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A chemist's view on a new kind of food source: the fungus, the process, the aim

A chemist's view on a new kind of food source: the fungus, the process, the aim

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  • 1. Corso di Biotecnologie Industriali Dr.ssa. Federica Chiellini 10th February 2012 - Greta Dalle LucheHAVE YOU EVERHEARD ABOUTMYCOPROTEINS?
  • 2. Fusarium venenatum10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 2
  • 3. Fusarium venenatum (strain A3/5) ● Fungi Kingdom ● filamentous fungi( mould) ● -aerobic ● -not pathogen ● -microtoxin(butenolide) ● -GRAS ●10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 3
  • 4. SINGLE processo Il CELL PROTEIN“With reference to egg albumin, which is considered aperfectly balanced source of essential amino acids forhuman nutrition, mycoprotein presents a similarcomposition, although it is lower in sulfurcontainingamino acids. On the other hand, it is relatively rich inlysine and threonine if compared to other traditionalprotein sources of agricultural origin, such as wheat.” Biological Value (BV) is the percentage of the total nitrogen assimilated, which isretained by the organism, taking into account the simultaneous loss of endogenousnitrogen through excretion in urine. Mycoproteins BV is 0, Quorns 1.0. 10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 4
  • 5. SINGLE processo Il CELL PROTEINMicrobial produced protein, also named single-cell protein (SCP), was in focus and manydifferent microbial sources were investigated.SCP have several advantages, comparedwith conventional farming:● Rapid succession of generations;● Easily modifiable genetically;● High protein content of 43-85%dry mass;● Broad spectrum of original raw material used for the production, which also includes waste products;● Production not depending on climate on determinable amount; 10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 5
  • 6. QUORN® PROCESS Il processo - Fermenter 50 m high/150m3 -1st Type Fermentation: phase of interest: log -continue colture (6/2weeks) -dilution rate: 0.17-0.2 h-1 -biomass [ ]: 10-15 g L-110th Feb 2012 -loop fermenter: air lift Greta Dalle Luche 6
  • 7. PRODUCT PROCESS Il processo -O2, NH3 are supplyed from the base -CO2 and other gases are pomped out from the top -broth: 95% glucose, K, Mg and (PO4)3- -pH= 6.0 -T=28-30°C10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 7
  • 8. PRODUCT PROCESS Il processo Pre-treatment: -maize starch is treated with enzymic and/or acid digestion -incoming nutrients are heat sterilized10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 8
  • 9. PRODUCT PROCESS Il processo Recovery: -output flow(30Th-1) is heated to 64°C/20 -harvesting by filtration concentrated(from 1.5% to 25-30% (w/v) total) -the product is dryed and mixed with albumin10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 9
  • 10. ● A BRIEF HISTORY Il processo - 20th century, industrial production of baking yeast -1st World War, Germany(Candida utilis) -1960s large-scale processes for SCP -1968 Fusarium venenatum -1985 Rank Hovis McDugall (RHM Research Center) was given permission to sell mycoproteins for human consumption -10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 10
  • 11. ● A BRIEF HISTORY Il processo - Marlow Food, Quorn® -1994 UK; 90s Europe -2002 USA -2010 Austraia10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 11
  • 12. ● A BRIEF HISTORY Il processo - Marlow Food, Quorn® -1994 UK; 90s Europe -2002 USA -2010 Austraia10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 12
  • 13. THE CONTROVERSY Il processo Center for Science andPublic Interest Food, Quorn® - Marlow (CSPI): -1994 UK; 90s Europe “Quorns fungus is as closely related to mushroomas human are to jellyfish” USA -2002 -2010 Austraia10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 13
  • 14. THE CONTROVERSY Il processo Center for Science andPublic Interest Food, Quorn® - Marlow (CSPI): -1994 UK; 90s Europe “Quorns fungus is as closely related to mushroomas human are to jellyfish” USA -2002 -2010 Austraia “sickens 4,5%of the eaters” Quorn®: “only 0,0007% suffer adverse reactions”10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 14
  • 15. THE CONTROVERSY Il processo Center for Science andPublic Interest Food, Quorn® - Marlow (CSPI):Milloy, writing for American Fox News Channel: Steven -1994 UK; 90s Europe “Quorns fungus ishave an unsavory relationship with “CSPI appears to as closely related USA to -2002 mushroomas human are to jellyfish” Quorn competitor, Gardenburger” -2010 Austraia “sickens 4,5%of the eaters” Authority: UKs Advertising Standards Quorn®: “only 0,0007% suffer “mushrooms in origin”is “misleading consumers” reactions” adverse10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 15
  • 16. SCIENTIFIC OPINION Il processo10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 16
  • 17. SCIENTIFIC OPINION Il processo “The Panel considers that an increase in satiety leading to the reduction in energy intake, if sustained, might be a beneficial physiological effect.” “The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claimed effect.”“A cause and effect relationship has not been estabilished between the consumption of mycoproteinand manteinance of normal blood LDL-colesterol concentrations beyond the LDL-colesterol lowering 2012 that could be expected from Gretabeta-glucan content of mycoprotein .” 10th Feb effects the Dalle Luche 17
  • 18. CONCLUSIONSInterest in mycoprotein and yeast biomass derived proteins has shiftedsince the mid twentieth century from a source of basic food, to specialtyproducts which act as meat substitutes.The introduction of this technology into traditional industries is currentlylimited by public perception10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 18
  • 19. CONCLUSIONS Traditional breeding Santander, SPAIN Factory breeding, Salten City, CALIFORNIA10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 19
  • 20. CONCLUSIONS A single fermenter can provide 300- 350 kg biomass/h In the long term should be kept into consideration ● risk of new food episodes emerging from uncontrolled industrial production ● recycling potential of the by- products10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 20
  • 21. Thanks! Il processo References: ● EFSA Journal 2011;9(4):2042 ● “Food Mycology”,J. Dijksterhuis, R. A. Samson, CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, 2007 ● ”Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food and Environmental Ap p I ications” D. K. Arora, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, India, 2004; Chapt 22 ● “Mycoprotein GRAS Notification ”Food and Drug Administration, Washington, 2001 ● http://www.eplantscience.com ● http://www.biotopics.co.uk//edexcel/biotechnol/myco.html ● http://www.mycoprotein.org/health_benefits.html ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quorn Images from http://www.sciencephoto.com and www.quorn.com10th Feb 2012 Greta Dalle Luche 21