the scope of an Enterprise Architecture. The business process and information flows modeling offer a framework for auditing and compliance to regulatory requirements like Sarbanes-Oxley. There are numerous external and internal forces that lead towards the development of an Enterprise Architecture: 1. Business management need for direct control of change of the Enterprise, IT and investment process; for a long time now, business users have struggled to obtain the IT support they need to deliver process change for flexibility 2. The need for Enterprise simplification and integration of point solutions and silo organizations due to the current state of organic growth and patching 3. Increasing customer demand and expectations for quality, growing raw material and energy prices forcing companies to deliver new levels of scalability, quality, cost efficiency and performance 18
  19. 19. Chapter 3: The Problem and Drivers for Change 4. Rising worldwide business competition manifesting in o Rapidly reducing lifecycles/Time to Market o Increasing consolidation trend through mergers and acquisitions as the cost of developing new products in house is growing o Rising trend for outsourcing of Business Process (BPO) , applications (SaaS), data centers and managed services o increasing request for modular, service based business architecture (SOA) and growing popularity for web services to increase business agility 5. Drive for quality frameworks (Six Sigma, CMM) and new regulatory compliance (SOX, Basel II, HIPAA…) demanding documented and auditable structures and processes 6. EA, becoming a regulatory requirement in the US: the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 for Federal Agencies mandates the EA. Business needs Of course, a business has to return value to all its stakeholders: owners, employees, community... But what are the main categories of issues a business always has to have in perspective, what are the business needs in this day and age? 1. Differentiate products for customers' benefit, and establish business models to create a continuous competitive advantage to increase profit for your shareholders/owners (Financial view). 2. Increase agility to be able to respond quickly enough to market changes (Operational view) 3. Streamline and architect current Operations to enhance effectiveness and reduce costs (Operational view) 4. Automate as much as possible, reduce redundancies in functions, processes, platforms and projects, reduce the tangled architecture, document current business functionality and implementation to get in control of your business. 5. Build the Enterprise to last (Strategic view) 6. Analyze trends (industry, economical, social, political and regulatory, technological) and plan your strategy and business models accordingly (market segments, products, costs, new technology capabilities). 7. Improve Corporate Social Responsibility (Community and Regulatory view) 19
  20. 20. What business constantly requires from IT 1. Technology alignment to business and strategy intentions 2. Customer self service 3. Customer/Employee/Partner Reduced/Single (Reduced) Sign On 4. “Single Customer View:” a real time operational response to customer data request to return all personal data, subscription, interaction history… , 5. “Single Version of Truth”: only one source of data for reporting, Business Intelligence and ultimately decision making 6. Straight Through Processing: process automation, document imaging and character recognition to reduce human error and processing time 7. Agility to change, access security, data privacy… 8. Reduce IT costs and investment What the Government sector expects from IT In short, a collection of issues the government agencies are confronted with at this stage in time: 1. Joined-up government, inter-working & information sharing between departments 2. Common services and infrastructure across government 3. Government portal and intranet, authentication/authorization/Id Mng service … 4. Information systems to respond faster to business change 5. Efficiency & customer focus through business process re-engineering 6. Electronic delivery of services, E-business to business 7. Usage of communication and cooperation technologies such as Web2 (2 way Web) As such, the Government demands a streamlined operation with reduced duplication and improved processes, common inter-departmental shared resources, cross boundary services and electronic services delivered over the Internet, using the latest Web2.0 communication technologies. Ultimately, the book intends to prove that the Enterprise problems and trends can all be acted upon in coordination in an Enterprise Architecture to defeat the 20
  21. 21. Chapter 3: The Problem and Drivers for Change increasingly threatening enemies of the Enterprise: growing competition, rate of change, complexity and ultimately the increasing entropy of the Enterprise. Review checklist 1. Which are the key issues with the Enterprise today? What is the "problem"? 2. State a few important business trends. 3. Describe the main business drivers and the business requirements from IT. 4. What are the Government drivers? 21
  22. 22. Chapter 11 3. EA Patterns and Single Page Architecture EA layers are built on few simple patterns: Nodes, Lines, Rules and Plans. The metamodel describes the relationships between EA entities observing patterns. The Single Page Architecture is an overall single page view of the Enterprise. Enterprise Architecture patterns EA layers are built on few simple patterns: Nodes, Lines, Rules and Plans. Business Layer The Nodes are implemented by Processes in Business Functions; the Lines by Flows of control (events), information (documents) or parts. Application Layer The Nodes are implemented by Applications. Lines by information exchanges over middleware such as EAI. A Service sub-layer is introduced by a SOA/EA development. Nodes are implemented by Services while Lines by Requests in SOAP/XML, REST Web Services and ESB messaging. Infrastructure Layer Is composed of two sub-layers: Servers & Storage and Networks. Server and Storage sub-layer Nodes are implemented by Servers and Storage units. Lines by TCP/IP transport protocols and respectively SCSI and Fiber Channel links.. Servers: ♦ SW side:
  23. 23. o Application Servers (Java EE, .Net) o DB Servers (Relational, XML, Object, Hierarchical… DBMSs) o Web Servers (+ Server Pages) o Network File Servers, Printer Servers o Audio/Video Servers o Email, Chat, FTP, telnet… ♦ SW servers interconnection protocols o JMS, RMI, SMTP, SNMP, FTP, Telnet… ♦ HW side o Windows, UNIX. LINUX…, Hypervisor (virtualization) o on Blades, rack drawers, mainframes, AS/400… ♦ HW servers interconnections: o Sockets, TCP/IP Storage sub-layer nodes o DAS: Direct Attached Storage o NAS: Network Attached Storage o SAN: Storage Area Network (RAIDx) ♦ Storage interconnections o iSCSI o Fiber Channel (FC) o Networks ♦ LAN (Local Area Network) implemented mainly by Ethernet Hub switches ♦ WAN nodes implemented by Switches, Routers, Gateways, DNSs…over fiber (Dark Wave, SONET…) and copper ( Tx/Ex, xDSL) transmission networks 26
  24. 24. Nodes & Lines patterns and Technologies at each EA layer Nodes Lines Nodes Layers Process Process Business Flow Service Service Req/Resp (ESB, WS SOAP/XML, REST) Applications Application (ERP, CRM…) Application Information Exchange/EAI, CORBA Infrastructure DAS, NAS, SAN DAS, NAS, SAN Storage (i)SCSI, Fibre Channel (FC) & SW side: Application, DB, Web…) Figure 11-1 – EA patterns: Nodes and Lines at each layer Chapter 11: EA Patterns and Single Page Architecture Servers JMS, MQ… HW side HW Serv Sockets, UDP,TCP/IP protocols Networks Switch, Routers Gateways, DNS… WAN MPLS ,ATM, FR, Copper Hubs, Bridges Hubs, Bridges LAN Ethernet 27
  25. 25. The Single Page Enterprise Architecture (SPEA) The Single Page Enterprise Architecture is a diagram (see diagrams at end of chapter) providing a synoptic view of an Enterprise operation, describing the key business functions and the interconnections channeling key flows; it shows a reduced view of a functional Architecture (all Flows over Functions) depicting solely key business functions and flows. It looks like an application integration architecture with applications exchanging information over pipes. The applications (systems), the Functions they map to, the flows and stakeholders are represented in subsequent EA views. SPEA is structured on the Business Functions Map. As the Business Flows Map is discovered and designed, entities are added to the Single Page EA. SPEA is the most popular EA artifact. It is used by everybody to understand the Enterprise operation and communicate in the same language. It remains, in some cases, the only Enterprise Architecture artifact. It addresses the whole Enterprise audience and should be designed with a largely available drawing tool since most people must have access to it. It is similar to the Operational View 2 (OV-2) in DODAF that shows nodes (Functions here) and needlines (Flows). Since SPEA represents the logic operation of the Enterprise, the level of detail has to stop to a couple of levels below a Line of Business (LoB). Frequently, an Enterprise consists of a few Lines of Business, each delivering a product. Further detail going beyond level 2, can be provided by a specific business Function architecture and be referenced from the parent Function in the SPEA. A couple of samples of Single Page EAs are shown in the following. Support functions are typically not shown, for simplification. In the Single Page EA diagram: a box is a Business Function which is a subdivision of a Line of Business. ♦ A Line of Business is an area of the enterprise delivering a specific service or product ♦ A line is an information/material/control flow; an arrow ending a line shows the destination of the flow. 28
  26. 26. 29 Direct Mail House Insurance System Banks Campaign Figure 11-2 - A Health Insurance Single Page Architecture- IT template Managmnt Membrship Product Claims Bank Gway Payment Face 2 Face EFTPOS Claims/ Bank 1 3rd Parties Contact Mng Benefits Provider Rate Config Cheque Service Refunds/ Customer Premium Providers Payments Member Service Billing Member Claims Chapter 11: EA Patterns and Single Page Architecture Centre Center Gway HIC B2B Gway Prospects ContactMg Eligibility Authorise Claims Hospital Phone Call Customers IVR Centre (Batch) Gway Access Premium Medical DB Bus Corporate Call Center Retail Access B2B Gway Corporate Autoclaims Access ID Claims Mng (Real Time) Tranfer Web www.xxx.com. Pre supplier admission Payment Provider Premium Access Payment Payment Banks Content Intranet Manag Payment Post Office Paymaster Revenue Management Cheque Cash Group Real Time Replica Finance Apps Balance Register Balancing Balancing Reports ETL Score- ReInsurance GL AP/AR AM Card Batch Reports Government DW Claims Community BI
  27. 27. Review checklist 1. What are the EA main patterns? 2. How do they map on each EA layer entities? 3. What is a metamodel? 4. What are the key artifacts of the metamodel? 5. Explain the key relationships between entities of the metamodel artifacts? 6. What is the Single Page Enterprise Architecture (SPEA)? 7. What are the main SPEA components? 30
  28. 28. Chapter 12 4. The FFLV Framework and navigation The EA reference maps/templates supply a generic structure for an Enterprise. It should be used to jump start the EA development efforts. A framework is the backbone, the frame of a system to which most parts are fitted. An EA framework looks like a contents page, a mindmap or a document tree with all components of the EA having to hook onto the framework. It does not define the architecture of the components, but solely the frame joining them, exhibiting component placeholders. It enforces reuse of components, an interface philosophy, design constraints and notations and architectural principles to provide consistency in design so that artifacts fit back into the framework. The EA Function-Flow-Layer-View, FFLV Framework The EA framework consists of business Functions, Flows and Layers (Business, Functions, B Technology and People) described by Views Views. The FFLV framework proposes an EA meta-architecture consisting of a Flows over Functions functional architecture - shaped by a Business Reference Map - executed by the Technology and/or People resource Layers with Views describing various layer specific or Enterprise wide stakeholders' concerns.
  29. 29. Functions Flows Development D Layers Governance G Views Support S O Operations Products/Lines Business Technology People The FFLV Enterprise Architecture Framework Figure 12-3 - The Function-Flow-Layer-View (FFLV) EA Framework An extended business Function can be seen as a stack traversing the EA layers. The business processes. the technology and people resource layers, belong to the Function stack. To that, one might add strategy, objectives, performance criteria etc, all cascaded to the Function stack entities. In a Flow diagram, any line between Functions or to stakeholders can be described in terms of an output of a process (Product) which can be a part, information (bill, order, message) or event and a connection (Line) which is its transport, implemented by a network, a mechanical transport band or courier. The framework could initially be implemented with a minimum of flows describing the customer’s services, two or three levels of Functions in a hierarchical decomposition and a minimum number of Views. As the framework is open, Functions, Flows and Views can be added at later times. There are also the 4th dimension, “Time” and the 5th, the detail or level of granularity. 32
  30. 30. Chapter 12: The FFLV Framework and navigation The three dimensions of the FFLV Framework The FFLV Framework specifies three dimensions: Functions, Flows and Layers/Views. A swimlane functional architecture diagram shows business Flows consisting of processes executed by Functions/participants in lanes. The Layers/Views dimension exhibits the executing resources view. Flows Layers /Views Functions Layers, Views Functions A B w w F lo Flo Business Technology People Flows Another dimension is the hierarchical functional decomposition granularity level Figure 12-4 - The 3 EA framework dimensions: Function. Flow, Layer/View The FFLV Framework Tree The EA design and analysis is hierarchical; a specific level of detail could be chosen for analysis, depending on stakeholder's interest. An Enterprise can be seen as a hierarchy of Functions structured in an Enterprise tree i.e. the Business Functions Map; it can be also seen as an Enterprise hierarchy of Flows (Business Flows Map); and also categorized in a number of Layers: Business, Technology and 33
  31. 31. People or Organization, each and every one of them further described by Views filtering only the aspects of interest to you. Hence, the entry points into the EA navigation framework and tree are the Functions, Flows, Layers and Views. This tree can and should be devised for the Enterprise Architecture. It also guides the sitemap of the EA web site which may also contain other information business, technology or people related such as strategy… Enterprise Functions Flows Layers & Views Levels Process Technology People 1 G O D S Views 2 Plan Strt SCM CRM HR Pay Click on an Line Click on a View… Connection Output/ Product Process S Technology Flow People Figure 12-5 - The Enterprise Framework Tree The Key FFLV Views The Business Reference Map (BRM) provides the initial structure for all EA views, including the Single Page EA. The Business Functions Map may be shaped by the BRM Enterprise reference map. The key Views were selected to minimize the effort to design the first iteration of 34

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