Value of-grey-to-research-business-jeffery-gl conf-2013

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Keith Jeffery presents on the value of grey literature to research business and society at the Where is the evidence conference 2013 held at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia on 11 …

Keith Jeffery presents on the value of grey literature to research business and society at the Where is the evidence conference 2013 held at the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia on 11 November 2013. Part of the Grey literature strategies project.

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  • 1. The Value of Grey to Research, Business and Society Keith G Jeffery keith.jeffery@keithgjefferyconsultants.co.uk ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 1
  • 2. STRUCTURE • • • • • • Introduction Grey Literature Research, Business and Society The value of ‘grey’ How to achieve that value Conclusion ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 2
  • 3. STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 3
  • 4. CAREER • Late 60s First UK relational system: GEXEC • 70s Filematch: interoperation • Early 80s Online grants, library, science • Late80s IDEAS, EXIRPTS • 90s CERIF • 00s e-Science ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 4
  • 5. And the running theme is… To describe: Persons (users), Data (including publications), Processes, e-Infrastructure ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 5
  • 6. Which allows…. The user neither knows nor cares how her processing is done as long as service levels and quality of service are appropriate ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 6
  • 7. Grey Literature Publications • • • • • • • • • • Jeffery, K G: ‘An Architecture for Grey Literature in a R&D Context’ Proceedings GL'99 (Grey Literature) Conference Washington DC October 1999 ; TextRelease Keith G. Jeffery, (2000) "An architecture for grey literature in a R&D context", International Journal on Grey Literature, Vol. 1 Iss: 2, pp.64 - 72 DOI: 10.1108/14666180010327429 K G Jeffery, A G S Asserson Relating Intellectual Property Products to the Corporate Context; Proceedings Grey Literature 6 Conference, New York, December 2004; TextRelease; ISBN 90-7748403-5 Asserson, A; Jeffery, K.G.; ‘Research Output Publications and CRIS’ The Grey Journal volume 1 number 1: Spring 2005 TextRelease/Greynet ISSN 1574-1796 pp5-8 K G Jeffery, A G S Asserson ‘Grey in the R&D Process’; Proceedings Grey Literature 7 Conference, Nancy, December 2005; TextRelease; ISBN 90-77484-06-X ISSN 1386-2316 K G Jeffery, A G S Asserson ‘Grey in the R&D Process’; The Grey Journal Vol 2 Number 3 September 2006 ISSN 1574-1796 Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson: ‘Hyperactive Grey Objects’ Proceedings Grey Literature 8 Conference (GL8), New Orleans, December 2006; TextRelease; ISBN 90-77484-08-6. ISSN 1386-2316 ; No. 8-06-X Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson: ‘Hyperactive Grey Objects’ in Robert E Baensch (Ed); Publishing Research Quarterly Vol 23 Number 1 March 2007; pp 71-77; Springer New York and www.springeronline.com Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson: ‘Greyscape’ Opening Paper in Proceedings Grey Literature 9 Conference Antwerp (GL9) 10-11 December 2007 pp9-14; Textrelease, Amsterdam; ISSN 1386-2316 Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson: ‘Greyscape’ The Grey Journal 4 (3) 2008 pp 137-142 ISSN 1574-1796 ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 7
  • 8. Grey Literature Publications • • • • • • • Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson: ‘INTEREST’ Proceedings Grey Literature Conference Amsterdam 8-9 December 2008 in Tenth International Conference on Grey Literature : Designing the Grey Grid for Information Society, 8-9 December 2008, Science Park Amsterdam, The Netherlands ed. by Dominic J. Farace and Jerry Frantzen ; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service. - Amsterdam : TextRelease, February 2009. GL-Conference series, ISSN 1386-2316; No. 10. - ISBN 978-90-7748411-1. Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson: ‘MOSAIC: Shades of Grey’ Proceedings Eleventh International Conference on Grey Literature Conference Washington DC 15-16 December 2009 Ed Dominic Farace and Jerry Frantzen pp54-58 TextRelease Amsterdam Series ISSN 1386-2316; no 11; ISBN 978-90-77484-13-5 Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson ‘GL Transparency: Through a Glass, Clearly’ Proceedings Twelfth International Conference on Grey Literature, Prague December 2010 Ed Dominic Farace and Jerry Frantzen 95-100, TextRelease Amsterdam Series ISSN 1386-2316; no 12; ISBN 978-90-77484-16-6 Keith G Jeffery, Anne Asserson ‘GL Transparency: Through a Glass, Clearly’ The Grey Journal, Volume 7, Number 2, pp 99-104 Summer 2011 ISSN 1574-1796 Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson: ‘Grey in the Innovation Process’ GL14 2012: In Dominic Farace & Jerry Frantzen (Eds): Proceedings International Conference on Grey Literature November Rome 2012 Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson: ‘Grey in the Innovation Process’ The Grey Journal Volume 9, Number 3, Autumn 2013 http://www.greynet.org/thegreyjournal/forthcoming.html Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson: ‘Auditing Grey in a CRIS Environment’ accepted for presentation at GL15 2013 Bratislava December 2013 ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 8
  • 9. Grey Literature Career • And references to GL in many other publications and presentations • You will note much of the work has been done jointly with Anne Asserson, University of Bergen Library, whose contributions are hereby acknowledged. ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 9
  • 10. STRUCTURE • • • • • • Introduction Grey Literature Research, Business and Society The value of ‘grey’ How to achieve that value Conclusion ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 10
  • 11. GL Questions (Greynet.org) 1. What is the definition of grey literature? 2. How is grey literature best described? 3. Once grey literature is indexed and referenced, does it cease to be grey? 4. Should grey literature be free to access? 5. Is grey literature subject to a review process? 6. Is the content of commercially published documents superior to grey? 7. Does grey literature constitute a field in information studies? 8. Should the average net-user recognize the term grey literature? 9. What problems currently face grey literature? 10 What is the impact of grey literature? ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 11
  • 12. What is Grey Literature • "Grey literature stands for manifold document types produced on all levels of government, academics, bu siness and industry in print and electronic formats that are protected by intellectual property rights, of sufficient quality to be collected and preserved by library holdings or institutional repositories, but not controlled by commercial publishers i.e., where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body”. – International Conference on Grey Literature 2010 ©Keith G Jeffery • That which is not ‘white’ – Quality – Institutional holding – Not managed by commercial publishers • In fact commonly it is – the IP (intellectual property) – the ‘know how’ Of an organisation • And is thus more valuable than the ‘white’ literature – which ‘gives away’ the IP Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 12
  • 13. Examples • • • • • • • • PhD Thesis Workshop Reports Unrefereed conference material Technical reports – May be later published as refereed papers – Possibly after revision Seminar materials Learning Materials Masters Thesis Technical manuals, instructions – Usually version controlled ©Keith G Jeffery • Records of management decisions – Policy documents – Meeting minutes, agendas • Marketing material – Usually version controlled • Computer software • Data not validated independently • Art artefacts • Popular articles, interviews, presentation • Does one include ephemera? Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 13
  • 14. Grey and White Example: Doctoral Thesis Doctoral Thesis extract The whitest of the grey? (double review) aggregate ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature Published peerReviewed paper 20131114 14
  • 15. GL Issues • Is the process documented? • Does it include review? – Internal, informal  External, formal – By whom? – With what role? • Is the provenance documented? • Are versions documented? ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 15
  • 16. Quality • Data (the document or object) – The quality is determined by • Provenance • Review process – (internal, [formal | informal]) • Subsequent reconsideration (annotation) • Metadata – The quality of the metadata determines • Recall and relevance in retrieval • Access and rights management ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 16
  • 17. Achieving Quality • Collected as early as possible in the process by people intimately related to the subject • Quality checked within the process – ISO9001 – Some grey literature critically important for business continuity / risk management ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 17
  • 18. GL and OA • Grey Literature is increasingly stored in an institutional OA repository by the organisation where it is generated • Access: metadata must be in standard form and of high quality (minimally OAI-PMH-DC) – Ease of access: recall, relevance – Access restrictions: rights, security • Object quality: may be measured by hyperlinks from other objects, accesses or downloads – Is this the equivalent of citations ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 18
  • 19. GL Repository Issues • Measuring impact of grey – Academic – Wealth creation / improvement in quality of life • • • • Version management Access management Rights management How to distinguish in the repository grey from green? ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 19
  • 20. GL Repository Issues • Measuring impact of grey – Academic – Wealth creation / improvement in quality of life • • • • Version management Access management Rights management How to distinguish in the repository grey from green? ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 20
  • 21. CRIS-IR In 2002 CRIS and IR were different worlds. Progressive integration. Catalogue of IRs in euroCRIS DRIS Recognition of value of CERIF as metadata for IR OpenAIRE adopted CERIF COAR strategic relationship ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 2011 Rome Declaration 20131114 21
  • 22. Introducing GL and CERIF • CERIF places the grey literature in context • A Result_Publication or Product linked to: – – – – – Project, Person, OrganisationalUnit Funding Event Facility, equipment Prize/Award • Which allows the end-user to assess better relevance, quality of grey material • Which allows research managers to measure output of grey material • Which allows innovators (subject to security) to discover research products to take to wealth creation or improvement in the quality of life ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 22
  • 23. Introducing GL and CERIF • A CERIF-CRIS (together with a repository) solves most of the issues documented previously • By providing a structured, logical context for the grey object • Within the R&D process • Allowing the end-user to determine quality ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 23
  • 24. STRUCTURE • • • • • • Introduction Grey Literature Research, Business and Society The value of ‘grey’ How to achieve that value Conclusion ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 24
  • 25. Value of Research The ability to create, distribute and exploit knowledge has become a major source of competitive advantage, wealth creation and improvements in the quality of life. [OECD 2000] Civilised society has always carried out research. Such research is documented from early Chinese civilisations, and may well have been documented in Neolithic times. Indeed, the paintings in caves such as Lascaux appear to be both an observational record (of local fauna) and a modelling or simulation of intended action (hunting). The key point is that research leads to wealth creation and improvement in the quality of life. The problem is that the process to create wealth or life improvement from research outputs is little understood and apparently non-deterministic. However, there is a general belief that if one documents the research activity, and the research output, then the opportunities for wealth creation or improvement in the quality of life are increased. [Asserson & Jeffery wissenschaftsmanagement 1 • januar/februar • 2009] ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 25
  • 26. R&D Spend • World annual spend on R&D is ~1.5 trillion usd • This needs to be managed – By funders to justify spend – By research institutions to justify outputs from inputs ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 26
  • 27. UK Examples of Impact ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 27
  • 28. Knowledge/ Technology Transfer • The process from research to: – Wealth creation (business) – Improvement in the quality of life (society) • Appears to be non-deterministic • However it can be improved by: – Making information on the research easily available • What it is (with as much context as possible) • How it could be used • Ownership and conditions of use (protecting IP) The answer is: high quality metadata ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 28
  • 29. STRUCTURE • • • • • • Introduction Grey Literature Research, Business and Society The value of ‘grey’ How to achieve that value Conclusion ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 29
  • 30. Impact and Grey • Behind (almost) all impact examples there is a large body of grey material – Technical reports, manuals, datasets, software IDEA GREY MATERIAL DECISION PATENT PUBLISH ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 30
  • 31. Grey Citations J. Schöpfel, et al. (2005). `Citation Analysis and Grey Literature: Stakeholders in the Grey Circuit'. vol. 1, pp. 31-40 ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 31
  • 32. Obstacles to Realising Value • Difficult to find / utilise the grey material – Not recorded / catalogued – Access restrictions • IP protection – Poor metadata • Hard to understand the context of the grey material • Hard to envisage how the research products may be used for business and/or society – Lack of classification of kinds of grey • Confuses potential users ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 32
  • 33. STRUCTURE • • • • • • Introduction Grey Literature Research, Business and Society The value of ‘grey’ How to achieve that value Conclusion ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 33
  • 34. Policies • In many countries and institutions there exist policies on research publications: – Usually publicly-funded research should be available to the public toll-free – Various licensing schemes each with advantages and disadvantages – Green v Gold • But they apply to peer-reviewed white publications ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 34
  • 35. Policies • There are attempts to extend to research datasets – Since they are commonly intimately related to and support a peer-reviewed white publication • But none for grey • Left to individual institutions – Repository of scholarly publications – Distinguish grey from white ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 35
  • 36. Towards Policies • Recognising the value – http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/greylitreport_06.h tml • Access – Open data (data.gov) • Datasets but in fact many are pdf reports – Using legislation • Freedom of information requests ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 36
  • 37. Achieving Value • Availability • Relevance • Quality • Metadata – As well as title, abstract keywords.. – And access restrictions • Within an organisation • Between partner organisatons • Open – Process steps recorded – Context recorded (project, organisation, pers on, funding, facilities / equipment) – Related publications recorded • Related datasets, software recorded ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 37
  • 38. User Classes • Research and Development Information – For the political decision-makers – For the funding organisations – For the entrepreneurs – For the researchers – For the research managers – For the innovators – For the media – For the general public ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 38
  • 39. Institution Books Information of Interest Person / CV Publisher Event Research Group Patent Project Equipment ©Keith G Jeffery Journal/article Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 39
  • 40. Contextual Metadata: CERIF ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 40
  • 41. RESULT_PUBLICATION PROJECT CERIF Expressiveness ORGUNIT PERSON Result_Publication Can Express: Person A (DT1 - DT2) Orgunit O (DT1 - DT2) Person A (DT1 - DT2) Person A (DT1 - DT2) Person A (DT1-DT2) Person A (DT1-DT2) Orgunit M (DT1-DT2) Orgunit N (DT1-DT2) ©Keith G Jeffery (is author of) (is owner of IPR in) (is employee of ) (is project leader of) (is member of) (is member of) (is part of) (is part of) Recognising the value of Grey Literature Publication X Publication X Orgunit O Project P Orgunit M Orgunit N Orgunit O Orgunit O 20131114 41
  • 42. Result_Publication Instance Diagram OrgUnit M Part of member employee Person A OrgUnit O member Project leader Project P Part of OrgUnit N author owns IPR Publication X ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 42
  • 43. Repositories and CERIF • To view content (white or grey) in repositories through contextualised, structured metadata – E.g. Relate publication to: • • • • • • • • • Persons Organisations Projects Funding Facilities Equipment Event Patent Product Allows the user to judge better relevance, quality • Repository metadata DC (Dublin Core) insufficient • (as recognised by OpenAIREPlus when adopted CERIF) ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 43
  • 44. CERIF Features CERIF • Developed by international community – consensus • Flexible and extensible • Separation of base and link entities – Flexible / extensible – Rich semantics (role) – Temporal : it is the relationships that have duration • Multi characterset • Multilingual • Formal Syntax – Efficient, accurate computer processing • Declared Semantics – Including crosswalks for interoperation ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 44
  • 45. STRUCTURE • • • • • • Introduction Grey Literature Research, Business and Society The value of ‘grey’ How to achieve that value Conclusion ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 45
  • 46. Conclusion • Grey material is a critically important component of information generated by R&D • It provides the basis for commercial exploitation of R&D • It provides the basis for improvements in the quality of life • It needs to be exposed by quality metadata It is time the value of grey is recognised ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 46
  • 47. EXTRAS IF NEEDED
  • 48. Metadata Standards • There are hundreds of specific formats used as a ‘standard’ within a specific community but ones used widely are: • DC (Dublin Core): used to describe web pages  web resources • CKAN (Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network): used in government open data sites – based on DC • eGMS; e-Government Metadata Standard – based on DC • DCAT (Data Catalog): used for datasets on the web – based on DC • INSPIRE : used for datasets with geospatial coordinates – EU Directive and standard; some overlap with DC but extended • CERIF (Common European research Information Format): used for all research information • All but CERIF are ‘flat’ or ‘linear’ ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 48
  • 49. Metadata Standards: DC • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Contributor Coverage Creator Date Description Format Identifier Language Publisher Relation Rights Source Subject Title Type ©Keith G Jeffery • • • • Text HTML XML RDF • Namespaces • Ontologies Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 49
  • 50. Metadata Standards: CKAN • • • • • • • • • • Title Unique Identifier Groups Description Revision History Licence Tags Multiple Formats API key Extra Fields • RDF • ontologies Blue signifies same as DC ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 50
  • 51. Metadata Standards: e-GMS • • • • • • • • • • • • • Accessibility Addressee Aggregation Audience Contributor Coverage Creator Date Description Digital signature Disposal Format Identifier • • • • • • • • • • • • Language Location Mandate Preservation Publisher Relation Rights Source Status Subject Title Type Blue signifies same as DC ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 51
  • 52. Metadata Standards: DCAT Same as DC are: Title, description, identi fier, keyword, language ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 52
  • 53. Metadata Standards: INSPIRE • EU Directive (2008, 2009) • For Geospatial datasets – Initiated by ESA • Essentially DC plus geospatial information • Geospatial information very detailed – coordinate system, precision etc ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 53
  • 54. Metadata Standards: CERIF • Common European Research Information Format • Data Model for exchange and storage of information about research • CERIF91 (1987-1990) quite like the later Dublin Core (late 1990s) • CERIF2000 (1997-1999) used full E-E-R modelling – Base entities – Linking entities with role and temporal interval • 2002 EC requested euroCRIS to maintain, develop and promote CERIF www.eurocris.org • Now in use in 43 countries and national standard for research information in 10 ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 54
  • 55. CERIF-CRIS in context Directory Services Web pages CERIF-CRIS Dataset Publication Software repository repository ©Keith G Jeffery Finance system Human Resources system Project Management system Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 55
  • 56. CERIF Indicators Segment ©Keith G Jeffery Recognising the value of Grey Literature 20131114 58