Principios de Diseño de Permacultura

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Principios de Diseño de Permacultura

  1. 1. Los Principios de Cultura de Transición Herramientas universales para pensar
  2. 2. <ul><li>Explorar los 12 Principios. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprender los 12 Principios. </li></ul><ul><li>Descubrir un sentido de como son útiles en tu vida cotidiana. </li></ul><ul><li>Generar una vista amplia de la practica de Permacultura. </li></ul>Objetivos de Aprendizaje
  3. 3. <ul><li>Una Simbiosis Post-Industrial. </li></ul><ul><li>El primer paso es desarrollar Eco-Alfabetismo. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esto necesita ocurrir en una fase temprana de la relocalización. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprender Principios Ecológicos. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>El segundo paso es el Eco-Diseño. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reformando artefactos, instituciones, sociedades. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La aplicación de Principios de Diseño. </li></ul></ul>Introducción
  4. 4. <ul><li>Tres principios éticos forman la fundación. </li></ul><ul><li>Se encuentran en muchas sociedades tradicionales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>En particular esas muy antiguas como los Aborígenes de Australia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mecanismos evolucionados culturalmente que regulan auto-intereses. </li></ul>Principios Éticos
  5. 7. <ul><li>El concepto de un colección de principios es central a la Permacultura. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aun así encontramos una diversidad de caminos y hasta confusión. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>La Permacultura es buena para difundir soluciones de diseño (a veces en formas que no son apropiadas). </li></ul><ul><li>Pero no tan buena para difundir la forma de pensar detrás de ella. </li></ul>Porque Principios?
  6. 8. <ul><li>Universalmente aplicable  hacia sustentabilidad rápida </li></ul><ul><li>Necesitamos una revolución cultural. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenemos poco tiempo para lograr esta revolución. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un conjunto simple de principios de guía que tienen aplicación universal es muy atractivo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declaraciones recordadas como una lista. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>En desarrollar opciones complejas para diseño </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aplicable en todo sistema. </li></ul>Porque Principios?
  7. 9. <ul><li>Nuestras acciones siempre deben ser guiadas por principios. </li></ul><ul><li>Las éticas nos dirigen en la dirección correcta. </li></ul><ul><li>Los principios son las herramientas principales para examinar posibilidades para situaciones únicas. </li></ul><ul><li>Usamos la observación de la naturaleza y comprensión de patrones. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desarrollar un repertorio de sistemas funcionales. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Los cuales pueden ser probados contra robustos principios de diseño. </li></ul></ul>Porque Principios?
  8. 10. <ul><li>La permacultura no es una destinación, un ideal utópico. </li></ul><ul><li>No es un plan maestro. </li></ul><ul><li>Pero </li></ul><ul><li>Un proceso, paso a paso, moviéndose en la transición hacia una visión del futuro. </li></ul><ul><li>Un proceso de auto-determinación impulsado por comunidades. </li></ul>Cultura de Sustentabilidad
  9. 12. Cuidado de la Tierra
  10. 13. Cuidado de la Gente
  11. 14. Compartir los excedentes
  12. 15. 1. Observa y Interactúa
  13. 18. 2. Capta y Almacena Energía.
  14. 21. 3.Obtiene Producción
  15. 24. 4. Aplica auto Regulación y aceptar retroalimentación
  16. 27. 5. Recursos y Servicios Renovables
  17. 30. 6. No Producir Desechos
  18. 33. 7.Diseño de Patrón a Detalles
  19. 36. 8.Integrar en vez de segregar
  20. 39. 9.Usa Soluciones pequeñas y lento
  21. 42. 10.Usar y valorar Diversidad
  22. 45. 11. Usa bordes y valora lo Marginal
  23. 49. 12. Usar Creativamente y Responder al Cambio
  24. 54. principios Mollisonianos de permacultura Los siguientes principios de diseño fueron desarrollados por Dr. Bill Mollison y la intención es que sean aplicables en cualquier parte, aunque las practicas pueden variar de un lugar al otro.
  25. 55. UBICACIÓN RELATIVA.... El funcionamiento eficiente se lograr poniendo elementos en relación en el uno al otro.
  26. 56. CADA ELEMENTO EJECUTA MUCHAS FUNCIONES ... Los elementos son elegidos y ubicados para lograr la mayor cantidad de funciones posibles.
  27. 57. CADA FUNCIÓN IMPORTANTE ES APOYADA POR MUCHOS ELEMENTOS ... Funciones importantes básicas (como fuente de agua, protección contra fuego y energía) se cumplen en mas de una manera.
  28. 58. PLANIFICACIÓN ENERGETICAMENTE EFICIENTE ... La eficiencia energética se logra dividiendo en zonas (para conservar energía humana), planificación de sectores (para administrar energías silvestres), planificación de declive (para utilizar la gravedad) y haciendo el menor cambio posible para lograr el máximo efecto posible.
  29. 59. ALMACENAMIENTO NATURAL DE ENERGÍA Los nutrientes y las energías son almacenadas, usadas cerca de su fuente y usadas repetidamente para evitar crear desechos antes de fluir fuera del sitio o a un pozo
  30. 60. SISTEMAS INTENSIVOS DE PEQUEÑA ESCALA El buen diseño maximiza el uso de cantidades mínimas de tierra; usando labor humana productiva, herramientas de mano y animales, en vez de maquinas grandes y petroquímicos; y es multi-dimensional – utilizando espacio vertical (amontonando plantas & usando XXXXX) y cosechas en sucesión que se superponen (amontonamiento de tiempo).
  31. 61. DIVERSIDAD ... La diversidad aumenta la productividad y estabilidad, con policulturas, no monoculturas; que haya orden en vez de limpieza; y asociaciones de elementos que trabajan juntos en forma harmoniosa.
  32. 62. EFECTOS DE BORDES ... Extendiendo y exagerando los bordes entre sistemas adjuntos da contribuciones adicionales de los recursos de ambos sistemas, aumentando productividad.
  33. 63. TODO FUNCIONA DE AMBAS FORMAS ... Un buen diseño convierte las desventajas a ventajas; ve soluciones, no problemas.
  34. 64. COSECHAS SON LIMITADAS SOLO POR INFORMACIÓN E IMAGINACIÓN.. . Permacultura usa diseño creativo para aumentar capital, y no energía o capital.
  35. 65. ATITUD … Ser positivo es lo que impulsa la Permacultura y las relaciones que desarrollamos como personas trabajando juntas para nuestro futuro colectivo.
  36. 66. Principios Holmgrenianos de Permacultura Los siguientes principios de diseño fueron desarrollados por David Holmgren y se describen en su libro: Permacultura – Principios y Caminos Mas Allá de la Sustentabilidad
  37. 67. PETROLEO PEAK GLOBAL
  38. 68. OBSERVA E INTERACTUA La belleza esta en el ojo del que la percibe
  39. 69. CAPTA Y ALMACENA ENERGÍA Haz trabajo mientras que brilla el sol
  40. 70. OBTEN UNA COSECHA No se puede trabajar con la guata vacía.
  41. 71. APLICA AUTO-REGULACIÓN Y ACEPTA RETROALIMENTACION Los pecados de los padres seran revisitados en los hijos hasta la septima generación
  42. 72. USAR Y VALORAR RECURSOS Y SERVICIOS RENOVABLES Deja que la naturaleza siga su transcurso
  43. 73. NO PRODUCIR DESECHOS Sin desechos, nada falta A stitch in time saves nine
  44. 74. DESIGN FROM PATTERNS TO DETAILS Can’t see the wood for the trees
  45. 75. INTEGRATE RATHER THAN SEGREGATE Many hands make light work.
  46. 76. USE SMALL AND SLOW SOLUTIONS The bigger they are, the harder they fall. Slow and steady wins the race.
  47. 77. USE AND VALUE DIVERSITY Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.
  48. 78. USE EDGES AND VALUE THE MARGINAL Don’t think you are on the right track just because it is a well-beaten path
  49. 79. CREATIVELY USE AND RESPOND TO CHANGE Vision is not seeing things as they are but as they will be
  50. 80. ZERI (Zero Emissions Research Institute) Five Design Principles There are five kingdoms of nature - bacteria, algae, fungi, plants and animals - and for billions of years these five kingdoms have worked together to be a highly productive and adaptive system. Along with the five kingdoms, there are five key design principles that each kingdom (except man!) generally adheres to: Whatever is waste for one is a nutrient or food for another species belonging to another kingdom; What is a toxin for one organism, is a nutrient or neutral for another belonging to another kingdom; Whenever highly complex ecosystems operate, viruses to remain inactive and even disappear without causing harm passing through at least 2 other kingdoms; The more local, the more diverse a system, the more productive, the more resilient; and, Whenever species of 5 different kingdoms live and interact in an autopoetic system, they can integrate and separate all matter at ambient temperature and pressure. 1. Whatever is Waste for One is a Nutrient or Food for Another Species Belonging to Another Kingdom If one species is fed its own waste, it will degenerate. When cattle farmers started to feed cows with waste from other cows they violated this principal - and it led to the mad cow disease outbreak. Shrimp farmers made the same mistake when they started to feed shrimp with their own waste - which led to white shrimp virus. A lion will eat an antilope, but never ever will he consider the manure of the antilope. There are exceptions which confirm the rule, a dog may be spotted eating occasionally its own waste, though this is a matter of strengthening its immune system, challenging it so once in a while. If an animal were only eating its own waste, and behave as a cannibal, it would never survive. Industry and society should apply the same logic. Waste from one industry should not be forced back into the same system searching for a &quot;closed loop&quot;. This will increase cost, jeopardize quality and hardly ever generate the best possible value. Industries should cluster together, cascade their waste streams and generate more income, more jobs, thus increasing productivity while eliminating waste. 2. Whatever is a Toxin for One, is a Nutrient or Neutral for at Least One Species Belonging to Another Kingdom If a species eliminates toxins within its own system, it will degenerate. As human's we tend to classify things that are toxic only from a human point of view. We assume that anything that is toxic for humans must also be toxic for every other species in every kingdom. Cyanide, is a well known toxin for animals, but several plant species produce it and use it effectively as a defense against predators. Apples are rich in cyanide, and so are peaches, though none have to be labeled &quot;dangerous_- cyanide inside.&quot; The elimination of toxins by passing through the other kingdoms does not mean you have to die first. If you (member of the animal kingdom) are ill, then balance your system with the presence of algae, fungi, plants and bacteria. The the illness that affects you, will dissapate in the wake of abundance from nutrients and anti-bodies provided by spirulina algae, reishi mushrooms, acidophylus, bifidus, garlic and avocados. 3. Whenever there is a Virus, It Will be Eliminated Passing Through at Least Two Other Kingdoms If we reduce the number of species, and recycle nutrients and energy within a kingdom, then viruses will thrive and the system will degenerate. Viruses are species and kingdom specific. A virus that can attack a plant cannot attack an animal. This is the reason why the constant cycling of nutrients and energy from one species to the other is making life for viruses impossible. This is why viruses are made life impossible since the environment of one species evolves into a new species belonging to another kingdom. But there are exceptions. Several species are a symbiosis. Human beings are 10% bacteria, and therefore a virus that lives in one, could also live in another kingdom. Lichens are a symbiosis of mushrooms and algae, and therefore viruses could navigate within the two kingdoms. That is why the cycling through all five kingdoms is that important since no virus is known to survive in three different species belonging to three different kingdoms. 4. Systems are More Efficient and More Resilient the More Diverse and the More Local They Are Operating If non-native species are forced to become part of the local ecosystem, it will degenerate. Plants and trees, in co-existance and in co-evolution with species belonging to the other four kingdoms will create the best, most effective system from within the boundaries of its own micro system. The more variety, the more fun. No one on earth has ever witnessed a situation in which a group of plants and trees in a temperate climate feel the need to bring over some fungi from the tropics. This does not mean that there is no cross-over as migratory birds demonstrate. Though the core of production of consumption, regeneration of left-overs of one, as a food and value for another, is local. Transportation is kept to the absolute minimum. In our global economy we want everything from everywhere at any place and time. This leads to a massive transportation system which contaminates our environment and causes massive introduction of non-native species. At the core are only a few local species left, which evolved together over millions of years. We have increased the fragility of our own system because if a few of the remaining links break, the whole system could collapse. The more local the activities, the stronger they are - and there will be much more flexibility as diversity increases. A system that is local will be more efficient and resilient. 5. Whenever Species of Five Different Kingdoms Live and Interact, It Is Possible to Integrate and Separate All Matter at Ambient Temperature and Pressure When matter is integrated or separated without involvement of all kingdoms, then the process will cause entropy beyond the energy provided for by the sun. A spider makes its fiber at ambient temperature and pressure, from diverse raw materials. The moment tension is removed from the web, it starts disintegrating. No spider applies the closed loop concept, and tries to eat its own web in order to increase its production. Though the spider succeeds in this endeavor through a tightly knit cooperation with the other kingdoms. Industry has arranged for an intensive supply chain management, which requires precise and uniform raw materials which are converted at high temperature and pressure, causing a massive amount of entropy. Whenever matter and energy is solely produced by and consumed for the benefit of only one species (core business), then it will remain highly wasteful and can only achieve its goals causing noise, nuisance, waste and a deteriorating environment. If industry were to emulate the &quot;all inclusive approach&quot; by nature, which will continuously search for the participation of as many representatives of the 5 Kingdoms as possible, then we would be able to respond to the basic needs of all with the energy supplied by the sun. And, if for some reason, one species would be missing and as such waste (and entropy) would be generated, the ecosystem will spontaneously create a new species through symbiosis.
  51. 81. Five Kingdoms of Nature The concept of the 5 Kingdoms of Nature is inspired by the work of Prof. Dr. Lynn Margulis in her milestone reference work &quot;The 5 Kingdoms of Nature.&quot; The name kingdom is scientifically very much accepted, though some prefer to talk about domains as to make this more gender neutral. ZERI has maintainted the kingdom reference, since it speaks to the imagination of the children.                       Bacteria This symbol shows bacteria, or monera for the scientists. It are many creatures living intensively together taking care of all possible niches. All bacterial are characterized by the lack of a nucleus.                       Algae The protoctista, as the scientists like to call this domain, is a mix of slime moulds and algae. We have over-simplified this and call these species algae, knowing that scientifically it is not 100% correct. These are the first ones to have a nucleus.                       Fungi The fungi include moulds and mushrooms and have a rich biodiversity that is largely unknown. We do not even know in about 95% of the cases how to distinguish a male from a female.                       Plants Plants are the most recent arrival on Earth. There are millions unknown, but their beauty has inspired poetry and they know how to procreate in cooperation with animals.                       Animals Animals, yes the largest number of species are the worms. We are most likely descendents of worms, and not of the chimpanzee. It is not a pleasant thought, but it is a recent discovery. Actually, if we have to believe the scientific hypothesesof Lynn Margulis, then we are descendents of bacteria, or better stated, descendentsof symbiosis of bacteria! After all about 10% of our body weight are still bacteria.
  52. 82. Twelve Axioms of Economics 1. PURPOSE Merging Economic, Social and Environmental Objectives clear purpose for your organisation that responds to social, ecological and financial needs in local communities the purpose for your organisations is the DNA that unites – customers, employees, consumer, local communities, suppliers, local government, etc… awareness of personal values of stakeholders (employees, consumers, investors, community) and the values they aspire to buy products and services from merging of personal stakeholder and company values – reflected in the products, services, brands you provide making decisions on a day to day basis in relation to social, ecological and financial bottom line (Upsizing vs. Downsizing) 2. GROWTH Increasing Output with Less Input looking at your system of production and challenging everything from the point of view of adding value to stakeholders re-engineering existing production processes so they create minimum waste, but waste is permitted creating new products and services from what you traditionally regard as waste using innovative raw materials which are far more effective in relation to environment, waste, society and cost and which can stand the test of dramatic growth in demand clustering with other organisations who can use your waste as inputs to make their products and services identifying under-utilised or negative assets and optimising the use of these assets through creating new products or services (Ektropy vs. Entropy) 3. PRODUCTIVITY Increasing Total Productivity, Whilst Increasing Jobs and Eliminating Non-Value Added optimising profit and R.O.C. and minimising costs per unit of raw material - your: organisation, suppliers, customers, consumers, local environment and community growing through 100% utilisation of all your resources, and generating value added turn hidden assets and non-existing cash flow into bottom line contributions for all creating shared services with local companies to local communities (Productivity of Labor - Capital - Raw Materials) 4. CASHFLOW The Value of the Whole is More than the Sum of the Parts producing/ providing more products and services that provide new cash flow streams vs. producing/ providing one core product or service that generates just one cash flow stream providing shared services with other companies to oneself and local communities identifying and fully utilising the pockets of core competences in your organisation identifying the pockets of information exhaust in your organisation and selling that information to other organisations, customers or consumers who would value that information (Integrated Cash Flow vs. Consolidated Cash Flow) 5. PRICE Allow Price of Core Product to Slide to Zero letting the price of your core products and services slide retaining your customer and distribution streams through building up depth in your product portfolio using existing distribution streams to send new innovative and clustered products and services which are reflecting the quality and the vision of your system of production and consumption (Value Added vs. Product Margin) 6. QUALITY Offering Higher Quality at Lower Prices reducing bureaucracy, waste, under-utilized assets that are costing consumers money fully utilizing your resources (raw materials, people, time, cash, information, ecosystems, tradition, culture) so you are creating optimum value from the point of view of consumer, ecosystem and local communities providing extended services and products through partnership with other organisations providing products and services which respond to the basic needs of consumers, and which fit the personal values and vision of these consumers recognizing that consumers do not want toxins, unethical products/services or to be lied to. practicing transparency and participation in relation to building up the ecosystem, increasing jobs, cutting pollution identifying local issues and taking responsibility for them creating a strong company brand, a corporate purpose allowing consumers to make a difference while buying your products and services (Quality vs. Quantity) 7. COMPETITIVENESS Competing on the Basis of Economies of Scope (Economies of Scale vs. Economies of Scope) 8. PLACE Local Clustered Opportunities build on the biodiversity and the five kingdoms of nature to create clusters of products which rely on the local ecosystem respond to local needs with local solutions with what is available locally address local issues, respond to local dreams creating initiatives which address multiple agendas simultaneously certify your products based on local tradition and culture (Compete Globally Locally) 9. INNOVATION Faster and More with Less Risk benchmark innovations with the best performance of nature build on the biodiversity and the five kingdoms of nature to create clusters of products which rely on the local ecosystem impose impossible targets ... like produce at ambient temperature and pressure 50% of profits come from new products portfolios where systems of production match systems of consumption secure clusters with increased cash flow so that risks are lowered (Innovation vs. Compliance) 10. DIVERSIFICATION Diversify Within Your Ecosystem converting waste streams into new value added, converting hidden assets into cash flow generating activities while maintaining the core business, secure complementary activities imagine products and services from within the system instead of searching for solutions outside operate within the web, with options and choices ready for implementation and always prepared to improve along a path of co-evolution (Diversification vs. Substitution) 11. MANAGEMENT From DNA to the Immune System a shared vision, a strong purpose that binds the web together into a network everyone in the company is an integrated strategic thinker, challenging &quot;do as usual&quot; and prepared to provide feedback on how to improve and sharing knowledge a sense of responsibility and a desire to go over to action operating without a central command and decision making trusting everyone in the network agree to target total productivity, and embark on a never-ending quest for ever more value with what one has (Central Nervous vs. Immune System) 12. THERMO-DYNAMICS Ambient Temperature and Pressure integrate and separate at ambient temperature and pressure operate an open system rely on creativity and innovation to provide leadership (Entropy vs. Ektropy)

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