Team Motivation: A Historical Perspective

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Employee motivation is something we all want. I think it's safe to say that we would all agree that motivation is a good thing. It is commonly associated with several positive outcomes, including: (1) increased productivity, (2) higher profits, (3) a happier workforce, (4) more cohesive teams, and (5) reduced absenteeism and worker turnover. Fortunately, employee motivation is not a new topic and we can learn from the research, theories, and practices of the past. This presentation focuses on the early development of motivation theory as it relates to the field of management.

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Team Motivation: A Historical Perspective

  1. 1. Motivation is always a good thing 2
  2. 2. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity 3
  3. 3. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits 4
  4. 4. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits A happier workforce 5
  5. 5. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits A happier workforce More cohesive teams 6
  6. 6. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits A happier workforce More cohesive teams Reduced absenteeism 7
  7. 7. First, let’s look at some historicalfactors that have influenced the study ofworkplace motivation. 8
  8. 8. Agrarian societies are characterized by … 9
  9. 9. Agrarian societies are characterized by … • Stability 10
  10. 10. Agrarian societies are characterized by … • Stability • Family-run operations 11
  11. 11. Agrarian societies are characterized by … • Stability • Family-run operations • Simple tools 12
  12. 12. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by … 13
  13. 13. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by … • The steam engine 14
  14. 14. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by … • The steam engine • Urbanization 15
  15. 15. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by … • The steam engine • Urbanization • Mass Production 16
  16. 16. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. 17
  17. 17. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. 18
  18. 18. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. Patterns from pre-industrial age. 19
  19. 19. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. Patterns from pre-industrial age. Zero-sum labor availability. 20
  20. 20. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. Patterns from pre-industrial age. Zero-sum labor availability. No incentive for increased output. 21
  21. 21. The absence of ambitionwas viewed as a virtue. 22
  22. 22. Efforts to rise above thecrowd were interpreted associal treason. 23
  23. 23. Rising leaders faced socialpressures to return to theirequalized status within thegroup. 24
  24. 24. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … 25
  25. 25. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity 26
  26. 26. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure 27
  27. 27. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure Efficiency 28
  28. 28. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure Efficiency Training 29
  29. 29. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure Efficiency Training Matching the worker to the job 30
  30. 30. But Weber saw a problem … 31
  31. 31. But Weber saw a problem …How can organizations operaterationally and systematically? 32
  32. 32. According to Weber …Untested personal opinions should be replaced by … 33
  33. 33. According to Weber …Untested personal opinions should be replaced by … Proven Rules 34
  34. 34. Charismatic or traditional authorityshould be replaced by … 35
  35. 35. Charismatic or traditional authorityshould be replaced by … Rational-legitimate authority 36
  36. 36. Political favoritismshould be replaced by … 37
  37. 37. Political favoritismshould be replaced by … Selection by Competence 38
  38. 38. Weber called this innovative management system … 39
  39. 39. Weber called this innovative management system … Bureaucracy 40
  40. 40. But there were critics 41
  41. 41. But there were critics According to some, Scientific Management was … “the attempt to make human work productive by eliminating the employees’ responsibility for their own work and concentrating it in the hands of a science-based managerial elite.” Hardy, L. (1990). The fabric of this world: Inquiries into calling, career choice, & the design of human work. Grand Rapids: MI: William B. Eerdmans. 42
  42. 42. “Small opportunity is now given the workman toexercise that initiative of which Mr. Taylor talksso glibly.”Letter to the American Magazine, 1911, Cited in Dean, C. C.(1997) Primer of scientific management by Frank B.Gilbreth: A response to publication of Taylors principles inThe American Magazine. Journal of Management History3(1), 31-41. 43
  43. 43. Weber Sensed the Need for Something More … “The fate of our times is characterized by rationalization and intellectualization and, above all, by the disenchantment of the world. Precisely the ultimate and most sublime values have retreated from public life either into the transcendental realm of mystic life or into the brotherliness of direct and personal human relations. It is not accidental that our greatest art is intimate and not monumental.” –Max Weber Source: The Columbia World of Quotations, 1996. 44
  44. 44. Abraham Maslowdeveloped aframework forunderstanding this“something more.” 45
  45. 45. The framework involved apyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. 46
  46. 46. The framework involved apyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Physiological 47
  47. 47. The framework involved apyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Safety (Security) Physiological 48
  48. 48. The framework involved apyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Social (Affiliation) Safety (Security) Physiological 49
  49. 49. The framework involved apyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Esteem (Recognition) Social (Affiliation) Safety (Security) Physiological 50
  50. 50. The framework involved apyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Self-Actualization Esteem (Recognition) Social (Affiliation) Safety (Security) Physiological 51
  51. 51. Other researchers began to focus on theemotional or “softer” side oforganizational behavior. 52
  52. 52. Mary Parker Follett 53
  53. 53. Mary Parker Follett Saw the importance of relationships. 54
  54. 54. Mary Parker Follett Saw the importance of relationships. Advocated employee participation. 55
  55. 55. Mary Parker Follett Saw the importance of relationships. Advocated employee participation. Recommended power sharing. 56
  56. 56. Elton Mayo … 57
  57. 57. Elton Mayo … Studied workplace environment. 58
  58. 58. Elton Mayo … Studied workplace environment. Discovered the relationship factor. 59
  59. 59. Lillian Gilbreth discovered … 60
  60. 60. Lillian Gilbreth discovered … That wages are not the only motivators. 61
  61. 61. Lillian Gilbreth discovered … That wages are not the only motivators. The importance of affirmation. 62
  62. 62. Lillian Gilbreth discovered … That wages are not the only motivators. The importance of affirmation. The importance of communication. 63
  63. 63. Lillian Gilbreth discovered … That wages are not the only motivators. The importance of affirmation. The importance of communication. The value of training in “emotion work.”Graham, L. (2000) Lilian Gilbreth & the mental revolution at Macys, 1925-1928. Journal ofManagement History 6(7), 285-305. 64
  64. 64. Douglass McGregor brought a new dimension to the study of worker motivation . . .McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 65
  65. 65. Douglass McGregor brought a new dimension to the study of worker motivation . . . the managers perspective on the nature of people.McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 66
  66. 66. According to McGregor, theory X managers seepeople as … 67
  67. 67. According to McGregor, theory X managers seepeople as …• Lazy 68
  68. 68. According to McGregor, theory X managers seepeople as …• Lazy• Irresponsible 69
  69. 69. According to McGregor, theory X managers seepeople as …• Lazy• Irresponsible• Lacking in ambition 70
  70. 70. According to McGregor, theory X managers seepeople as …• Lazy• Irresponsible• Lacking in ambition• Needing someone to prod and control them. 71
  71. 71. Theory Y managers see people as … 72
  72. 72. Theory Y managers see people as … • Intrinsically motivated 73
  73. 73. Theory Y managers see people as … • Intrinsically motivated • Responsible 74
  74. 74. Theory Y managers see people as … • Intrinsically motivated • Responsible • Enjoying work 75
  75. 75. Theory Y managers see people as … • Intrinsically motivated • Responsible • Enjoying work • Highly productive … when empowered 76
  76. 76. Researchers began to notice that motivation has atwo-dimensional character. B =f (P, S) Kurt Lewin 77
  77. 77. Researchers began to notice that motivation has atwo-dimensional character. Individual behavior (B) is a function of (f) psychological factors (P) and the work situation (S) Kurt Lewin 78
  78. 78. Rensis Likert discovered that close supervisionoften reduces motivation. Number of First-Line Supervisors Who Use . . . Close Supervision General Supervision High-Producing Sections 1 9 8 4 Low-Producing SectionsHersey, P., Blanchard, K. H. & Johnson, D. E. (1996). Management of organizational behavior (7th ed.). Upper SaddleRiver, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 109. 79
  79. 79. Management has two fundamental dimensions … 80
  80. 80. Management has two fundamental dimensions … Concern for Productivity 81
  81. 81. Management has two fundamental dimensions … Concern for People Concern for Productivity 82
  82. 82. Management has two fundamental dimensions … Concern for People No Relationship (Indifference) Concern for Productivity 83
  83. 83. Management has two fundamental dimensions … Concern for People Command and No Relationship Control (Indifference) Relationship Concern for Productivity 84
  84. 84. Management has two fundamental dimensions … Concern for People Paternalistic Relationship Command and No Relationship Control (Indifference) Relationship Concern for Productivity 85
  85. 85. Management has two fundamental dimensions … Concern for People Paternalistic Empowering Relationship Relationship Command and No Relationship Control (Indifference) Relationship Concern for Productivity 86
  86. 86. So, what are the motivationalissues of the future? 87
  87. 87. Ethical Leadership 88
  88. 88. Globalization 89
  89. 89. Virtual teams 90
  90. 90. Information Overload 91
  91. 91. Spirituality& Meaning 92
  92. 92. CreditsThe photo of Abraham Maslow is from Maslow: laManagement. http://www.human-side.com/maslow/MoM/index.htm.The portrait of Kurt Lewin is the public domain of theUnited States. It was found athttp://www.answers.com/topic/kurt-lewin-jpgAll other photos are © 2007JupiterImages and itsLicensors. All Rights Reserved. 93

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