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Permacultura en el Desierto

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  • Introduction Strategies for the preservation of dryland species and responsible use one of the most pressing landscape management problems. Aridity, salted soils, long/term drought can always be expected in arid areas. All deserts are extending. Species not so much drought-adapted as drought - evading; dry off, stop growth, seeds & tubers. Accelerating drought and desertification has renewed attention on useful salt and dryland tolerant species. Arid systems where evaporation exceeds rainfall, precipitation below 80cm, as low as 1cm. Some features; copious seed, termites and ants, mosaic rainfall, water run-off in salt pans and basins, erosion by wind, plant associations varied in response to – slope, soil depth, salinity, browse, pH, rock type. Rainfall classifications; hyper arid 0-2cm average, extremely dry 2-5cm, arid 5-15cm, semi-arid 15-20. Rainfall not dependable, evaporation variable. Paradox; more humid environments – exotic rivers, oases, aquifers…all used with caution. Focus on increase water into ground store, re-humidify desert air – trees and existing vegetation. Should rethink strategies; corridor plantings. Deserts inspirational places to design. (160)
  • Dryland Precipitation Rain occurs as lesser part of normal cyclonic, convectional, orographic rains like elsewhere. Seasonal rain falls reliably only in some deserts – monsoon borders, coastal belts. Elsewhere episodic – averages meaningless. Opportunistic responses; response of desert to rain is remarkable. Rain triggers sequences of migrations of people and fauna. Sensible, planned, appropriate in environment with rare opportunities to harvest. Part of the strategy to capture estimated 88% of water that evaporates or runs off rapidly below ground for prolonged growth and rehumidify. Naturally 0.8% infiltrates. (83) Dryland Temperature Air temperature approximates Figure 11.1. rising 10-25 o over the day, peaking at 12-3pm. Soil temps follow the curve peaking an hour earlier. Soil holds more heat than air can reach 60-70 o at peak. Good for solar hot water but lethal for young plants. To escape heat animals burrow below 30cm, seek shade, are nocturnal for cooling and water retain. Preferable to draw from deeper, cooler layers of humid soil. (69
  • Dryland Soils Normal to find alkaline soils in desert waterways. Where we should locate settlements to take advantage of water run-off. pH levels 8.5-9 not atypical, drying water holes value rises to 10-11. Soils have high nutrient potential if pH adjusted and water available for irrigation. High and low pH areas low trace mineral, deficiencies are common in crop and fruit. Micronutrients added – foliar spray, infused irrigation water at root level, slow release pellet, dolomite. Despite limitations gardens, tree crop and orchards can be established in selected areas. Important to remember natural desert systems fragile. Good management, constant appraisal, small systems. Natural yields need assessment, broadscale avoided. Mineral solubility and pH adjust. Fertilisers; apart from humus and animal manure should be used sparingly – green growth drought stress. Good results from – shredded bark, manure, leaf nutrient mulch, compost, pit composting with continuous layers (Figure 11.69). Effects of poisons; biocides banned from drylands which miss aquatic ecosystems to filter. Out think not out poison weeds which provide biomass. Settlement location and sewage disposal critical. Easy to go wrong in deserts. Water needs frequent analysis for pollution and salts. (184)
  • Dryland Soils Normal to find alkaline soils in desert waterways. Where we should locate settlements to take advantage of water run-off. pH levels 8.5-9 not atypical, drying water holes value rises to 10-11. Soils have high nutrient potential if pH adjusted and water available for irrigation. High and low pH areas low trace mineral, deficiencies are common in crop and fruit. Micronutrients added – foliar spray, infused irrigation water at root level, slow release pellet, dolomite. Despite limitations gardens, tree crop and orchards can be established in selected areas. Important to remember natural desert systems fragile. Good management, constant appraisal, small systems. Natural yields need assessment, broadscale avoided. Mineral solubility and pH adjust. Fertilisers; apart from humus and animal manure should be used sparingly – green growth drought stress. Good results from – shredded bark, manure, leaf nutrient mulch, compost, pit composting with continuous layers (Figure 11.69). Effects of poisons; biocides banned from drylands which miss aquatic ecosystems to filter. Out think not out poison weeds which provide biomass. Settlement location and sewage disposal critical. Easy to go wrong in deserts. Water needs frequent analysis for pollution and salts. (184)
  • Water Harvesting & Irrigation Water the dominant theme. Strategies (Table 11.2). Quantity of fresh (<700ppm) the arbiter of success. Intercept it before it washes away. Tanks; store for cook and drink, divert sheet flow, infiltrate into soils for plants, give rainwater time to soak in. Conservation; two basic strategies – fit catch and store for roof water, large cisterns from public buildings, roads, paved. Cheapest store for trees in swales on roadside – grow trees to shade, provide dirt spoil. Two approaches; strict household use, strict meter. Most water saved by; least possible in gardens (save 50% of total use), use less – low flush toilet, hand shower to cistern (40% of remaining saved), bath and laundry water, kitchen water. 10mm of rain, 100m 2 roof, = 1000 litres of water (10mmx100m 2 =1000 l), or 100,000 litres sealed run-off per hectare. Domestic tanks 20-100,000 litres, any multiple of can be made of concrete. Scale figures up or down for estimating tank and swale capacity. Ample surface catchment available. Seldom can we afford to store all the rain that falls, seldom enough space to store – overflow to swales. Water storage myths. Get a tank and survive, should be integral to every building. Harvest on open sites; ground tanks possible in clays (Figure 11.31); deep and narrow, intercept run-off, roofed to prevent evaporation (Figure 11.32). Can create soil and roof water reserves to affect an oasis. Spreading; 88% of rain water evaporates or runs off, little absorbed, rain creates flood flow, debris washed to plains – increase salinity as spreads. 12% available for plants. By reference to rain days and catchment area make estimates of percentage run-off to decide proportion of storage needed – 5-80% or 20% average in deserts. Halting and absorbing run-off; two main aims – (a) convert water from destructive force, (b) recharge groundwater’s – temporary inhabitants draw ground water faster than it replaces. We can store much more water in soils than dams. Infiltration; rates in sand, clays etc has implications for designer – hold it for a day or more. Slope stabilisation with plant and earthwork. Floodwater harvest. Braided streams (Figure 11.38). Scour holes (Figure 11.40). Pitting in light soils. Spilling water downslope in fragile soil (Figure 11.43). Sand dams and clearwater reservoir (Figure 11.44). Dams; expected to have a long life before silt and sand fills the catchment. Rockholes and Gnammas. Evaporation and evapotranspiration; always exceed precipitation over year, means no free water to evaporate unless that which is open water stored. To reduce; underground and in-earth stores, surface treatment for dam, storage configuration. Dam structures; make dam conical so as level falls area falls (Figure 11.46), deep shaded valleys, storage series drained on gravity flow. (436)
  • Water Harvesting & Irrigation Water the dominant theme. Strategies (Table 11.2). Quantity of fresh (<700ppm) the arbiter of success. Intercept it before it washes away. Tanks; store for cook and drink, divert sheet flow, infiltrate into soils for plants, give rainwater time to soak in. Conservation; two basic strategies – fit catch and store for roof water, large cisterns from public buildings, roads, paved. Cheapest store for trees in swales on roadside – grow trees to shade, provide dirt spoil. Two approaches; strict household use, strict meter. Most water saved by; least possible in gardens (save 50% of total use), use less – low flush toilet, hand shower to cistern (40% of remaining saved), bath and laundry water, kitchen water. 10mm of rain, 100m 2 roof, = 1000 litres of water (10mmx100m 2 =1000 l), or 100,000 litres sealed run-off per hectare. Domestic tanks 20-100,000 litres, any multiple of can be made of concrete. Scale figures up or down for estimating tank and swale capacity. Ample surface catchment available. Seldom can we afford to store all the rain that falls, seldom enough space to store – overflow to swales. Water storage myths. Get a tank and survive, should be integral to every building. Harvest on open sites; ground tanks possible in clays (Figure 11.31); deep and narrow, intercept run-off, roofed to prevent evaporation (Figure 11.32). Can create soil and roof water reserves to affect an oasis. Spreading; 88% of rain water evaporates or runs off, little absorbed, rain creates flood flow, debris washed to plains – increase salinity as spreads. 12% available for plants. By reference to rain days and catchment area make estimates of percentage run-off to decide proportion of storage needed – 5-80% or 20% average in deserts. Halting and absorbing run-off; two main aims – (a) convert water from destructive force, (b) recharge groundwater’s – temporary inhabitants draw ground water faster than it replaces. We can store much more water in soils than dams. Infiltration; rates in sand, clays etc has implications for designer – hold it for a day or more. Slope stabilisation with plant and earthwork. Floodwater harvest. Braided streams (Figure 11.38). Scour holes (Figure 11.40). Pitting in light soils. Spilling water downslope in fragile soil (Figure 11.43). Sand dams and clearwater reservoir (Figure 11.44). Dams; expected to have a long life before silt and sand fills the catchment. Rockholes and Gnammas. Evaporation and evapotranspiration; always exceed precipitation over year, means no free water to evaporate unless that which is open water stored. To reduce; underground and in-earth stores, surface treatment for dam, storage configuration. Dam structures; make dam conical so as level falls area falls (Figure 11.46), deep shaded valleys, storage series drained on gravity flow. (436)
  • Irrigation Systems Water use in unprotected plots is wasteful. Trickle, drip or seepage irrigation the most effective. Costs regained quickly if food produced. Drip – 10-50% less than sprinkler, for establishment of adapted trees, low head needed, water placed at the plant, ideal for glasshouse and enclosed spaces (Figure 11.66). Subsurface; underground drip and seep systems most conservative. Seepage lines (Figure 11.65), trickle plus pot (Figure 11.66), domestic waste channel (Figure 11.67), Arbor system (Figure 11.68), pot (Figure 11.69), nutrient film (Figure 11.71). Condensation strategies; condense water from night air, transpired water and return to root level – methods – shields, stone mulch, sheet plastic, organic mulch, pit evaporation, closed recycling. (106)
  • Dryland Garden A serious affair. Effects unique to drylands; high water solutes likely, pH and consequent mineral deficiency, high nitrates in water, non-local food lack vitamins and expensive, water use restricted by supply, light saturation – shade, nomadic animals. Nutrition difficult without garden – primary strategy against famine – leaf, fruit and root nutritious, require little cooking. Soil and water analysis essential. Careful plant sequence for perpetual shade, deep-rooting, high yielding perennial standby crops, drought tolerant staples (cucurbits, melons, sweet potato). Staple adapted trees; palm, olive, citrus, avocado, etc and vine crop mass. Garden surround house, use all water. Plan for succession to legume – fava. Rivers as corridors of soils and moisture – corridor plantation. Matching bed, soil, irrigation and plant: gardens provide so much return they need good planning. The garden repays itself quickly. Essentials; (a) small, raised, flooded, mulched, (b) permanent hardy trees using water, (c) semi-wild hardy bulbs, tubers, roots, (d) waste water used, (e) vines, (f) mulch. Earthshaping (Figure 11.58), difficult soils (Figure 11.59), Keyhole (Figure 11.60). Staples: supply 50% or more of diet in season, in west 70% supplied by 8 crops. Staples in deserts seem to be plentiful, not so much a question of gardening or farming but of placing and managing hardy foods. Small intensive trials close to home precursor to zone 2-3 corridor trials. Always build humus and mulch production into systems. High shade essential from interplant. Systems are productive, drought resistant, cool and humus rich over time. Demonstrate how barren soil can be made productive with intensive biomass production and waste water use. Vines: key role in desert garden as crop and shadecover – moderate house climate; vines over garden (Figure 11.61), house retrofit, as mulch and forage, desert adapted. Fencing: wild feral and domestic browsing animals great impediment. Cheaper to fence out than airlift food. Allow to enter restricted areas, exclude. Soils: humus can rapidly decompose to nitrates with heat and water. Cultivation exacerbates. Mulch and litter prevent cracking and temperature. Fire worse. Soil treatments; sands – bentonite, clays – gypsum, salts – mounded. Water use efficient only if it all soaks in, stop water when saturated – mulch helps. De-salting (Figure 11.62). Desert Mulch; organic matter as important in deserts as anywhere. Categories; domestic, collected, fines, coarse mulch, toppings (figure 11.63). Free living nitrogen fixing organisms in mulch supply plant nutrient, leaching slowed or prevented, provide dolomite, emulate the ant and termite (bury waste). Almost all vegetables will grow in drylands with water harvest. Possible to develop permanent and stable dryland agriculture. (412)
  • Dryland Garden A serious affair. Effects unique to drylands; high water solutes likely, pH and consequent mineral deficiency, high nitrates in water, non-local food lack vitamins and expensive, water use restricted by supply, light saturation – shade, nomadic animals. Nutrition difficult without garden – primary strategy against famine – leaf, fruit and root nutritious, require little cooking. Soil and water analysis essential. Careful plant sequence for perpetual shade, deep-rooting, high yielding perennial standby crops, drought tolerant staples (cucurbits, melons, sweet potato). Staple adapted trees; palm, olive, citrus, avocado, etc and vine crop mass. Garden surround house, use all water. Plan for succession to legume – fava. Rivers as corridors of soils and moisture – corridor plantation. Matching bed, soil, irrigation and plant: gardens provide so much return they need good planning. The garden repays itself quickly. Essentials; (a) small, raised, flooded, mulched, (b) permanent hardy trees using water, (c) semi-wild hardy bulbs, tubers, roots, (d) waste water used, (e) vines, (f) mulch. Earthshaping (Figure 11.58), difficult soils (Figure 11.59), Keyhole (Figure 11.60). Staples: supply 50% or more of diet in season, in west 70% supplied by 8 crops. Staples in deserts seem to be plentiful, not so much a question of gardening or farming but of placing and managing hardy foods. Small intensive trials close to home precursor to zone 2-3 corridor trials. Always build humus and mulch production into systems. High shade essential from interplant. Systems are productive, drought resistant, cool and humus rich over time. Demonstrate how barren soil can be made productive with intensive biomass production and waste water use. Vines: key role in desert garden as crop and shadecover – moderate house climate; vines over garden (Figure 11.61), house retrofit, as mulch and forage, desert adapted. Fencing: wild feral and domestic browsing animals great impediment. Cheaper to fence out than airlift food. Allow to enter restricted areas, exclude. Soils: humus can rapidly decompose to nitrates with heat and water. Cultivation exacerbates. Mulch and litter prevent cracking and temperature. Fire worse. Soil treatments; sands – bentonite, clays – gypsum, salts – mounded. Water use efficient only if it all soaks in, stop water when saturated – mulch helps. De-salting (Figure 11.62). Desert Mulch; organic matter as important in deserts as anywhere. Categories; domestic, collected, fines, coarse mulch, toppings (figure 11.63). Free living nitrogen fixing organisms in mulch supply plant nutrient, leaching slowed or prevented, provide dolomite, emulate the ant and termite (bury waste). Almost all vegetables will grow in drylands with water harvest. Possible to develop permanent and stable dryland agriculture. (412)
  • Dryland Plant Themes Tree establishment in deserts, precursors to success (Figure 11.79). Special soil preparation. Revegetation in hostile areas (Figure 11.82). Creating dryland forest – the scrub turkey, the desert was once forest, can it be re-created? Possible strategies that should re-establish and perpetuate forest in dryland. Hard soils and slopes etc; net and pan (11.84, 85), boomerang (Figure 11.88), runnel trap (Figure 11.87). Recruitment; evolution of new plant generation to adult status depends on rain, fire, browsing and seed source. Wraiths and gloems; wind dispersed plants that trapped in depressions, pits, swales and against fences. Arid grasses and forbs; careful selection can increase number and condition of animals on range. There are good grasses for every situation. Careful selection for specific purposes. Aquatic and swampy species; run-off and exotic water flow areas, which can be utilised for water filtration (Figure 11.90). (137)
  • Important role of vines. Vines: key role in desert garden as crop and shadecover – moderate house climate; vines over garden (Figure 11.61),
  • Olea Europea The Olive tree is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean , Asia and parts of Africa . It is short and squat, and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape, measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. The small white flowers , with four-cleft calyx and corolla , two stamens and bifid stigma , are borne generally on the last year's wood, in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a small drupe 1–2.5 cm long, thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils , flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags, and coastal climate conditions. They tolerate drought well, thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Olive trees can be exceptionally long-lived, up to several centuries, and can remain productive for as long, provided they are pruned correctly and regularly.
  • The trees do best in a consistently sunny, humid environment with fertile soil and adequate rainfall or irrigation. Older 'abandoned' Citrus in low valleyland may suffer, yet survive, the dry summer of Central California's Inner Coast Ranges . At any age Citrus grows well enough with infrequent irrigation in partial/understory shade, but the fruit crop is smaller.
  • The avocado ( Persea americana ), also known as palta or aguacate ( Spanish ), butter pear or alligator pear , is a tree native to Perú , Mexico , South America and Central America , classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae . The name "avocado" also refers to the fruit (technically a large berry ) of the tree that contains an egg-shaped pit (hard seed casing). While an avocado propagated by seed can bear fruit, it takes roughly 4–6 years to do so, and the offspring is unlikely to resemble the parent cultivar in fruit quality. Thus, commercial orchards are planted using grafted trees and rootstocks . Rootstocks are propagated by seed (seedling rootstocks) and also layering (clonal rootstocks). After about a year of growing the young plants in a greenhouse, they are ready to be grafted. Terminal and lateral grafting is normally used. The scion cultivar will then grow for another 6–12 months before the tree is ready to be sold. Clonal rootstocks have been selected for specific soil and disease conditions, such as poor soil aeration or resistance to the soil-borne disease caused by phytophthora (root rot). The tree grows to 20 metres (65 ft ), with alternately arranged leaves 12–25 centimetres long. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, 5–10 millimetres wide. The pear -shaped fruit is 7–20 centimetres long, weighs between 100 and 1000 grams, and has a large central seed , 5–6.4 centimeters long. [5] It is considered by many to be a drupe , but is botanically classified as a berry . [6] [7] The subtropical species needs a climate without frost and with little wind. High winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flowers, and affect pollination. In particular, the West Indian type requires humidity and a tropical climate which is important in flowering. When even a mild frost occurs, some fruit may drop from the tree, reducing the yield, although the Hass cultivar can tolerate temperatures down to −1° C . The trees also need well aerated soils, ideally more than 1 m deep. Yield is reduced when the irrigation water is highly saline . These soil and climate conditions are provided only in a few areas of the world, particularly in southern Spain , the Levant , South Africa , Peru , parts of central and northern Chile , Vietnam , Indonesia , Sri Lanka , Australia , New Zealand , the United States , the Philippines , Malaysia , Central America , the caribbean and Mexico , the center of origin and diversity of this species. Each region has different types of cultivars. Mexico is the largest producer of the Hass variety, with over 1 million tonnes produced annually.
  • "One could go as far as to say that, had the date palm not existed, the expansion of the human race into the hot and barren parts of the "old" world would have been much more restricted. The date palm not only provided a concentrated energy food, which could be easily stored and carried along on long journeys across the deserts, it also created a more amenable habitat for the people to live in by providing shade and protection from the desert winds (Fig. 1). In addition, the date palm also yielded a variety of products for use in agricultural production and for domestic utensils, and practically all parts of the palm had a useful purpose." [13]
  • Cucurbitaceae is a plant family commonly known as melons , gourds or cucurbits and includes crops like cucumbers , squashes (including pumpkins ), luffas , melons and watermelons . The family is predominantly distributed around the tropics, where those with edible fruits were amongst the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds.
  • Jubæa chilensis
  • The Carob genus Ceratonia belongs to the Leguminosae (Legume) family, and is believed to be an archaic remnant of a part of this family now generally considered extinct. It grows well in warm temperate and subtropical areas and tolerates hot and humid coastal areas. As a xerophytic (drought-resistant) species, Carob is well adapted to the ecological conditions of the Mediterranean region. Trees prefer well drained loams and are intolerant of waterlogging , but the deep root systems can adapt to a wide variety of soil conditions and are fairly salt-tolerant. [5] The Carob tree (from Arabic : خروب " kharūb" and Hebrew : חרוב Charuv ), Ceratonia siliqua , is a leguminous evergreen shrub or tree of the family Leguminosae (pulse family) native to the Mediterranean region . It is cultivated for its edible seed pods. Carobs are also known as St. John's bread. According to tradition of some Christians , St. John the Baptist subsisted on them in the wilderness. [1] A similar legend exists of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai and his son. [2] A traditional food plant in Africa, this little-known fruit has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare. [3]
  • Dryland House Efficient housing critical design strategy. Summer cooling, winter warmth. Traditional systems sophisticated; cool courtyards, evaporation strategies, narrow east-west streets, white painted massive walls, small windows, tower ventilation, outdoor cooking, earth shelter, vines, roof used. Clustered dwellings keeps out wind and heat. If sun-facing and more than one level, cool air in shade and draw down available. Ideal; dense housing, close space on east-west alignment, multi storey (Figure 1.7), narrow shaded paved areas. Site conditions; desert needs most careful selection, ideal underground, earth shelter, cave, flat roof, trellis and integration of house, water, vine crop. Underground & earth sheltered, surface housing; cooling – earth tunnel (11.54). Cool air source; internal courtyard, fully enclosed vine areas (shade & food), down-draught, induced cross-ventilation. Trombe wall, attached glasshouse, solar mass and insulation – buffer heat and cold. Solar chimney. 10-15 o air cool with shade, vines and induced flow. Essentials. Vegetation placement around home /Figure 11.55). Home energy conservation. Water conservation. (154)
  • Dryland House Efficient housing critical design strategy. Summer cooling, winter warmth. Traditional systems sophisticated; cool courtyards, evaporation strategies, narrow east-west streets, white painted massive walls, small windows, tower ventilation, outdoor cooking, earth shelter, vines, roof used. Clustered dwellings keeps out wind and heat. If sun-facing and more than one level, cool air in shade and draw down available. Ideal; dense housing, close space on east-west alignment, multi storey (Figure 1.7), narrow shaded paved areas. Site conditions; desert needs most careful selection, ideal underground, earth shelter, cave, flat roof, trellis and integration of house, water, vine crop. Underground & earth sheltered, surface housing; cooling – earth tunnel (11.54). Cool air source; internal courtyard, fully enclosed vine areas (shade & food), down-draught, induced cross-ventilation. Trombe wall, attached glasshouse, solar mass and insulation – buffer heat and cold. Solar chimney. 10-15 o air cool with shade, vines and induced flow. Essentials. Vegetation placement around home /Figure 11.55). Home energy conservation. Water conservation. (154)
  • Species not so much drought-adapted as drought - evading; dry off, stop growth, seeds & tubers. Xerophilous
  • Figure 16. Andean tubers: A) bitter potatoes; A1) tubers; A2) flower; B) ullucu ( Ullucus tuberosus ); B1) tubers
  • Figure 15. Andean tubers: A) oca ( Oxalis tuberosa ); A1) tuber; B) mashwa ( Tropaeolum tuberosum ); B1) tuber
  • Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum
  • ( S. tuberosum )
  • ( S. pimpinellifolium
  • S. melongena
  • Capsicum annuum
  • Amaranth Amaranthus caudatus Amaranth is an old cultivated crop originating on American continent. The Aztecs, Incas and Mayas considered amaranth as their staple food together with maize and beans. It used to be one of the most important crops in America before Spanish colonialists conquered it and further cultivation of the crop was banned. Amaranth was preserved on hard to reach places of mountainous Central and South America. Amaranth was first introduced as an ornamental plant in Europe in the 16th century. Different species of amaranth spread throughout the world during 17th, 18th and 19th century. In India, China and under the harsh conditions of Himalayas this plant became important grain and/or vegetable crop This plant is valued for the positive chemical composition of seed that does not contain gluten. Amaranth is very interesting crop from the point of its high production potential. It grows intensively, photosynthesises fast and effectively, does not suffer from major diseases and is tolerant to various extreme conditions.
  • Dryland Designers Checklist Broad strategies; commence operations for freshwater infiltration at top of catchment and work downstream as plants establish, upwind areas most attention for pitting and windbreak, start at oases nuclei and work out on corridor, spread Pelleted seed to await rain. Garden and food; establish shaded and mulched gardens, create windbreak and shade trees, extend successful species on corridors, water harvest swales and fields for wet season storable crop. Water supply; drinking water can be supplied by tank and roof, garden and firewood established on mix of drip and swales, broadscale crop needs windbreak and water harvest ratio or 20ha harvest to 1ha sown. Find safe dam sites in shade and off diverted streams, store water in sand filled gabions, use water wisely, never use deep bores or pumped water beyond recharge ability, test water rigorously, where water infiltrated plant trees to keep salt down. Health; reduce settlement dust with trees and pit, check for water borne disease, supply ample vitamin in home garden fruit and vege, check plants, soils and blood for essential minerals especially zinc and iron, rely on locally grown carbohydrates and avoid imports. (186)
  • Dryland Designers Checklist Broad strategies; commence operations for freshwater infiltration at top of catchment and work downstream as plants establish, upwind areas most attention for pitting and windbreak, start at oases nuclei and work out on corridor, spread Pelleted seed to await rain. Garden and food; establish shaded and mulched gardens, create windbreak and shade trees, extend successful species on corridors, water harvest swales and fields for wet season storable crop. Water supply; drinking water can be supplied by tank and roof, garden and firewood established on mix of drip and swales, broadscale crop needs windbreak and water harvest ratio or 20ha harvest to 1ha sown. Find safe dam sites in shade and off diverted streams, store water in sand filled gabions, use water wisely, never use deep bores or pumped water beyond recharge ability, test water rigorously, where water infiltrated plant trees to keep salt down. Health; reduce settlement dust with trees and pit, check for water borne disease, supply ample vitamin in home garden fruit and vege, check plants, soils and blood for essential minerals especially zinc and iron, rely on locally grown carbohydrates and avoid imports. (186)
  • Dryland Designers Checklist Broad strategies; commence operations for freshwater infiltration at top of catchment and work downstream as plants establish, upwind areas most attention for pitting and windbreak, start at oases nuclei and work out on corridor, spread Pelleted seed to await rain. Garden and food; establish shaded and mulched gardens, create windbreak and shade trees, extend successful species on corridors, water harvest swales and fields for wet season storable crop. Water supply; drinking water can be supplied by tank and roof, garden and firewood established on mix of drip and swales, broadscale crop needs windbreak and water harvest ratio or 20ha harvest to 1ha sown. Find safe dam sites in shade and off diverted streams, store water in sand filled gabions, use water wisely, never use deep bores or pumped water beyond recharge ability, test water rigorously, where water infiltrated plant trees to keep salt down. Health; reduce settlement dust with trees and pit, check for water borne disease, supply ample vitamin in home garden fruit and vege, check plants, soils and blood for essential minerals especially zinc and iron, rely on locally grown carbohydrates and avoid imports. (186)
  • Dryland Designers Checklist Broad strategies; commence operations for freshwater infiltration at top of catchment and work downstream as plants establish, upwind areas most attention for pitting and windbreak, start at oases nuclei and work out on corridor, spread Pelleted seed to await rain. Garden and food; establish shaded and mulched gardens, create windbreak and shade trees, extend successful species on corridors, water harvest swales and fields for wet season storable crop. Water supply; drinking water can be supplied by tank and roof, garden and firewood established on mix of drip and swales, broadscale crop needs windbreak and water harvest ratio or 20ha harvest to 1ha sown. Find safe dam sites in shade and off diverted streams, store water in sand filled gabions, use water wisely, never use deep bores or pumped water beyond recharge ability, test water rigorously, where water infiltrated plant trees to keep salt down. Health; reduce settlement dust with trees and pit, check for water borne disease, supply ample vitamin in home garden fruit and vege, check plants, soils and blood for essential minerals especially zinc and iron, rely on locally grown carbohydrates and avoid imports. (186)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Estrategias del Desierto Atacama Chile
    • 2. Creative Commons License FlowerJune08.png Usar Nuestro Trabajo Presentaciones de Ecoescuela El Manzano están licenciadas por Creative Commons Atribución-Licenciar Igual 3.0 Unported . Usted es libre de: Copiar, distribuir y ejecutar públicamente la obra. Hacer obras derivadas. Bajo las siguientes condiciones: Reconocimiento . Porfavor haz referencia a Ecoescuela El Manzano indicando nuestra página web www.ecoescuela.cl y utilizando nuestro logo (pero no de una manera que sugiera que tiene su apoyo o apoyan el uso que hace de su obra). Compartir bajo la misma licencia . Si transforma o modifica esta obra para crear una obra derivada, sólo puede distribuir la obra resultante bajo la misma licencia, una similar o una de compatible.
    • 3. Introducción
      • Estrategias para zonas desérticas son muy importantes – el proceso de desertificación va en aumento y el desierto se está expandiendo.
      • Zonas áridas: donde la evaporación excede a la precipitación, precipitación menor a 80cm, hasta 1cm.
      • Desiertos son lugares inspiradores para diseñar.
      • Los desiertos naturales son sistemas muy frágiles.
    • 4. Introducción
      • Los efectos de productos químicos son muy nocivos; biocidas deben ser prohibidos de zonas áridas.
        • No hay sistemas acuáticos - humedales que actuen de filtro – sustancias van directamente a las napas.
      • Ubicación de asentamientos y disposición de aguas negras y desechos es crítico.
      • Es fácil equivocarse en el desierto.
      • Necesario análisis de agua frecuentes de contaminantes y sales.
    • 5. Introducción
      • Aridez, suelos salinos, suelos sódicos, sequía prolongada.
        • Evaporación excede precipitación <80cm.
      • Foco
        • Acumulación de agua subterránea.
        • Rehumidificación del aire.
        • Árboles y vegetación existente.
    • 6. The Arava Desert
    • 7. flourishing habitat around Kibbutz Lotan
    • 8. abundant life
    • 9. Kibbutz Lotan amidst the harsh Arava
    • 10. Agricultura “Orgánica”
        • Por qué no Agricultura Convencional??
    • 11. kinda scary...
    • 12. Desierto en todas partes!!
      • Agricultura convencional está creando desiertos.
      • Lo podemos ver en todo el mundo...
      • La exportación número 1 de USA es SUELO –
      • pérdida por erosión, lixiviación hacia cauces de agua.
      • La vida que sostiene al suelo se desperdicia.
      • Agricultura industrial esta causando desertificación
      • a gran escala.
    • 13. A donde se fueron los árboles??? studying gardening in the desert doesn't seem so crazy anymore...
    • 14. Pesticidas y fertilizantes han matado los micro-organismos del suelo, dejándolo seco y triste.....ecosistemas sanos requieren la capa superficial del suelo!
    • 15. Pérdida de suelo por erosión del viento después de cortar los árboles
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18. Desert 2009 2 241.JPG
    • 19. IMG_4625.JPG
    • 20. IMG_4885.JPG
    • 21. Clima Desértico
      • Precipitación no confiable.
        • Promedios insignificantes.
      • Respuestas oportunistas a la lluvia.
        • Lluvia gatilla migraciones – escazas oportunidades para cosechar.
      • Capturar el 88% del agua que se evapora o se lixivia rápidamente al subsuelo
        • Naturalmente 0.8% se infiltra.
      • Temperaturas extremas 10-25 o letal para plantas jóvenes.
    • 22. Desert 2009 112.JPG
    • 23. C:UsersGrifenAppDataLocalTempatacama-flora31.jpg
    • 24. Narrow streets Desert 2009 2 102.JPG
    • 25. Desert 2009 2 221.JPG
    • 26. Desert 2009 2 211.JPG
    • 27. Desert 2009 2 123.JPG
    • 28. La Respuesta está en el Suelo.
    • 29. Suelos del Desierto
      • Suelos muy alcalinos pH 8.5-9.
        • Alta disponibilidad de nutrientes si se ajusta el pH & hay disponibilidad de agua.
      • Comúnmente falta de elementos traza.
        • Deficiencia en el cultivo..deficiencia en la dieta.
      • Incorporar micronutrientes.
        • Aspersión foliar, riego al sistema de raíces, dolomita.
    • 30. Suelos del Desierto
      • Chips, guano, mulch de hojas, compost en hoyos.
        • Crecimiento verde resistente a la sequía.
      • Prohiban los biocidas! No existen humedales para filtrar.
        • Out think not out poison the weeds – biomass!
    • 31. La Línea base
      • Suelo Sano y Vivo:
      • = Plantas Sanas
      • = Animales Sanos
      • Y Gente Feliz!
    • 32. C:UsersGrifenPicturesHome gardensDSCF0045.JPG
    • 33. C:UsersGrifenPicturesHome gardensDSCF0034.JPG
    • 34. Creación de Suelo
      • Desecho orgánico (comida, malezas, caca, etc) puede convertirse en compost...suelo hecho por el hombre!
        • Crea suelo fértil y nutritivo para alimentos sanos y nutritivos.
        • Reduce el concepto de desecho que no existe en la naturaleza.
        • Basura es Comida.
    • 35. Insert human nutrient cycle make your own pile at home!
    • 36.  
    • 37. botucatu 087
    • 38. Recursos humanos turdleytip3 Oye!!, yo soy tu amigo!!
    • 39. paigejeaninebins
    • 40. botucatu 084 botucatu 086
    • 41. desbanheiroseco Composteira Saída de gases
    • 42. 3-8-img517
    • 43. 27-illustration1
    • 44. 1m 3 Suficiente
    • 45. Mezcla de Carbono y Nitrógeno (capas delgadas son mejores)
      • Carbono: material cafe
      • y seco.
        • paja
        • hojas/ malezas
        • Papel / cartón
        • Aserrín
      • Nitrógeno: materia
      • verde (húmedo), siempre
      • Cubierto con una capa de
      • material seco
      • - restos de comida
        • Guano/estiercol/orina
        • Malezas verdes.
      * Si esta hediondo, agrega carbono
    • 46. home (continuous) compost system: ready compost at base
    • 47. 30:1
    • 48.  
    • 49.  
    • 50.  
    • 51.  
    • 52. IMG_4842.JPG
    • 53. IMG_4718.JPG
    • 54. Agua , agua en todas partes pero ni una gota para tomar!
    • 55. Cosecha de Agua
      • Agua: el tema dominante!!
        • Evapotranspiración siempre excede precipitación.
      • Intercéptala antes que desaparezca.
        • Tanques para agua de lluvia.
        • Infiltrar en el suelo, en profundidad, dar tiempo al proceso de infiltración.
    • 56. Cosecha de Agua
      • Dos estrategias de Conservación.
        • Captura en el techo y almacena en un tanque.
        • Almacenaje en cisternas – captura desde los caminos.
      • Eficiencia máxima en el uso de Agua en la Casa
        • Riego mínimo, tanques de WC de menor volumen, baños secos, reutilización de aguas grises.
    • 57. Manejo del Agua
      • Utilizar sistemas de captación de agua (del techo) para la casa y agricultura – reduce la presión hacia los acuíferos.
      • Hacer zanjas de infiltración de agua de lluvia permite que el agua penetre en el suelo y se infiltre en profundidad – en algunos lugares no siendo necesario el riego.
      • Zanjas de Infiltración suben la napas subterráneas – comprobado – y funcionan hasta en el Dead Sea Valley Jordania.
    • 58. MVC-013F.JPG
    • 59. Date Palm overstorey Illustration 2.JPG
    • 60. 15.JPG
    • 61. 17.JPG
    • 62. 00000015.JPG
    • 63. 70.JPG
    • 64. new water catchment system1.jpg
    • 65. new watercatchment system3.jpg
    • 66. 74.JPG
    • 67. 00000018.JPG
    • 68. DSCF0127.JPG
    • 69. C:UsersGrifenPicturesHome gardensDSCF0031.JPG
    • 70. Big Swale growth.JPG
    • 71. Chop and drop.JPG
    • 72. 32.JPG
    • 73. 34.JPG
    • 74. 46.JPG
    • 75. â}âWâF~1.JPG
    • 76. Jordan 249.jpg
    • 77. Jordan 230.jpg
    • 78. area7,swale8.jpg
    • 79. feb 03 farm view 2.jpg
    • 80. DSCF0117.JPG
    • 81. Riego en Zonas Áridas
      • Chorro, goteo, filtración subterránea muy efectivo
        • Costos de vida disminuyen si producimos alimentos.
        • El goteo utiliza 10-15% menos que microaspersión, riego localizado en la planta, a ras de suelo.
      • En el subsuelo – para mayor conservación.
        • Líneas de infiltración, canalizar desechos domésticos, sistema de vasijas.
      • Condensar la humedad del aire durante la noche.
        • Superficies frías, piedras alrededor de los árboles, lonas de plástico.
    • 82.  
    • 83.  
    • 84.  
    • 85. riego gota
    • 86.  
    • 87.  
    • 88.  
    • 89. Aguas Grises
      • Duchas, lavamanos, y lavandería puede ser reutilizada fácilmente en la huerta/jardín.
      • Reduce uso de agua
      • Reduce Desechos
      • Reduce presión a los sistemas de alcantarilado o fosas´sépticas
      • No tires sustancias químicas cloro a las napas subterráneas – NO USAR
      • Agua necesita ser analizada constantemente.
    • 90. Aguas Grises
      • Las aguas grises corresponden a aquellas que son de origen domiciliario pero que no contienen material fecal.
      • 49 – 79% del agua utilizada diariamente.
      • Agua posible de reutilizar: 750Lt / día / familia
      • Biofiltro: Humedal artificial para la depuración de aguas.
    • 91.  
    • 92. filtro
    • 93. Utilizando Recipientes de plástico DSCN1629 Caixa de gordura Segundo estágio Terceiro estágio Quarto estágio irrigação de plantas
    • 94. projeto casa Antonio Lee 618 PRIMEIRO SEGUNDO TERCEIRO QUARTO QUINTO
    • 95. projeto casa Antonio Lee 975
    • 96.  
    • 97. http://www.permaculture.org.au/images/greywater_mulch_pit.jpg Sistema Hoyo de Mulch
    • 98. Árboles
    • 99. Plantar Arboles
      • Plantación de árboles en el desierto – la clave del éxito!!!!
      • Plantar árboles;
        • almacenan CO2, proveen alimentos, combustible, forraje
        • nutrientes para el suelo, materiales para construir, cercos.
        • Habitats para animales , mulch, y sombra para humanos, animales y plantas!!
      • Y es probablemente el acto más subversivo que podemos realizar.
    • 100. 7 year old trees Neot Smadar
    • 101. planted Oasis: Naot Smadar
    • 102. Elaine Solloway's “desert compatible” tree orchard: Kibbutz Ketura
    • 103. trees in the desert yielding topsoil!
    • 104. IMG_4839.JPG
    • 105. Desert 2009 2 238.JPG
    • 106. Desert 2009 2 237.JPG
    • 107. Desert 2009 031.JPG
    • 108. Desert 2009 094.JPG
    • 109. Huerta del Desierto
    • 110. Huertas del Desierto
      • Nutrición difícil sin una huerta.
        • Estrategia primaria - frutos, hojas y raíces – nutritivas y fáciles de cocinar.
      • Análisis de agua y suelo esencial.
      • Secuencia de Plantas para crear sombra permanente.
        • Raíces profundas, especies perennes de alto rendimiento, cultivos básicos resistentes a la sequía
      • Árboles adaptados.
      • Huerta alrededor de la casa, reutiliza toda el agua!
    • 111. Huerta del desierto
      • Incluir producción de humus y mulch.
      • Suelos degradados pueden ser regenerados con incorporación de biomasa u utilización de aguas grises.
      • Mulch; MO importante en todas partes.
        • Organismos fijadores de nitrógeno en el mulch proveen fertilidad a la planta.
        • Prevención de lixiviación,
        • Imita a la hormiga y la termita (entierra desechos)
    • 112. Rainforest.jpg
    • 113. escanear0009.jpg
    • 114.  
    • 115.  
    • 116.  
    • 117. E:ImagesPirque2009-04-28165.JPG
    • 118. Almendras interow
    • 119.  
    • 120.  
    • 121. Kibbutz Lotan Organic Garden (drip irrigation)‏
    • 122. and flourishing gardens
    • 123. Desert Garden
    • 124. food scraps for sheet mulch garden (old food will soon grow new food!)‏
    • 125. neighbourhood sheet mulch garden
    • 126. sheet mulch garden- building soil from wastes (manure, weeds cardboard)‏
    • 127. personal veggie gardens (after 1 month)‏
    • 128. hortmali%20copia
    • 129. Plantas del desierto
      • Bosques en zonas áridas no fácil!
        • Recrea los procesos naturales
      • Captura Agua.
      • Viento dispersa semillas..
        • Atrapada en depresiones, hoyos, zanjas de infiltración y cercos.
    • 130. IMG_4867.JPG San Pedro Atacama
    • 131. Desert 2009 2 119.JPG Tocanao Atacama
    • 132. Desert 2009 2 113.JPG
    • 133. Desert 2009 047.JPG
    • 134. IMG_4680.JPG
    • 135. IMG_4681.JPG
    • 136. IMG_4872.JPG
    • 137. IMG_4860.JPG
    • 138. IMG_4865.JPG IMG_4856.JPG
    • 139. IMG_4864.JPG IMG_4862.JPG
    • 140. nice and peaceful..
    • 141. vines
    • 142.  
    • 143.  
    • 144.  
    • 145.  
    • 146.  
    • 147.  
    • 148.  
    • 149.  
    • 150.  
    • 151.  
    • 152. Las Casas
    • 153. Casa del Desierto
      • Estrategias de eficiencia en la casa importante!
        • Ventiladas en verano, calientes en invierno.
      • Sistemas Tradicionales Sofísticados
        • Patios interiores, evaporación, ventanas peueñas, parrones, cocina al aire libre; etc..
    • 154. Casa del desierto
      • Amurallamiento para protección del viento y calor.
      • Bajo el suelo y protegida.
      • Patios Internos, ventilación cruzada.
      • Vegetación alrededor de la casa para sombra.
    • 155. Internal courtyards
    • 156.  
    • 157. Small windows IMG_4799.JPG IMG_4788.JPG
    • 158. IMG_4784.JPG
    • 159. IMG_4713.JPG
    • 160. IMG_4707.JPG
    • 161. IMG_4700.JPG
    • 162. IMG_4875.JPG IMG_4869.JPG IMG_4679.JPG
    • 163. Evaporation strategies
    • 164.  
    • 165.  
    • 166.  
    • 167. future “living” shade structure
    • 168. Barro
    • 169. making cob
    • 170. weee!
    • 171. and the finished product is beautiful!
    • 172. PAJA
    • 173. in the room
    • 174. Aislación vs Masa ...
      • Aislación (paja, pieles, etc.) – disminuye la transferencia de calor.
      • Masa (barro, concreto, piedras, etc.) acumula calor y luego, lo libera
      • Óptima temperatura: aislamiento hacia el exterior de una estructura y masa térmica en el interior.
    • 175. parabolic solar cooker
    • 176. taboon (earthen) oven geodessic domes solar oven
    • 177. solar powered mud tea house
    • 178. solar oven thermal mass insulation
    • 179. Solar Dryer Trays.JPG
    • 180. Solar Dryer.JPG
    • 181. mud bench stage 1: fill tires with junk
    • 182. mud bench stage 2: first coat (sticky mud)‏
    • 183. mud bench stage 3: rock and concrete “good shoes” base
    • 184. mud bench stage 4 and 5: thick second coat mud and aesthetic (no straw) final coat
    • 185. finished with reused veggie oil and turpentine
    • 186. double dug compost trench garden
    • 187. children play dome
    • 188. new domes frame construction
    • 189. neighbourhood west view: domes
    • 190. future classroom
    • 191. building the frame
    • 192. dome entrance ways (before beautification)‏
    • 193. dining area / social quarters: (community space is very important!)‏
    • 194. BAÑOS SECOS
    • 195.  
    • 196.  
    • 197. wash area showers
    • 198. geodessic straw bale mud dome
    • 199. my beloved home... after 3 coats of mud and beautification
    • 200. Drought evading rather than adapted C:UsersGrifenDesktop2559772987_54c3114917.jpg
    • 201. Seeds and tubers
    • 202. Ulluca
    • 203. Oca
    • 204.  
    • 205.  
    • 206.  
    • 207.  
    • 208.  
    • 209.  
    • 210. Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Species Beta vulgaris Chenopodium quinoa Spinacia oleracea .
    • 211.  
    • 212.  
    • 213.  
    • 214.  
    • 215. DSCF0002.JPG
    • 216. Geese around raised pond.JPG
    • 217. Geese 1.JPG bill[1].jpg
    • 218. Dryland Checklist
      • Freshwater infiltration at top of catchment and work downstream as plants establish.
      • Start at oases nuclei and work out on corridor.
      • Garden and food;
        • Establish shaded and mulched gardens,
        • Create windbreak and shade trees,
        • Extend successful species on corridors,
        • Water harvest swales and fields for wet season storable crop.
    • 219. Dryland Checklist
      • Water supply; drinking water can be supplied by tank and roof.
      • Garden and firewood established on mix of drip and swales.
      • Find safe dam sites in shade and off diverted streams, store water in sand filled gabions.
      • Use water wisely.
      • Never use deep bores or pumped water beyond recharge ability.
    • 220. Dryland Checklist
      • Test water rigorously.
      • Where water infiltrated plant trees to keep salt down.
      • Health;
        • Check for water borne disease, supply ample vitamin in home garden fruit and vege.
        • Check plants, soils and blood for essential minerals especially zinc and iron.
        • Rely on locally grown carbohydrates and avoid imports .
    • 221. Dryland Checklist
      • “It's not how much you have, its how many times you use it”
        • Use all resources to their fullest potential.
      • Use shade on buildings and crops.
        • Keep things cold.
        • Prevent water loss. Prevent sun damage / burning.
      • Use the sun whenever it can be beneficial.
        • Solar cooking, Passive heating,Energy.