Promoting sustainablecommunities1(2)

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This report outlines some results of the biggest research project in the UK exploring sustainable development, climate change and parish councils

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Promoting sustainablecommunities1(2)

  1. 1. ISSN: 2041- 67412009 Promoting Sustainable Communities, Vol, 1(2) Understanding Town and Parish Council Needs for a Sustainable Cornwall Interim Report By Gregory Borne
  2. 2. Understanding Town and Parish Council Needs for a Sustainable Cornwall Interim Report By Gregory Borne 2
  3. 3. ContentsAcknowledgements 7Executive Summary 8Introduction 10Background to Research 11Setting the context 12Aims 15Methodology 16Preliminary Results 17Section 1: Members of Town and Parish Councils and their Parish 17Barrier to Becoming a Councillor 23Section 1 Summary 26Section 2: Education and Training 27Types of Training and Education 28Section 2 Summary 37Section 3: Partnership 38Broader Partnership 41Section 3 Summary 43Section 4: Community 44Barriers to Service Provision 50Section 4 Summary 55Section 5: Sustainable Development 56Sustainable Development Mechanisms 62Drivers for Climate Change in Cornwall 66Global and Local Connections 71Section 5 Summary 72Conclusion 74Future Directions 75References 3
  4. 4. Index of FiguresFigure 1: Creating Sustainable Communities 15Figure 2: Gender 17Figure 3: Age 18Figure 4: Occupation 18Figure 5: Education 19Figure 6: Role in Parish 20Figure 7: Motivation for Becoming a Councillor 20Figure 8: Reside in Parish 21Figure 9: Settlement Type 22Figure 10: Continue as a Councillor 22Figure 11: Financial Barrier 23Figure 12: Perception Barrier 24Figure 13: Time Barrier 24Figure 14: Understanding Barrier 25Figure 15: Work Barrier 25Figure 16: Participate in Training 27Figure 17: Special Skills 28Figure 18: Types of Skills 29Figure 19: Receive Particular Types of Training 30Figure 20: Require Service Specific Training 31Figure 21: Prepared to Fund own Training 31Figure 22: Travel for Training 32Figure 23: Distance to Training 33Figure 24: Time Travelling 34Figure 25: Method of Training and Education 35Figure 26: Adequate Financial Support from Parish 35Figure 27: Have a Parish Plan 36 4
  5. 5. Figure 28: Plan Improved Through Education 37Figure 29: Linkages to County Council 38Figure 30: County Council Considerate of Local Needs 39Figure 31: Consider County Council Goals 39Figure 32: County Council Support Parish Council 40Figure 33: Work in Partnership 41Figure 34: Partners 41Figure 35: Feel Part of a Community 44Figure 36: Part of More Than One Community 45Figure 37: Community is Work 45Figure 38: Community is Family and Friends 46Figure 39: Community Based Around the Internet 47Figure 40: Community is Nation Wide 47Figure 41: Community is the Local Area 48Figure 42: Support Community Organisations 49Figure 43: Sustainable Communities 49Figure 44: Priority Issues 50Figure 45: Scattered Layout of Communities 51Figure 46: Lack of Involvement 52Figure 47: Ageing Population 53Figure 48: Complex Needs 54Figure 49: Sustainable Development 56Figure 50: Three Pillars 57Figure 51: Cornwall Pillars 57Figure 52: Environment More Important Than Money 58Figure 53: Preserve Natural Resources 59Figure 54: Protect the Environment at all Costs 60Figure 55: Sustainable Development is Jargon 61Figure 56: Statements 62 5
  6. 6. Figure 57: Awareness of Sustainable Development Mechanisms 63Figure 58: Involved with Sustainable Development Mechanisms 63Figure 59: Aware of Sustainable Development Related Issues 64Figure 60: Concerned About Carbon Footprint 65Figure 61: Global Warming 65Figure 62: Global Warming and Cornwall 66Figure 63: Housing Stock 67Figure 64: Affordable Housing 68Figure 65: Flood Planes 68Figure 66: Communities Not Self Sustaining 69Figure 67: Car Ownership 70Figure 68: Insufficient Appraisal of Greenhouse Gases 71Figure 69: Global and Local Connections 72 6
  7. 7. AcknowledgementsThe author of the interim report ‘Understanding Town and Parish CouncilNeeds for a Sustainable Cornwall’ would like to acknowledge the contributionof the following people; the research team including Ian Sherriff, Helen Mayand Ruth Watkins. Thanks also to Martin Eddy and Steven Ford of CornwallCounty Council for continued support. Sue Swift, chair of the CornwallAssociation of Local Councils has also been very supportive. Thanks toGeoff Tate for initial introductions. The councillors and staff of the manyparish/town councils who took the time to participate in the research; withouttheir co-operation this work could not have taken place. Thanks also toJanine O’Flaherty for proof reading this document. Thanks also to VictoriaBennion for advice and help with document settings. Thanks to the SouthWest Lifelong Learning Network, particularly Nick Wiseman and Director,Belinda PayneThis report has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it isunderstood to recognise that its copyright rests with its author and that noquotation from the report and no information derived from it may bepublished without the author’s prior consent in either hard copy or electronicformat. Further, the author does not support any assertions, speculations orconclusions drawn from the data contained within this report. All reference tothis work should be laid out in the following manner.Borne, G., (2009) Understanding Town and Parish Council Needs for aSustainable Cornwall, Interim Report, Promoting Sustainable Communities,1(2):1-80Contact: Gregory.borne@plymouth.ac.ukVisit: www.sustainableparish.com 7
  8. 8. Understanding Town and Parish Council Needs for a Sustainable CornwallExecutive SummaryThis research aims to understand the education and training needs for townand parish councils in the context of achieving sustainable communities andthe broader debates surrounding sustainable development. There is aparticular focus within the research on understanding these needs, not justnow but also in the future. As such, the following executive summaryoutlines key points. Results are presented in this report in the context of‘work in progress’, final results, conclusions and recommendations aresubject to the collection and analysis of all data. Subsequent in-depthresearch is currently underway in order to gain a greater understanding ofthe following findings.Key Issues: Based on the initial results there is an overwhelming feeling among members of town and parish councils that additional training and education is needed. Findings indicate that the nature of this education and training is diverse, but that members of town and parish councils feel that there are special skill sets needed to operate effectively within their parish. Members of town and parish councils would be willing to travel outside of their parish area in order to receive additional training and education. 8
  9. 9. Key Issues (Cont) There is an overwhelming feeling that there is a need to encourage sustainable communities ‘but’ there is confusion over the action that should be taken. There is a general lack of awareness of the existing mechanisms that could be employed in the local governance process that could contribute towards the creation of sustainable communities. Partnership is essential for the effective running of town and parish councils and the development of sustainable communities. Members of town and parish councils felt that the relationship between the parishes and the county council was important and should be strengthened. Sustainable development was seen as an important concept but was not clearly understood. There is concern over the effect of global risks such as global warming upon local communities, but there is need for further and effective communication of these issues. 9
  10. 10. Understanding Town and Parish Council Needs for a Sustainable CornwallIntroductionThis report will outline the main interim findings of recent research conductedon behalf of the South West Lifelong Learning Network into the training andeducational needs for Cornwall town/parish councils in order to createsustainable communities. At this stage only a brief analysis of the data isoffered. Upon conclusion of the data collection stage of this work a fullanalysis with associated recommendations will be available. This report isorganised in the following manner.Initially, a brief background to the research will be provided, this will befollowed by outlining the specific aims of the project. Next, the methodologyused in collecting the data will be briefly discussed followed by the mainfindings of the survey. The findings are organised into five sections. Section1 examines basic information on members of town and parish councils.Section 2 presents results related specifically to training and educationneeds of members of town and parish councils. Section 3 presents resultson partnership. Section 4 presents the results in the survey that areassociated with community. Section 5 focuses on sustainable developmentand associated issues. Each section is concluded with a brief summary ofthe overall findings of that section. 10
  11. 11. Background to the ResearchThe many processes associated with globalisation are fundamentally alteringgovernance structures across the globe (Beck 1999, 2006; Borne 2009a).These processes are influencing all dimensions of life includingenvironmental, social and economic areas. The recent global economicdown turn has illustrated in a very visible way how all parts of the globe areinterconnected, with distant events having significant local consequences.Effects are being felt in international organisations such as the UnitedNations to national governments as well as more localised public sectororganisations, community groups and of course individuals and their families.Numerous reports have identified the ramifications of these issues (Leitch2006; Lyons 2004; Stern 2007), and the adjustment and redirection of policyhas attempted to accommodate the gravity as well as the uncertainty ofthese processes by attempting to translate them into concrete politicalimperatives. (CALG 2008; DCLG 2006; HEFCE 2005; HMGOV 2005; ODPM2003). With this said, there is a deficit of research that is capable ofunderstanding how these processes are connecting the global and locallevels and in particular, how these processes are affecting localisedgovernance structures and the consequences this has for local communities.This research addresses this short fall by focusing on local government witha particular emphasis on the increasingly important role of the town andparish council level of government. Three interrelated areas are considered.Firstly, there is continued recognition that the changing context from withinlocal government and broader community groups need to operate directlyaffect the types of skills, educational needs and general competencies thatare required to operate successfully and efficiently. Building on previouswork (Borne 2008, 2009a), this research examines the effect that theaforementioned processes have on members of town and parish councilsacross the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom. Outcomes from thework will enable a number of stakeholders to understand how localgovernment and local communities are responding to changing globalprocesses, and what skills and knowledge will be needed to respondeffectively and constructively to these challenges. Secondly, this is done 11
  12. 12. with a focus on community and thirdly, the work is situated in the broaderdebates surrounding sustainable development. The following section willelaborate on the context from which this research operates, with a particularreference to sustainable development and the need to create sustainablecommunities.Setting the ContextThe idea of sustainable communities has become an important topic at alllevels of government. It is a goal that has formed under the umbrella of thebroader concept of sustainable development. The World Commission onEnvironment and Development in 1987, defined sustainable development as:‘Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising theability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (WCED 1987:8). Thisdefinition, to varying degrees has filtered through governance structures, tothe European Union, national governments and local and regional bodies.The most salient example of the integration of sustainable developmentprinciples into the governance frameworks at the national level, and as adirect result of the Rio Conference and Agenda 21, are the emergence ofwhat have been termed national sustainable development strategies(NSDS). These strategies have been defined as: A coordinated set of participatory and continuously improving processes of analysis, debate, capacity strengthening, planning and investment, which integrates the economic-social and environmental objectives of society, seeking trade offs where this is not possible. (Dalal Clayton and Bass 2002:31)The authors suggest that NSDS’s have moved away from a model thatfocuses on central planning, to one that is capable of ‘creating enablingconditions’ that should be based around improving and making strategicconnections between existing strategic planning frameworks. Theseconnections need to be made at all levels of government and on a crosssector basis. 12
  13. 13. The British Government’s national sustainable development strategy‘Securing the Future: Delivering the UK SD Programme’ (HMGOV 2005)continues this rhetoric by emphasizing the importance of local communitiesin enhancing sustainable development. Examples of this may be found inthe integration of sustainable development in Regional Spatial Strategies,Development Plan Documents and the broad introduction of sustainabilityappraisals. A notable expansion of this agenda has been the SustainableCommunities Act, which received Royal Ascent in 2007 and is a conspicuousdemonstration of the increasing importance that is being placed on the locallevel for achieving the principles of sustainable development throughcommunity enhancement. Reflecting the definition of national sustainabledevelopment strategies, the act ties together existing mechanisms such asLocal Area Agreements (LAA) with Comprehensive Area Assessments(CAA) with the need for broader participatory processes (see SDC 2009).The act creates a responsibility for Local Authorities to produce ‘SustainableCommunity Plans’ designed to set out a comprehensive vision for theregional and local sustainable development. All of these processesrepresent a significant attempt to coordinate existing mechanisms, as well asdeveloping new processes and connections in a bid to improve communitiesand individual lives.Cornwall County Council has internalised the aforementioned debates andintegrated the principles of sustainable development into its operationalframework. For Cornwall County Council, sustainable development is: ‘Adynamic process which enables all people to realise their potential andimprove their quality of life in ways which simultaneously protect andenhance the earths life support systems.’ (CCC 2009). Building on thisdefinition Cornwall County Council makes the following commitment:‘Cornwall County Council promotes sustainable development for the benefitof one and all in the management and delivery of all its services throughintegrated social, economic and environmental objectives; seeking toachieve its vision of a strong and sustainable community for One and All.’(CCC 2009). These commitments for the creation of sustainablecommunities are laid out in the Sustainable Community Strategy (CCC 2008) 13
  14. 14. approved by the Cornwall Strategic Partnership and Cornwall County Councilin 2008. The Strategy outlines 3 principles for achieving a sustainableCornwall: • Principle 1: Prevention and a focus on the individual • Principle 2: Collaboration on a focus on Communities • Principle 3: A focus on Cornwall for the FutureImportantly, the Sustainable Community Strategy outlines the broad basedconsultation that has gone into the document, including the role of town andparish councils in this process. Town and parish councils represent asignificant tier of local government not only in Cornwall but also nationally inEngland. There are over 10000 parishes in England, of which 8700 havecouncils, with approximately 70000 parish councillors (DCLG 2009). Initially,and still predominantly a rural phenomenon, in the wake of the LocalGovernment Act of 1972 parishes are increasingly present in urbanenvironments. This has been exemplified by recent moves to suggest theestablishment of parish councils throughout London as a result of the LocalGovernment and Public Involvement in Health Act (2007).The recognition of the importance of the parish council level of government inthe sustainable development agenda is pivotal as it is the closest tier ofgovernment to the community. Parish and town councils are therefore in aunique position to provide leadership and advice on promoting sustainablecommunities. The county of Cornwall has approximately 209 parish councils.With the abolition of district councils and the establishment of a unitaryauthority in Cornwall, there is an increased emphasis on the role of theparish council coordinated through 19 Community network Areas.This research therefore aims to understand what members of town/parishcouncils feel they need in order to create sustainable communities from alocal perspective. This is important for the broader promotion of sustainabledevelopment because: ‘If the strategy does not reflect local values, it is 14
  15. 15. unlikely to be owned or implemented, even if the decisions appear logical,interesting or scientifically sound’ (Dalal- Clayton and Bass 2002:262).AimsWith the above discussion in mind, and whilst this project focuses on skillsand training amongst town and parish councils across Cornwall, it does soon a contextualised basis that aims to come to terms with complexities ofglobal and local interactions inherent in the promotion of sustainablecommunities. Three primary areas are accessed in order to achieve thisgoal. These are outlined in figure 1.Figure 1: Creating Sustainable Communities Sustainable Development Communities Sustainable Education and Communities trainingFigure 1 is designed to illustrate the non linear and cyclical relationship thatexists between the three areas of the project. This includes 15
  16. 16. training/education, communities and sustainable development. The ultimategoal of this research is to provide the necessary base line information whichcan contribute to the development of effective and responsivetraining/education necessary to create sustainable communities. However,the results from this work will also have benefits to governmental andnongovernmental organisations at the international and national scales.Results and recommendations from this project will assist policy makers indeveloping policies that accurately reflect the needs of local communities.MethodologyIn order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the research is beingconducted using a sophisticated multi-methodological framework,incorporating both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Aninitial search of the available literature covered areas of theory (Beck 2006;Borne 2009a, 2009b), policy (Coulson 1999; Davies 2008; Pearce andEllwood 2002), practice and implementation (Borne 2009c; Charnock 2007;Godfrey 2007; Fenwick and Bailey 2007; Jones and Newman 2006; Owen2002; Newman 2005; Toke 2005; Yarwood 2002). Particular attention waspaid to current policy documents and the changing ways in whichtown/parish councils are expected to operate. This report presents resultsfrom the quantitative component of the research which took the form of asurvey.The survey was dispatched to all of Cornwall’s town and parish councils(where contact details were available). Basic data and contact informationwas provided by the Cornwall Country Council via the One Cornwall Teamwhich formed the basis of the first mailing. The research is being conductedin two phases. Phase One is based around the aforementioned quantitativesurvey. Phase Two of the research will involve conducting in-depthinterviews with members of town and parish councils. The combination ofqualitative and quantitative methods will provide a substantial and robustinformation source. 16
  17. 17. Preliminary ResultsThe following section will outline preliminary results from the surveycomponent of the research. Overall, 67 per cent of councils in Cornwallparticipated in the survey. The findings are organised into five sections.Section 1 examines basic information on members of town and parishcouncils. Section 2 presents results related specifically to training andeducation needs of members of town and parish councils. Section 3 presentsresults on partnership. Section 4 presents the results in the survey that areassociated with community. Section 5 focuses on sustainable developmentand associated issues. Each section is concluded with a brief summary ofthe overall findings of that section.Section 1: Members of Town and Parish Councils and their ParishFigure 2: Gender Gender 70 63 60 50 Per Cent 40 35 30 20 10 0 Male FemaleMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate if they weremale or female. Figure 2 shows that 63 per cent of respondents were maleand 35 per cent of respondents were female. 17
  18. 18. Figure 3: Age Age 35 31 30 25 19 19 Per Cent 20 15 12 11 10 4 5 1 0 0 18-25 26-32 33-40 41-48 49-56 57-64 65-72 72+ YearsRespondents were asked to indicate their approximate age. Figure 3 showsthat 0 per cent of respondents were between 18-25; 1 per cent ofrespondents were between 26-32; 4 per cent of respondents were between33-40; 12 per cent of respondents were between 41-48; 19 per cent ofrespondents were between 49-56; 31 per cent of respondents were between57-64; 19 per cent of respondents were between 65-72 and 11 per cent ofrespondents were 72+.Figure 4: Occupation Occupation 45 41 40 35 31 30 Per Cent 25 20 15 9 8 10 4 3 5 0 0 0 18
  19. 19. Members of town and parish councils were asked to identify their occupation.Figure 4 shows that 9 per cent said they were tradesmen; 31 per centindicated that they were professionals; 4 per cent said that they were manualworkers; no respondents were students; 41 per cent said that they wereretired; 3 per cent indicated that they were housewives or househusbands;None of the respondents were unemployed.Figure 5: Education Education 18 19 20 17.5 18 16 13 13 13 14 Per Cent 12 10 8 6 4 2 0Members of town and parish councils were asked to indicate their level ofeducation. 18 per cent said that they held ‘O’ levels or General Certificates ofSecondary Education; 13 per cent indicated that they held A Levels orGeneral National Vocational Qualifications; 17.5 per cent indicated that theyhad a Degree; 13 per cent said that they had Post Graduate qualifications;13 per cent indicated that they had non conventional qualifications and 19per cent said that their qualifications were other. 19
  20. 20. Figure 6: Role in Parish Role in Parish 80 74 70 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 20 11 9 10 3 1 0 Chair Clerk Councillor Employee Other Role in ParishFigure 6 illustrates that predominantly 74 per cent of respondents indicatedthat they were councillors within local town and parish councils; 11 per centindicated that they were clerks; 3 per cent indicated that they were theemployees of their town and parish council; 1 per cent indicated that theywere other.Figure 7: Motivation for Becoming a Councillor Motivation 100 89 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 1 5 4 0 0 Improve Interest in Paid Local Other Don’t Know Community Local Employment Employment 20
  21. 21. Respondents were asked to indicate what motivated them to becometown/parish councillors. As is evident from Figure 7, 89 per cent indicatedthat they became parish councillors in order to improve the wellbeing of theircommunity; 1 per cent indicated that they were interested in localemployment; 5 per cent indicated that they were interested in obtaining paidlocal employment; 4 per cent said there were other reasons.Figure 8: Reside in Parish Reside in Parish 100 90 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 10 0 Yes No Reside in ParishRespondents were asked to indicate if they actually lived within their parishboundaries. Figure 8 shows that the vast majority, at 90 per cent indicatedthat they did live within the boundaries of their parish with only 10 per centindicating that they lived outside of their parish boundaries. 21
  22. 22. Figure 9: Settlement Type Settlement Type 90 81 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 12 10 6 0 0 Urban Rural Mixed OtherRespondents were asked if they felt their town/parish was urban, rural ormixed. As illustrated in Figure 9, the vast majority of town/parish councilmembers felt their parish/town was rural, at a response rate of 84 per cent.Only 6 per cent felt that their parish was urban; 12 per cent indicated thattheir parish was mixed and 0 per cent said that their parish was other.Figure 10: Continue as Councillor Continue as Councillor 80 74 70 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 22 20 10 3 0 Yes No Dont KnowRespondents were asked if they felt that they would continue to be acouncillor/clerk in the future. Overwhelmingly, 74 per cent indicated that theywould continue to operate as councillor in the future; 3 per cent said that 22
  23. 23. they would not operate as a councillor in the future and 22 per cent specifiedthat they did not know if they would operate as a member of the parishcouncil in the future.Barriers to Becoming a councillor:Members of parish councils were provided with a number of possible barriersto becoming a parish councillor.Figure 11: Financial Barrier Financial Barrier 100 92 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 8 10 0 Yes NoRespondents were asked to indicate whether they felt that there was afinancial barrier to becoming a parish councillor. As shown in Figure 11,overwhelmingly, 92 per cent indicated that there was no financial barrier tobecoming a parish councillor; 8 per cent said that there was a financialbarrier to becoming a parish councillor. 23
  24. 24. Figure 12: Perception Barrier Perception Barrier 60 55 50 45 40 Per Cent 30 20 10 0 Yes NoRespondents were asked to indicate if they felt that perception was a barrierto becoming a parish councillor. Figure 12 shows that 45 per cent indicatedthat it was a barrier to becoming a councillor. 55 per cent said that it was nota barrier to becoming a member of a parish council.Figure 13: Time Barrier Time Barrier 60 55 50 45 40 Per Cent 30 20 10 0 Yes NoMembers of parish councils were asked if they felt that there was a timebarrier to becoming a parish councillor. Figure 13 shows that 55 per cent 24
  25. 25. said that time was a barrier to becoming a parish councillor and 45 per centsaid time was not a barrier to becoming a parish councillor.Figure 14: Understanding Barrier Understanding Barrier 70 64 60 50 36 Per Cent 40 30 20 10 0 Yes NoRespondents were asked to indicate if they felt that understanding of whatthe role entailed would be a barrier to becoming a parish councillor. Figure14 shows that the majority of respondents, at 64 per cent, indicated thatunderstanding was not a barrier to becoming a parish councillor; 36 per centsaid that understanding was a barrier to becoming a parish councillor.Figure 15: Work Barrier Work Barrier 60 57 50 43 40 Per Cent 30 20 10 0 Yes No 25
  26. 26. Respondents were asked to indicate if they felt that work commitments werea barrier to becoming a member of a parish council. Figure 15 shows that 57per cent indicated that work was a barrier to becoming a parish councillor;43 per cent indicated that work was not a barrier to becoming a parishcouncillor. Section 1 Summary In summary, the majority of respondents indicated that they were male between the ages of 49 and 64. Respondents indicated that they were either professionals or retired with a broad distribution of educational attainment. The majority of respondents indicated that they functioned as councillors on their town and parish council who joined their council to improve their communities. Most of the participants in the survey live in their parish area and will continue to be members of their town/parish council in the future. The majority of respondents indicated that their parish was rural as opposed to urban. Most respondents indicated that there was a significant financial barrier to becoming a parish councillor. 26
  27. 27. Section 2: Education and TrainingThe following section focuses on the main areas in the survey relating toeducation and training needs of town/parish councils. Questions rangedfrom whether respondents would be willing to participate in training andeducation through to how participants felt that they would like to receiveeducation/training.Figure 16: Participate in Training Participate in Training 70 66 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 20 10 5 6 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked to say if they felt that theywould be willing to participate in training. Figure 16 shows that 66 per centindicated that they would participate in training; 5 per cent said that theywould not participate in training and 6 per cent said that they did not know ifthey would participate in training. 27
  28. 28. Figure 17: Special Skills Special Skills 50 45 43 40 40 35 30 Per Cent 25 20 15 13 10 5 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked if they felt that special skills were needed tooperate as a parish councillor. Figure 17 shows that 43 per cent indicatedthat special training was necessary; 40 per cent indicated that it was notnecessary and 13 per cent said that they did not know if special training wasnecessary.Types of Training and EducationMembers of town and parish councils were presented with a number of areasof training and education that may be considered of importance in their rolewithin the town or parish. 28
  29. 29. Figure 18: Types of Skills Types of Skills 70 58 60 50 43 Per Cent 40 30 30 23 26 18 20 17.5 20 10 0Members of town and parish councils were asked to indicate what types ofskills they felt were essential to operate as a member of a town or parishcouncil. Figure 18 shows that on aggregate 18 per cent indicated thatmanagement was an essential skill to operate as a member of a town andparish council; 20 per cent said that interpersonal skills were essential tooperate as a member of a town/parish council. By the largest majority, 58 percent indicated that planning was an essential skill to operate as a member ofa town and parish council; 17.5 per cent indicated that leadership was anessential skill for a member of a town/parish council; 30 per cent said thatcommunication was an essential skill for being a member of a town/parishcouncil; 23 per cent said that project management was an essential skill formembers of town and parish councils; 26 per cent said that financial skillswere essential for being a member of a town and parish council; 43 per centindicated that legislation was an essential skill for a member of a town/parishcouncil. 29
  30. 30. Figure 19: Receive Particular Types of Training Recieve Modular Training/Education 40 37 36 35 30 24 24 Per Cent 25 19 19 20 15.5 16 15 11 10 5 0Respondents were presented with a number of areas of training andeducation that could be presented in a modular form. The members of thetown and parish councils were asked to indicate which of these they feltwould most benefit them and their communities. Figure 19 shows that 24 percent specified that they would like to receive a module in health and safety;37 per cent indicated that they would like to receive a module in legal issues;36 per cent indicated that they would like to receive training and education inthe area of local government; 19 per cent specified that they would like toreceive training and education in asset management; 11 per cent said thatthey would like to receive a module in equality and diversity; 24 per cent saidthat they would like to receive a module on issues concerning the localismagenda; 15.5 per cent stated that they would like to receive a module in theuse of computers; 16 per cent indicated that they would like a module inmanaging complaints and 19 per cent indicated that they would like toreceive a module in codes of conduct. 30
  31. 31. Figure 20: Require Service Specific Training Service Specific Training 50 45 43 42 40 35 30 Per Cent 25 20 15 13 10 5 0 Developmental Control Commissioning Environmental ServicesRespondents were asked if they would like to receive training in servicespecific areas. Figure 20 shows that 43 per cent indicated that they wouldlike to receive training in the service area of developmental control; 13 percent indicated that they would like to receive training in the service areas ofcommissioning and 42 per cent indicated that they would like to receivetraining in environmental services.Figure 21: Prepared to Fund Own Training Fund Own Training 70 64 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 20 14 14.5 10 0 Yes No Don’t Know 31
  32. 32. Respondents were asked to indicate whether they felt they would beprepared to fund their own training and education. Figure 21 shows that 14per cent indicated that they would be prepared to fund their own training.However, the majority, at 64 per cent said that they said that they would notbe prepared to fund their own education or training; 14.5 per cent indicatedthat they did not know whether they would be prepared to fund their owntraining and education.Figure 22: Travel for Training Travel for Training 60 50 50 40 Per Cent 30 20 16 10 4.5 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked if they felt that they wouldbe prepared to travel for training. Figure 22 shows that 50 per cent indicatedthat they would be prepared to travel for training; 16 per cent indicated thatthey would not travel for training and 4.5 per cent did not know if they wouldtravel for training. 32
  33. 33. Figure 23: Distance to Training Distance to Training 25 23 20 15 14 11 10 9 5 4 0 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 20+Respondents were asked how far they would be willing to travel in order toreceive training and education. Figure 23 shows that 4 per cent indicated thatthey would be prepared to travel between one and five miles; 9 per centindicated that they would be willing to travel between six to ten miles; 11 percent said that they would be willing to travel between eleven and fifteenmiles; 14 per cent said that they would be willing to travel between sixteenand twenty miles and 23 per cent said that they would be willing to travelmore than twenty miles to receive education and training. 33
  34. 34. Figure 24: Time Travelling Time Travelling 30 25 25 20 Per Cent 14 13 15 12 10 5 0 0 to 30 30 to 60 60 to 90 120+Due to the geographically dispersed nature of Cornwall, distance travelleddoes not necessarily correlate to time spent travelling. Respondents weretherefore asked to indicate how much time they would be prepared to spendtravelling to receive education and training. Figure 24 shows that 14 percent indicated that they would be willing to travel for up to thirty minutes toreceive education and training; 25 per cent indicated that they would bewilling to travel between thirty and sixty minutes to receive education andtraining; 12 per cent said that they would be willing to travel between sixtyand ninety minutes to receive education and training and 13 per cent saidthat they would be prepared to travel more than 120 minutes. 34
  35. 35. Figure 25: Method of Training and Education Method of Training/Education 60 55.5 50 43 40 Per Cent 30 25 20 10 6.5 0 Short Courses Internet One to One GroupMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate what they feltwould be the most appropriate method of training for them. Figure 25 showsthat the majority at 55.5 per cent indicated that they would like to receivetraining through short courses; 43 per cent indicated that they would like toreceive their training in group sessions; 25 per cent said that they would liketo receive training and education through the medium of the internet and 6.5per cent indicated that they would like to receive their education and trainingin ‘one to one’ sessions.Figure 26: Adequate Financial Support from Parish Adequate Support From Parish 45 41 40 35 30 24 25 Per Cent 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Dont Know 35
  36. 36. Members of town and parish councils were asked to specify whether theyhad adequate financial support from their parish council. Figure 26 showsthat 41 per cent said that they were getting support from their parish council;24 per cent felt that they were not getting adequate support from theircouncil; and 25 per cent indicated that they did not know if they were gettingadequate support from their parish council.Figure 27: Have a Parish Plan Have a Parish Plan 80 69 70 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 24 20 10 4 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate if their parishhad a parish plan. Figure 27 shows that 69 per cent said that they did havea parish plan; 24 per cent said that they did not have a parish plan and 4 percent indicated that they did not know if they had a parish plan. 36
  37. 37. Figure 28: Plan Improved Through Training and Education Plan Improved Through Education 35 32 30 25 25 Per Cent 20 14 15 10 5 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked if they felt that their parish plan could be improvedthrough education. Figure 28 shows that 32 per cent indicated that it couldbe improved; 25 per cent said that it could not be improved and 14 per centsaid that they did not know. Section 2 Summary In summary, section 2 has presented results that have focused on the issue of education and training for members of town and parish councils. There is a strong indication from respondents that education and training is required and that there is a willingness to participate in education and training if provided. The majority of respondents felt that they would like training and education to be provided through short courses and that they would be willing to travel to receive training and education. The majority of the members of town and parish councils indicated that they would not be willing to fund their own training or education. The types of training that respondents felt were important were diverse, with an indication that planning was an important area for increased education and training. 37
  38. 38. Section 3: PartnershipThe following section explores the elements of the survey that relate topartnership. Partnerships considered include partnerships between thecounty council and town and parish councils as well as a broaderorganisations.Figure 29: Linkages to County Council Link to County Council 18 16 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 2 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked if there should be a linkage to their county council.Figure 29 shows that 16 per cent indicated that there should be a link to theCounty Council; 7 per cent indicated that there should not be a linkagebetween the parish and the principal authority. More significant than theindicated results however, is the outcome that 72 per cent of respondentschose not to respond to the initial question. 38
  39. 39. Figure 30: County Council Considerate of Local Needs County Council Considerate of Local Needs 60 52 50 40 Per Cent 30 20 14 8 10 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked whether they felt that thecounty council authority was considerate of local needs. Figure 30 showsthat 52 per cent indicated that they did not feel that their principal authoritywas considerate of local needs; 8 per cent indicated that the principalauthority did respond to local needs; 14 per cent indicated that they did notknow.Figure 31: Consider County Council Goals Consider County Councils Goals 40 34 35 31 30 25 Per Cent 20 14 15 10 5 0 Yes No Don’t Know 39
  40. 40. Members of town and parish councils were asked to indicate whether they,as a parish council, considered the goals of the principal authority. Figure 31shows that 31 per cent said that they did consider the goals of the principalauthority; 14 per cent said that they did not consider the goals of the principalauthority and 34 per cent did not know.Figure 32: County Council Support Parish Council County Council Support Parish Councillor 60 54 50 40 Per Cent 30 21 20 14 10 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate if they felt thattheir county council was supportive of their parish councils. Figure 32 showsthat the majority of respondents, at 54 per cent, indicated that the countycouncil did not support their role as a parish councillor; 14 per cent indicatedthat they did not know. 40
  41. 41. Broader PartnershipFigure 33: Work in partnership Work in Partnership 120 96 100 80 Per Cent 60 40 20 0.5 1 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked if they felt that it was important to work inpartnership. Figure 33 shows that, overwhelmingly, at 96 per cent,respondents indicated that working in partnership was important. Only 0.5per cent said that working in partnership was not important and 1 per centsaid that they did not know if working in partnership was important.Figure 34: Partners Partners 90 77 79 80 70 54 60 50 Per Cent 43 50 29 34 38 40 27 30 12 20 11 59 10 2 0 Potential Partnership Actual Partnership Organisation 41
  42. 42. Respondents were asked to indicate whether they felt that it was important towork in partnership with a number of other organisations. Members of townand parish councils were also asked to indicate whether they felt that theywere actually in partnership with the organisations presented. Firstly,respondents were asked to indicate whether partnership was important withnational government. Figure 34 shows that 29 per cent of respondents feltthat it was important to be in partnership with national government. Only 2per cent felt that they were actually in partnership with national government.Secondly, respondents were asked to indicate whether partnership wasimportant with their county council. The large majority, at 77 per cent,indicated that yes working in partnership with their county council wasimportant. However, when asked to indicate whether they felt that they wereactually in partnership with their county council, only 43 per cent indicatedthat this was actually in place. Thirdly, participants in the survey were askedto indicate whether it was important to work in partnership with otherparishes; 79 per cent indicated that they thought it was important to work inpartnership with other parishes; 34 per cent said that they were actually inpartnership with other parishes. Fourthly, respondents were asked toindicate whether they thought it was important to work in partnership with theprivate sector; 38 per cent indicated that it was important to work inpartnership with the private sector and 12 per cent indicated that they wereactually in partnership with the private sector. Fifthly, participants were askedto indicate if they felt that was important to be in partnership with thevoluntary sector; 54 per cent said that it was important to work in partnershipwith the voluntary sector and 27 per cent indicated that they were actually inpartnership with the voluntary sector. Finally, respondents were asked toindicate whether they felt it was important to work in partnership with aunitary authority; 50 per cent of the respondents indicated that it wasimportant to work in partnership with a unitary authority and only 11 per centfelt that they were actually in partnership with a unitary authority. 42
  43. 43. Section 3 SummaryIn summary, respondents felt that working in partnership was animportant part of being a member of a town and parish council.Partnership between the parish councils and the county councilwas seen as important but it was felt that the county councilcould do more to support the parishes. Respondents felt thatthere was a significant potential to work with other parishes. Thefollowing section will present results on the element of the surveythat dealt with community and associated issues. 43
  44. 44. SECTION 4: COMMUNITYThis section presents results from the part of the survey that examinessustainable communities. Community is an emotive issue. Policy aimed atachieving sustainable development and more specifically, sustainablecommunities, is becoming increasingly sophisticated at incorporating thecomplexities of the issues involved. With this said, however, there is still asignificant lack of understanding of the way that community is perceived andunderstood. In the 21st Century, the nature of community has changedsignificantly with advancements in technology, particularly transportation andthe increasing speed of global communications. The following sectionoutlines results from the survey that accesses members of town/parishcouncils understanding of community.Figure 35: Feel Part of a Community Feel Part of a Community 100 95 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 2 1 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked to indicate if they felt part of a community. Figure35 shows that the majority of respondents, at 95 per cent, indicated that theywere part of a community; 2 per cent said that they were not part of acommunity and 1 per cent indicated that they did not know if they were partof a community. 44
  45. 45. Figure 36: Part of more than one Community Part of More Than One Community 70 65 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 25 20 10 4 0 Yes No Don’t KnowFigure 36 clearly demonstrates that the majority of respondents considerthemselves to be part of more than one community. A total of 65 per centconsider themselves to be part of more than one community; 25 per centindicated that they were not part of more than one community and 4 per centsaid that they did not know if they were part of more than one community.Figure 37: Community is Work Community is Work 70 58 60 50 39 Per Cent 40 30 20 10 3 0 Yes No Don’t Know 45
  46. 46. Respondents were asked if they felt that their community was focusedaround work. Figure 37 shows that the majority of the members of parishcouncils indicated that their community was not based around work; 39 percent said that their community was based around work and 3 per cent saidthey did not know.Figure 38: Community is Family and Friends Community is Family and Friends 70 63 60 50 Per Cent 40 34 30 20 10 2 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked if they felt that their communities were basedaround their family and friends. Figure 38 shows that 63 per cent said thattheir community was based around their family and friends; 34 per cent saidtheir community was not based around their family and friends and 2 percent said they did not know if their community was based around family andfriends. 46
  47. 47. Figure 39: Community Based Around the Internet Community Internet 100 90 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 8 10 3 0 Yes No Don’t KnowIn light of the increasing importance of global communications and the welldocumented and continuing debates over the consequences this has for thecommunity structure and cohesion, respondents were asked if they felt thattheir communities were based around the internet. Figure 39 shows that thevast majority of respondents at 90 per cent specified that their communitywas not based around the internet; 8 per cent indicated that it was basedaround the internet and 3 per cent said that they did not know if theircommunity was based around the internet.Figure 40: Community is Nationwide Community is Nationwide 100 90 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 8 10 2.5 0 Yes No Don’t Know 47
  48. 48. Respondents were asked to specify whether they felt that their communitywas nationwide. Figure 40 shows that overwhelmingly, 90 per cent said thattheir community was not nationwide; 8 per cent said that their communitywas nationwide and 2.5 per cent did not know if their community wasnationwide.Figure 41: Community is the Local Area Community is the Local Area 100 89 90 80 70 60 Per Pent 50 40 30 20 8 10 3 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked to specify whether their community was basedaround the local area. Figure 41 shows that 89 per cent said that theircommunity was based around the local area; 8 per cent said that thecommunity was not based around the local area. 48
  49. 49. Figure 42: Support Community Organisations Support Community Organisations 90 85 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 3 5.5 0 Yes No Dont KnowRespondents were asked if they felt that they supported communityorganisations. Figure 42 shows that overwhelmingly, 85 per cent indicatedthat they did support community organisations; 3 per cent indicated that theydid not support community organisations and 5.5 per cent said they did notknow if they supported community organisations.Figure 43: Sustainable Communities Sustainable Communities 72 71 71 70 68 Per Cent 66 64 64 62 60 Economic Social Environment 49
  50. 50. Respondents were asked to indicate whether they felt sustainablecommunities referred to one of the three pillars of sustainable development.Figure 43 shows that 71 per cent indicated that sustainable communitieswere social; 71 per cent indicated that sustainable communities wereenvironmental; 64 per cent said that sustainable communities wereeconomic.Figure 44: Priority Issues Priority Issues 35 33 30 25 21.5 18 Per Cent 20 15 10 11 10 5 0 Crime Health Environment Education Social WelfareMembers of town and parish councils in Cornwall were asked to indicatewhat overarching issues they felt were most important. Figure 44 shows thatthe majority of respondents, at 33 per cent, indicated that health was mostimportant; 21.5 percent said that the environment was most important; 18 percent said that crime was most important; 11 per cent said that social welfarewas important and only 10 per cent believed education to be important.Barriers to Service ProvisionMembers of town and parish councils were presented with a number ofissues identified by Cornwall County Council as possible barriers for theadequate provision of services. Respondents were asked to indicate on a 50
  51. 51. scale of 1 to 5 whether the barrier outlined was very significant, 1, oralternatively, not at all significant, 5.Figure 45: Scattered Layout of Communities Scattered Layout of Communities 40 35 35 30 28 25 21 Per Cent 20 15 10 7 5 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate whether theyfelt that the scattered layout of Cornwall’s communities was a significantbarrier to effective service delivery. Figure 45 shows that 35 per cent statedthat scattered communities was a very significant barrier to service delivery;28 per cent indicated that scattered communities was a significant barrier toservice delivery; 21 per cent indicated that scattered communities was amoderately significant barrier to service delivery; 7 per cent stated that thescattered nature of Cornwall’s communities was of little significance; 5 percent said that the scattered nature of Cornwall’s communities was of notsignificance to the adequate provision of services. 51
  52. 52. Figure 46: Lack of Involvement Lack of Involvement 40 34 35 30 28 25 25 Per Cent 20 15 10 7 5 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate to what degreethey felt that a lack of involvement of community and individuals in theplanning, development and delivery of services provides a barrier toadequate service provision in Cornwall. Figure 46 shows that 28 per centindicated that a lack of involvement was very significant; 34 per cent said thata lack of involvement was significant; 25 per cent indicated that a lack ofinvolvement was moderately significant; 7 per cent stated that a lack ofinvolvement was of little significance and 2 per cent said that a lack ofinvolvement was not of significance at all. 52
  53. 53. Figure 47: Ageing Population Ageing Population 30 27 27 25 20 20 Per Cent 14 15 10 8 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate how significantan ageing population of Cornwall is to the adequate provision of services.Figure 47 shows that 20 per cent indicated that an ageing population wasvery significant to the adequate provision of services in Cornwall; 27 per centsaid that an ageing population was significant to the adequate provision ofservices in Cornwall; 27 per cent said that an ageing population was amoderately significant barrier to the adequate provision of services inCornwall; 14 per cent indicated that an ageing population is of littlesignificance to the adequate provision of services in Cornwall and 8 per centstated that an ageing population was of no significance at all to the adequateprovision of services in Cornwall. 53
  54. 54. Figure 48: Complex Needs Complex Needs 35 31 31 30 25 19 Per Cent 20 15 9 10 5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate how significantthe complex needs of Cornwall’s communities are as a barrier to theadequate provision of services. Figure 48 shows that 19 per cent indicatedthat complex needs was a very significant barrier to the adequate provisionof services; 31 per cent stated that complex needs was a significant barrierto the adequate provision of services; 31 per cent indicated that complexneeds was of moderate significance as a barrier to the adequate provision ofservices; 9 per cent indicated that complex needs was of little significance tothe adequate provision of services; 3 per cent said that complex needs wasnot at all significant as a barrier to the adequate provision of services inCornwall. 54
  55. 55. Section 4 SummaryIn summary, Section 4 has outlined the results from the surveythat have explored the nature of community in Cornwall. It isclear that members of town and parish councils have a strongconcern for their communities. The survey results also indicatethat whilst respondents feel that their community is their localarea, they also feel that they are part of numerous communities.These results are relevant to both education and serviceprovision. 55
  56. 56. Section 5: Sustainable DevelopmentThis section will outline the results of the survey that relate to the sustainabledevelopment. This includes questions specifically on sustainabledevelopment as well as questions that relate to broader issues such asglobal warming.Figure 49: Sustainable Development Sustainable Development 100 90 90 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 5 2 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate if they hadheard of sustainable development. Figure 49 shows that the vast majority, at90 per cent said that they had heard of sustainable development; 5 per centsaid that they had not heard of sustainable development; 2 per cent said thatthey did not know if they had heard of sustainable development. 56
  57. 57. Figure 50: Three Pillars Three Pillars 90 80 80 70 64 60 47 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 0 Economy Society EnvironmentRespondents were asked to indicate which of the three pillars of economy,society and environment they thought sustainable development referred too.Figure 50 shows that on aggregate 64 per cent said that sustainabledevelopment was the economy; 47 per cent said that sustainabledevelopment was society. The majority of respondents at 80 per centindicated sustainable development referred to the environment.Figure 51: Cornwall Pillars Cornwall Pillars 90 77.5 80 71 70 60 47 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 10 0 Economy Environment SocietyMembers of town and parish councils were also asked if they would indicatewhich of the three pillars of sustainable development were important in 57
  58. 58. Cornwall. Figure 51 shows that 77.5 per cent indicated that the economywas most important to Cornwall; 71 per cent said that the environment wasmost important to Cornwall; 47 per cent of respondents indicated thatsociety was important to Cornwall.Figure 52: Environment More Important Than Money Environment More Important Than Money 30 25 25 22 20 Per Cent 15 15 11 9 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree DisagreeMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate if they felt thatsustainable development meant that the environment was more importantthan money. Figure 52 shows that 15 per cent strongly agreed with thisstatement; 22 per cent agreed that sustainable development meant that theenvironment was more important than money; 25 per cent indicated thatthey were neutral; 11 per cent disagreed that sustainable developmentmeant that the environment was more important than money; 9 per centindicated that they strongly disagreed that sustainable development meantthat that the environment was more important than money. 58
  59. 59. Figure 53: Preserve Natural Resources Preserve Natural Resources 60 49 50 40 Per Cent 30 22 20 12 10 2 2 0 Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree DisagreeMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate to what extentthey agreed with the statement that sustainable development is aboutpreserving natural resources. Figure 53 shows that 49 per cent said that theystrongly agreed with this statement; 22 per cent agreed that sustainabledevelopment was a way of preserving natural resources; 12 per centmaintained a neutral position; 2 per cent disagreed that sustainabledevelopment was a way to preserve natural resources; 2 per cent stronglydisagreed that sustainable development was a way of preserving naturalresources. 59
  60. 60. Figure 54: Protect the Environment at all Costs Protect Environment at all Costs 30 26 25 20 17 16 Per Cent 15 12 13 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree DisagreeMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate to what extentthey agreed with the statement that sustainable development was a term thatmeant the protection of the environment at all costs. Figure 54 shows that12 per cent of respondents strongly agreed with this statement; 13 per centindicated that they agreed that sustainable development meant theprotection of the environment at all costs; 26 per cent indicated a neutralposition on this statement; 16 per cent disagreed that sustainabledevelopment meant the protection of the environment at all costs; 17 percent strongly disagreed that sustainable development meant the protection ofthe environment at all costs. 60
  61. 61. Figure 55: Sustainable Development is Jargon Jargon 30 28 25 20 15.5 15.5 Per Cent 15 15 9.5 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Agree DisagreeMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate to what extentthey agreed with the statement sustainable development was jargon to makegovernments sound greener. Figure 55 shows that 28 per cent stronglyagreed with this statement; 15.5 per cent agree that sustainabledevelopment is jargon designed to make governments sound greener; 15 percent indicated a neutral position concerning this statement; 9.5 per centdisagreed that sustainable development was jargon to make governmentssound greener; 15.5 per cent strongly disagreed that sustainabledevelopment is jargon to make governments sound greener. 61
  62. 62. Figure 56: Statements Sustainable Development KEY Statements A. Environment more important 80 71 than money 70 60 50 43.5 Per Cent B. Preserve 37 40 Natural resources 30 25 20 10 C. Protect 0 environment at all A B C D costs Statements D. JargonFigure 56 represents an aggregate of responses that indicated that theystrongly agreed or agreed with the aforementioned statements. The majorityof respondents at, 71 per cent, indicated that they strongly agreed or agreedthat sustainable development was a term that meant preserving naturalresources; 43.5 per cent indicated that they either agreed or strongly agreedthat sustainable development was jargon; 37 per cent said that sustainabledevelopment meant that the environment was more important than money;25 per cent indicated that sustainable development meant that theenvironment should be protected at all costs.Sustainable Development MechanismsFollowing an investigation into the perceptions of sustainable developmentrespondents were asked to indicate if they were aware of any of themechanisms that existed within the local government arena that can be saidto promote sustainable communities and sustainable development. 62
  63. 63. Figure 57: Awareness of Sustainable Development Mechanisms Awareness 70 61 60 52 50 Per Cent 40 34 30 20 10 10 0 LAAs CAA Sustainable Quality Parish Community Strategy MechanismsRespondents were asked to indicate if they were aware of a number ofmechanisms used to promote sustainable communities and sustainabledevelopment more broadly. Figure 57 shows that 34 per cent said that theyhad heard of Local Area Agreements; 10 per cent said that they had heard ofComprehensive Area Assessments; 52 per cent said that they were aware ofthe Sustainable Community Strategy; 61 per cent indicated that they wereaware of the Quality Parish scheme.Figure 58: Involved with Sustainable Development Mechanisms Involved 25 22 20 14 Per Cent 15 11 10 5 2 0 LAAs CAA Sustainable Quality Parish Community Strategy Mechanisms 63
  64. 64. Members of town and parish councils were asked if they felt that they wereinvolved in the identified sustainable development mechanisms. Figure 58shows that 14 per cent said that they were involved with Local AreaAgreements; 2 per cent said that they were involved with ComprehensiveArea Assessments; 11 per cent said that they were involved with theSustainable Community Strategy; and 22 per cent said that they wereinvolved with the Quality Parish Scheme.Figure 59: Aware Sustainable Development Related Issues Aware of Sustainable Development Related Issues 120 98 98 95.5 100 87 84.5 80 Per Cent 60 35.5 40 20 0 Climate Ozone Agenda 21 Biodiversity Global Carbon Change Layer Warming FootprintMembers of town and parish councils were presented with a list issues thatrelated to sustainable development and asked to indicate if they were awareof a particular issue. Figure 59 shows that on aggregate 98 per cent saidthat they had heard of climate change; 87 per cent said that they had heardof the ozone layer; 35 per cent had heard of Agenda 21; 84.5 per cent saidthat they had heard of biodiversity; 98 per cent said that they had heard ofglobal warming; 95.5 per cent said that they had heard of carbon footprint. 64
  65. 65. Figure 60: Concerned About Carbon Footprint Concerned About Carbon Footprint 60 51 50 40 36 Per Cent 30 20 9 10 0 Yes No Don’t KnowRespondents were asked if they felt concerned about their carbon footprint.Figure 60 shows that 51 per cent said they were concerned; 36 per centindicated that they were not concerned and 9 per cent did not know if theywere concerned about their parish’s carbon footprint.Figure 61: Global Warming Global Warming 90 80 80 70 60 Per Cent 50 40 30 20 8 6 10 4 0 Not Happening All Natural Causes Made Worse By All Humanitys Humans FaultRespondents were presented with five statements concerning globalwarming and asked to indicate to what degree they agreed or disagreed with 65
  66. 66. these statements. Figure 61 shows that 4 per cent agreed that globalwarming was not really happening; 8 per cent agreed that global warmingwas a natural occurrence; overwhelmingly, 80 per cent agreed that globalwarming was made worse by humans; 6 per cent agreed that globalwarming was all of humanity’s fault.Figure 62: Global Warming and Cornwall Global Warming and Cornwall 80 68 70 60 50 Per Cent 40 30 21.5 20 10 7 0 Yes No Don’t KnowMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate whether theyfelt that global warming was an important issue for Cornwall. Figure 62shows that the majority of respondents, at 68 per cent, said that globalwarming was an important issue for Cornwall; 21.5 per cent indicated thatglobal warming was not an important issue for Cornwall and 7 per cent saidthat they did not know if global warming was an important issue for Cornwall.Drivers for Climate Change in CornwallMembers of town and parish councils were presented with a number offactors identified by Cornwall County Council as drivers for climate changein Cornwall. Respondents were asked to indicate to what level they agreedthat these factors were drivers for climate change in Cornwall. 66
  67. 67. Figure 63: Housing Stock Housing Stock 25 21 20 19 20 15 Per Cent 10 7 5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceRespondents were asked whether they felt that housing stock with a poorenvironmental performance was a driver for climate change in Cornwall.Figure 63 shows that 19 per cent indicated that a poor housing stock was avery significant driver for change; 21 per cent indicated that a poor housingstock was a significant driver for climate change; 20 per cent indicated that apoor housing stock was moderately significant as a driver for climate changein Cornwall; 7 per cent said that poor housing stock was of little significanceas a driver for climate change in Cornwall; 3 per cent said that housing stockwas not at all significant as a driver for climate change in Cornwall. 67
  68. 68. Figure 64: Affordable Housing Affordable Housing 25 23 20 16 15.5 15 Per Cent 11 10 5 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 SIgnificanceRespondents were asked if an absence of affordable housing, which wasdriving pressure for house building, was a significant driver for climatechange in Cornwall. Figure 64 shows that 23 per cent said that an absenceof affordable housing was a very significant driver for climate change inCornwall. 16 per cent said that an absence of affordable housing was asignificant driver for climate change in Cornwall; 15.5 said it was of moderatesignificance; 11 per cent said indicated little significance and 5 per centindicated no significance at all.Figure 65: Flood Planes Flood Planes 30 26 25 20 Per Cent 15 13.5 12 10 9 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Significance 68
  69. 69. Respondents were asked to indicate if they felt that building structureslocated on flood planes was a driver for climate change. Figure 65 showsthat 26 per cent said that building structures located on flood planes was avery signifiant driver for climate change; 12 per cent said it was a significantdriver for climate change; 13.5 per cent said that it was a moderatleysignificant driver for climate change; 10 per cent stated that it was of littlesignificance as a driver for climate change; 9 per cent said that it was of nosignificance at all as a driver for climate change.Figure 66: Communities Not Self Sustaining Communities Not Self Sustaining 35 29 30 25 20 Per Cent 20 15 12 10 5 5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceMembers of town and parish councils were asked to indicate whether theyfelt that the dispersed settlements of Cornwall no longer support selfsustaining communities and lead to increased travel. Figure 66 shows that31 per cent indicated that non sustainable communities was a verysignificant driver to climate change; 21 per cent said that non sustainingcommunities was a significant driver for climate change; 12.5 per centsaid that non sustaining communities was moderately significant as a driverto climate change; 4 per cent said that non sustaining communities was oflittle significance as a driver to climate change; 2 per cent said that nonsustaining communities was of no significance as a driver to climate change. 69
  70. 70. Figure 67: Car Ownership Car Ownership 35 29 30 25 20 Per Cent 20 15 12 10 5 5 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 SignificanceMembers of town and parish councils were asked if they felt that ambitionstowards car ownership was a significant driver to climate change. Figure 67shows that 29 per cent said that it was a very significant driver to climatechange; 20 per cent said that it was a significant driver to climate change; 12per cent said that it was moderately significant as a driver to climate change;5 per cent indicated that it was of little significance as a driver to climatechange; 3 per cent said that it was of no significance as a driver to climatechange. 70

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